Because it would be impractical for the issuer to enter into a direct agreement with each of many bondholders, the indenture is usually held by a trustee. The trustee is typically a financial institution with trust powers, such as the trust department of a bank or a trust company. It is appointed by the issuer, but it acts in a fiduciary capacity with the bondholders. The trustee’s role is to monitor that the issuer complies with the obligations specified in the indenture and to take action on behalf of the bondholders when necessary. The trustee’s duties tend to be administrative and usually include maintaining required documentation and records; holding beneficial title to, safeguarding, and appraising collateral (if any); invoicing the issuer for interest payments and principal repayments; and holding funds until they are paid, although the actual mechanics of cash flow movements from the issuers to the trustee are typically handled by the principal paying agent. In the event of default, the discretionary powers of the trustee increase considerably. The trustee is responsible for calling meetings of bondholders to discuss the actions to take. The trustee can also bring legal action against the issuer on behalf of the bondholders
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