Increased sympathetic output induces catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla. Catecholamine levels peak within 24 to 48 hours of injury and then return to baseline. Persis- tent elevation of catecholamine levels beyond this time suggests ongoing noxious afferent stimuli. The majority of the circulating epinephrine is produced by the adrenal medulla, while norepi- nephrine is derived from synapses of the sympathetic nervous system.
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