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Price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in the price causing the change in quantity. It indicates the degree of consumer response to variation in price. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in the price of that good.

The change in price is expressed as a percentage of the average price - the average of the initial and new price, and the change in the quantity demanded is expressed as a percentage of the average quantity demanded - the average of the initial and new quantity. Using the average price and average quantity, the same elasticity value is obtained regardless of whether the price rises or falls.

The measure is units-free because it is a ratio of two percentage changes and the percentages cancel each other out. Changing the units of measurement of price or quantity leave the elasticity value the same.

Because a change in price causes the quantity demanded to change in the opposite direction, this ratio is always negative, although economists always ignore the sign and simply use the absolute value. It is the magnitude, or absolute value, of the measure that reveals how responsive the quantity change has been to a price change.

Example 1

A Pizza Hut store can sell 50 pizzas per day at $7 each or 70 pizzas per day at$6 each. The price elasticity is: [(50 - 70)/60] / [(7 - 6) / 6.5] = -2.17.

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Subject 7. Demand Elasticities
responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a product to changes in any of the factors that affect demand. Analysts are interested in knowing how much the quantity demanded will rise or fall for a given change in price or income. <span>Price elasticity of demand is the percentage change in the quantity of a product demanded divided by the percentage change in the price causing the change in quantity. It indicates the degree of consumer response to variation in price. Specifically, it tells the analyst the percentage change in the quantity demanded for a good caused by a 1% increase in the price of that good. The change in price is expressed as a percentage of the average price - the average of the initial and new price, and the change in the quantity demanded is expressed as a percentage of the average quantity demanded - the average of the initial and new quantity. Using the average price and average quantity, the same elasticity value is obtained regardless of whether the price rises or falls. The measure is units-free because it is a ratio of two percentage changes and the percentages cancel each other out. Changing the units of measurement of price or quantity leave the elasticity value the same. Because a change in price causes the quantity demanded to change in the opposite direction, this ratio is always negative, although economists always ignore the sign and simply use the absolute value. It is the magnitude, or absolute value, of the measure that reveals how responsive the quantity change has been to a price change. Example 1 A Pizza Hut store can sell 50 pizzas per day at $7 each or 70 pizzas per day at$6 each. The price elasticity is: [(50 - 70)/60] / [(7 - 6) / 6.5] = -2.17. Own-Price Elasticity of Demand Demand can be inelastic, unit elastic, or elastic, and can range from zero to infinity. (Note: the negative sign i