#electromagnetism #physics
You should be aware that some authors use the notation d ~ a rather than ^ nda. In that notation, the unit normal is incorporated into the vector area element d ~ a, which has magnitude equal to the area da and direction along the surface normal ^ n. Thus d ~ a and ^ nda serve the same purpose.
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owner: shihabdider - (no access) - A Student's Guide To Maxwell's Equations, p19