Subject 1. The Roles of Financial Reporting and Financial Statement Analysis

#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro #study-session-7

The role of financial reporting is to provide information about a company's financial position and performance for use by parties both internal and external to the company. Financial statements are issued by management, who is responsible for their form and content.

The role of financial statement analysis, on the other hand, is to take these financial statements and other information to evaluate the company's past, current, and prospective financial position and performance for the purpose of making rational investment, credit, and similar decisions.

The primary users of financial statements are equity investors and creditors.

  • Equity investors are primarily interested in the company's long-term earning power, growth, and ability to pay dividends.
  • Short-term creditors (e.g., banks and trade creditors) are more interested in the company's immediate liquidity, because they seek an early payback of their investment.
  • Long-term creditors (e.g., corporate bond owners such as insurance companies and pension funds) are primarily concerned with the company's long-term asset position and earning power.


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