6.3. Diluted EPS
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If a company has a simple capital structure (in other words, one that includes no potentially dilutive financial instruments), then its basic EPS is equal to its diluted EPS. However, if a company has potentially dilutive financial instruments, its diluted EPS may differ from its basic EPS. Diluted EPS, by definition, is always equal to or less than basic EPS. The sections below describe the effects of three types of potentially dilutive financial instruments on diluted EPS: convertible preferred, convertible debt, and employee stock options. The final section explains why not all potentially dilutive financial instruments actually result in a difference between basic and diluted EPS.

6.3.1. Diluted EPS When a Company Has Convertible Preferred Stock Outstanding

When a company has convertible preferred stock outstanding, diluted EPS is calculated using the if-converted method. The if-converted method is based on what EPS would have been if the convertible preferred securities had been converted at the beginning of the period. In other words, the method calculates what the effect would have been if the convertible preferred shares converted at the beginning of the period. If the convertible shares had been converted, there would be two effects. First, the convertible preferred securities would no longer be outstanding; instead, additional common stock would be outstanding. Thus, under the if-converted method, the weighted average number of shares outstanding would be higher than in the basic EPS calculation. Second, if such a conversion had taken place, the company would not have paid preferred dividends. Thus, under the if-converted method, the net income available to common shareholders would be higher than in the basic EPS calculation.

Diluted EPS using the if-converted method for convertible preferred stock is equal to net income divided by the weighted average number of shares outstanding from the basic EPS calculation plus the additional shares of common stock that would be issued upon conversion of the preferred. Thus, the formula to calculate diluted EPS using the if-converted method for preferred stock is:

Equation (2)

Diluted EPS

Net income
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(Weighted average number of shares outstanding + New common shares that would have been issued at conversion)

A diluted EPS calculation using the if-converted method for preferred stock is provided in Example 15.

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Earnings Per Share
income) from continuing operations.46 Similar presentation is required under US GAAP.47 This section outlines the calculations for EPS and explains how the calculation differs for a simple versus complex capital structure. <span>Simple versus Complex Capital Structure A company’s capital is composed of its equity and debt. Some types of equity have preference over others, and some debt (and other instruments) may be converted into equity. Under IFRS, the type of equity for which EPS is presented is referred to as ordinary. Ordinary shares are those equity shares that are subordinate to all other types of equity. The ordinary shareholders are basically the owners of the company—the equity holders who are paid last in a liquidation of the company and who benefit the most when the company does well. Under US GAAP, this ordinary equity is referred to as common stock or common shares , reflecting US language usage. The terms “ordinary shares,” “common stock,” and “common shares” are used interchangeably in the following discussion. When a company has issued any financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock, it is said to have a complex capital structure. Examples of financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock include convertible bonds, convertible preferred stock, employee stock options, and warrants.48 If a company’s capital structure does not include such potentially convertible financial instruments, it is said to have a simple capital structure. The distinction between simple versus complex capital structure is relevant to the calculation of EPS because financial instruments that are potentially convertible into common stock could, as a result of conversion or exercise, potentially dilute (i.e., decrease) EPS. Information about such a potential dilution is valuable to a company’s current and potential shareholders; therefore, accounting standards require companies to disclose what their EPS would be if all dilutive financial instruments were converted into common stock. The EPS that would result if all dilutive financial instruments were converted is called diluted EPS . In contrast, basic EPS is calculated using the reported earnings available to common shareholders of the parent company and the weighted average number of shares outstanding. Companies are required to report both basic and diluted EPS. For example, Danone reported basic EPS (“before dilution”) and diluted EPS (“after dilution”) of €2.57 for 2009, somewhat lower than 2008. Kraft reported basic EPS of $2.04 and diluted EPS of$2.03 for 2009, much higher than basic and diluted EPS (from continuing operations) of $1.22 and$1.21 for 2008. (The EPS information appears at the bottom of Danone’s and Kraft’s income statements.) An analyst would try to determine the causes underlying the changes in EPS, a topic we will address following an explanation of the calculations of both basic and diluted EPS. <span><body><html>