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#reading-9-probability-concepts

Suppose the question is “What is the probability that *the stock earns a return above the risk-free rate* (event *A*)?” The answer is an unconditional probability that can be viewed as the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is the sum of the probabilities of stock returns above the risk-free rate. Suppose that sum is 0.70. The denominator is 1, the sum of the probabilities of all possible returns. The answer to the question is *P*(*A*) = 0.70.

Now suppose we want to know the probability that*the stock earns a return above the risk-free rate* (event *A*), given that *the stock earns a positive return* (event *B*). With the words “given that,” we are restricting returns to those larger than 0 percent—a new element in contrast to the question that brought forth an unconditional probability. The conditional probability is calculated as the ratio of two quantities. The numerator is the sum of the probabilities of stock returns above the risk-free rate; in this particular case, the numerator is the same as it was in the unconditional case, which we gave as 0.70. The denominator, however, changes from 1 to the sum of the probabilities for all outcomes (returns) above 0 percent. Suppose that number is 0.80, a larger number than 0.70 because returns between 0 and the risk-free rate have some positive probability of occurring. Then *P*(*A* | *B*) = 0.70/0.80 = 0.875. If we observe that the stock earns a positive return, the probability of a return above the risk-free rate is greater than the unconditional probability, which is the probability of the event given no other information.

Now suppose we want to know the probability that

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