The theorem’s name comes from the terminology of wagering. Suppose someone places a $100 bet on X at odds of 10 to 1 against X, and later he is able to place a$600 bet against X at odds of 1 to 1 against X. Whatever the outcome of X, that person makes a riskless profit (equal to $400 if X occurs or$500 if X does not occur) because the implied probabilities are inconsistent. He is said to have made a Dutch book in X. Ramsey (1931) presented the problem of inconsistent probabilities. See also Lo (1999).
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