The multiple-processor systems in use today are of two types. Some systems use asymmetric multiprocessing, in which each processor is assigned a speciﬁc task. A boss processor controls the system; the other processors either look to the boss for instruction or have predeﬁned tasks. This scheme deﬁnes a boss–worker relationship. The boss processor schedules and allocates work to the worker processors. The most common systems use symmetric multiprocessing ( SMP),in which each processor performs all tasks within the operating system. SMP means that all processors are peers; no boss–worker relationship exists between processors. Figure 1.6 illustrates a typical SMP architecture. Notice that each processor has its own set of registers, as well as a private—or local —cache. However, all processors share physical memory.