Echocardiography and Ultrasonography
Portable, avoids radiation and contrast media, and can be deployed intra-operatively.
Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE)
Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)
- TTE cannot provide a comprehensive exam of the aorta, but certain regions can be visualized: aortic valve and root, ascending aorta, arch, descending, and abdominal aorta
- TTE is reasonable for assessing aortic valve disorders and monitoring aortic root and ascending aortic dilatation (e.g. especially in Marfan syndrome).
- It is not sensitive enough to rule out thoracic aortic dissection (sensitivity 70 %).
- TEE can visualize the ascending aorta, transverse arch, and entire descending thoracic aorta.
- The distal ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch may be obscured by the [...].
- TEE, in contrast to other modalities, can provide functional information such as ﬂow–dynamics in true and false lumens, detection of AI, detection of cardiac tamponade, and assessment of left ventricular function.
- the technique of choice for screening for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but is less accurate as applied to the suprarenal aorta or branch vessels.