Why a Sea Route to India (i) Spirit of renaissance in the 15th-century Europe. (ii) European economy growing rapidly, leading to prosperity and demand for luxury goods; increase in the supply of meat requiring spices for preservation. (iii) Capture of Constantinople in 1453, and Syria and Egypt later by the Ottoman Turks calling for a new route to reach India without dealing with Arabs and Turks. (iv) Venice and Genoa too small to stand up to the Turks. (v) Spain and Portugal aided with money and men by the North Europeans and by ships and technical knowledge by the Genoese. (vi) The Portuguese the pioneers followed by the Dutch, English, Danes and the French respectively to reach India.
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