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98 Medieval Europe In Europe, the Medieval period, or Middle Ages, lasted from the 5th to the 15th centuries. It followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire (see pages 84–85). Medieval Europe was dominated by the Catholic Church (headed by the pope in Rome), and by ruling classes of warriors. The majority of the population was made up of peasant farmers. BEFORE As the Western Roman Empire broke apart, Germanic invaders founded new kingdoms across Europe (see pages 84–85). Their leaders quickly became Christian, and they gained authority from the Church, which taught that rulers were chosen by God. Charlemagne crowned In Rome, Pope Leo III crowns the Frankish King Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne (ruled 800–814) unites much of western Europe in his Carolingian Empire. 800 Vikings found Dublin After raiding Ireland, the Vikings build a fortified camp by the Liffey River. This permanent settlement becomes the town of Dublin. The Vikings go on to found settlements at Limerick, Wexford, Waterford, and Cork. 841 1095 Franciscan order St. Francis founds an order of friars, whose role is to spread Christianity by preaching. Unlike monks, who live apart from the world in monasteries, friars live in towns among ordinary people. Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa The Almohad Muslims of southern Spain suffer a crushing defeat in a battle against a Christian army. The Christian reconquest of Spain from Muslim control is under way. Hanseatic League Hamburg, which has salt mines, and Lubeck, which has a herring fishery, form a trading alliance to produce salted herring. This marks the start of the Hanseatic League, a great trading association of northern German towns. 1241 Hundred Years’ War Edward III of England proclaims that, as the son of a French princess, he has more right to rule France than the new king, Philip of Valois. This begins more than a century of on-and-off warfare between England and France. 1337–1453 The First Crusade Pope Urban II proclaims a crusade (holy war), against the Muslims, who rule the Middle East. In 1099, the crusaders capture Jerusalem, founding four Christian states in the Middle East. Seven more crusades follow. 1 2 0 9 1 2 1 2 US_098-099_Medieval_Europe.indd 98 06/06/2018 14:28
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