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local spread of colorectal carcinoma
#Surgery #abdomen
Local spread occurs circumferentially rather than in a longitu- dinal direction. After the muscular coat has been penetrated, the growth spreads into the surrounding mesorectum, but is initially limited by the mesorectal fascia. If penetration occurs anteriorly, the prostate, seminal vesicles or bladder become involved in the male; in the female, the vagina or the uterus is invaded. In either sex, if the penetration is lateral, a ureter may become involved, while posterior penetration may reach the sacrum and the sacral plexus. Downward spread for more than a few centimetres is rare.
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owner: nerdparty67 - (no access) - McCaskie, A. W._ O'Connell, P. Ronan_ Williams, Norman S - Bailey & Love's Short practice of surgery (2018, CRC Press) -, p1351


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