#harrison #liver #medicine
The first signs of hepatic encephalopathy can be subtle and nonspecific—change in sleep patterns, change in personality, irritabil- ity, and mental dullness. Thereafter, confusion, disorientation, stupor, and eventually coma supervene. In acute liver failure, excitability and mania may be present. Physical findings include asterixis and flapping tremors of the body and tongue. Fetor hepaticus refers to the slightly sweet, ammoniacal odor that can develop in patients with liver failure, particularly if there is portal-venous shunting of blood around the liver. Other causes of coma and disorientation should be excluded, mainly electrolyte imbalances, sedative use, and renal or respiratory failure. The appearance of hepatic encephalopathy during acute hepatitis is the major criterion for diagnosis of fulminant hepatitis and indicates a poor prognosis. In chronic liver disease, encephalopathy is usually triggered by a medical complication such as gastrointestinal bleeding, over-diuresis, uremia, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, infection, constipation, or use of narcotic analgesics.
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- owner: nerdparty67 - (no access) - HARRISON Principles of Internal Medicine 20th Edition.pdf, p2335
- owner: Anonymouse - (no access) - @MBS_MedicalBooksStore_2018_Harrison's.pdf, p2381
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