pathology of asthma
#RS #asthma #harrison #medicine
The pathology of asthma has been revealed through examining the lungs of patients who have died of asthma and from bronchial biopsies. The airway mucosa is infiltrated with activated eosinophils and T lymphocytes, and there is activation of mucosal mast cells. The degree of inflammation is poorly related to disease severity and may even be found in atopic patients without asthma symptoms. This inflammation is usually reduced by treatment with ICS. There are also structural changes in the airways (often termed remodeling). A characteristic finding is thickening of the basement membrane due to subepithelial collagen deposition. This feature is also found in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis presenting as cough who do not have asthma and is, therefore, likely to be a marker of eosinophilic inflam- mation in the airway as eosinophils release fibrogenic mediators. The epithelium is often shed or friable, with reduced attachments to the airway wall and increased numbers of epithelial cells in the lumen. The airway wall itself may be thickened and edematous, particularly in fatal asthma. Another common finding in fatal asthma is occlusion of the airway lumen by a mucous plug, which is comprised of mucous glycoproteins secreted from goblet cells and plasma proteins from leaky bronchial vessels (Fig. 281-1). There is also vasodilation and increased numbers of blood vessels (angiogenesis). Direct observation by bronchoscopy indicates that the airways may be narrowed, ery- thematous, and edematous. The pathology of asthma is remarkably uniform in different phenotypes of asthma, including atopic (extrinsic), non-atopic (intrinsic), occupational, aspirin-sensitive, and pediatric asthma. These pathologic changes are found in all airways, but do not extend to the lung parenchyma; peripheral airway inflammation is found particularly in patients with severe asthma. The involvement of airways may be patchy and this is consistent with bronchographic findings of uneven narrowing of the airways.
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- owner: nerdparty67 - (no access) - HARRISON Principles of Internal Medicine 20th Edition.pdf, p1960
- owner: Anonymouse - (no access) - @MBS_MedicalBooksStore_2018_Harrison's.pdf, p2006
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