We get the average treatment effect (ATE) by taking an average over the ITEs: 𝜏 , 𝔼[𝑌 𝑖 (1) − 𝑌 𝑖 (0)] = 𝔼[𝑌(1) − 𝑌(0)] , where the average is over the individuals 𝑖 if 𝑌 𝑖 (𝑡) is deterministic. If 𝑌 𝑖 (𝑡) is random, the average is also over any other randomness
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- (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p16
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