The idea is that although the treatment and potential outcomes may be unconditionally associated (due to confounding), within levels of 𝑋 , they are not associated. In other words, there is no confounding within levels of 𝑋 because controlling for 𝑋 has made the treatment groups comparable.
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- (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p18
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