#causality #has-images #statistics
We do not have exchangeability in the data because 𝑋 is a common cause of 𝑇 and 𝑌 . We illustrate this in Figure 2.3. Because 𝑋 is a common cause of 𝑇 and 𝑌 , there is non-causal association between 𝑇 and 𝑌 . This non-causal association flows along the 𝑇 ← 𝑋 → 𝑌 path; we depict this with a red dashed arc
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- (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p19
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