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However, we do have conditional exchangeability in the data. This is because, when we condition on 𝑋 , there is no longer any non-causal association between 𝑇 and 𝑌 . The non-causal association is now “blocked” at 𝑋 by conditioning on 𝑋 . We illustrate this blocking in Figure 2.4 by shading 𝑋 to indicate it is conditioned on and by showing the red dashed arc being blocked there
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owner: crocodile - (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p19


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