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#causality #statistics

The Positivity-Unconfoundedness Tradeoff

Although conditioning on more covariates could lead to a higher chance of satisfying unconfoundedness, it can lead to a higher chance of violating positivity. As we increase the dimension of the covariates, we make the subgroups for any level 𝑥 of the covariates smaller.

The Positivity-Unconfoundedness Tradeoff

This is related to the curse of dimensionality. As each subgroup gets smaller, there is a higher and higher chance that either the whole subgroup will have treatment or the whole subgroup will have control. For example, once the size of any subgroup has decreased to one, positivity is guaranteed to not hold.

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owner: crocodile - (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p21


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