Definition 3.3 (blocked path) A path between nodes 𝑋 and 𝑌 is blocked by a (potentially empty) conditioning set 𝑍 if either of the following is true:
1. Along the path, there is a chain · · · → 𝑊 → · · · or a fork · · · ← 𝑊 → · · ·, where 𝑊 is conditioned on (𝑊 ∈ 𝑍).
2. There is a collider 𝑊 on the path that is not conditioned on ( 𝑊 ∉ 𝑍 ) and none of its descendants are conditioned on (de(𝑊) * 𝑍)
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- (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p36
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