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#causality #statistics

the fundamental problem of causal inference

It is fundamental because if we cannot observe both 𝑌 𝑖 (1) and 𝑌 𝑖 (0) , then we cannot observe the causal effect 𝑌 𝑖 (1) − 𝑌 𝑖 (0) .

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owner: crocodile - (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p16


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