#causality #statistics
If there is a directed path that starts at node 𝑋 and ends at node 𝑌 , 𝑌 is a descendant of 𝑋
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If there is a directed path that starts at node 𝑋 and ends at node 𝑌 , then 𝑋 is an ancestor of 𝑌 , and 𝑌 is a descendant of 𝑋

#### Original toplevel document (pdf)

owner: crocodile - (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p27