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Unfortunately, even if we only condition on pretreatment co- variates, we can still induce collider bias. Consider what would happen if we condition on the collider 𝑍 2 in Figure 4.16. Doing this opens up a backdoor path, along which non-causal association can flow
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owner: crocodile - (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p52


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