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If we condition on a descendant of 𝑇 that isn’t a mediator, it could unblock a path from 𝑇 to π‘Œ that was blocked by a collider. For example, this is the case with conditioning on 𝑍 in Figure 4.13. This induces non-causal association between 𝑇 and π‘Œ , which biases the estimate of the causal effect
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owner: crocodile - (no access) - Introduction_to_Causal_Inference-Nov19_2020-Neal.pdf, p51


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