# on 13-Jul-2014 (Sun)

#### Flashcard 149622756

Question
Synthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate catalysed by
Enolase.

2PG ->(Enolase) creates H20 + Phosphoenol pyruvate

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Glycolysis
cerate + ADP <=> 3-Phosphoglycerate + ATPδGo = -18.8 kJ/molGlycolysis step 8:Phosphate transfer to 2-Phosphoglycerate catalysed by Phosphoglycerate mutase:3-Phosphoglycerate <=> 2-PhosphoglycerateδGo = +4.4 kJ/molGlycolysis step 9:<span>Synthesis of Phosphoenolpyruvate catalysed by Enolase:2-Phosphoglycerate <=> Phosphoenolpyruvate + H2OδGo = +1.7 kJ/molGlycolysis step 10:Substrate-level phosphorylation. Pyruvate synthesis catalysed by Pyruvate kinase:Phospho

#### Flashcard 149625350

Tags
#mathematics #pre-calculus
Question
What is the discriminant $$\Delta$$ of a quadratic equation $$a^2x+bx+c = 0$$
$$\Delta = b^2 - 4ac$$

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#### Flashcard 149625395

Question
[...]
Glycolysis (a sweet splitting process) is a central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates in which the six-carbon sugars are split to three-carbon compounds with subsequent release of energy used to transform ADP to ATP. Glycolysis can proceed under anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic conditions.

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Glycolysis (a sweet splitting process) is a central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates in which the six-carbon sugars are split to three-carbon compounds with subsequent release of energy used to transform ADP to ATP. Glycolysis can proceed under anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic conditions.

#### Original toplevel document

Glycolysis
phosphate isomerase6. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase7. Phosphoglycerate kinase8. Phosphoglycerate mutase9. Enolase10. Pyruvate kinaseCompounds:ATPADPGlucosePyruvate Glycolysispublished: 21 Nov 2011 (3:12) Glycolysis, an overview<span>Glycolysis (a sweet splitting process) is a central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates in which the six-carbon sugars are split to three-carbon compounds with subsequent release of energy used to transform ADP to ATP. Glycolysis can proceed under anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic conditions.Why the glycolysis, is the most interesting pathway for studies? First of all, this pathway is almost universal across all living organisms, and therefore all proteins or enzymes which a

#### Flashcard 149625400

Question
[...] (a sweet splitting process) is a central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates in which the six-carbon sugars are split to three-carbon compounds with subsequent release of energy used to transform ADP to ATP. Glycolysis can proceed under anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic conditions.
Glycolysis

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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Glycolysis (a sweet splitting process) is a central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates in which the six-carbon sugars are split to three-carbon compounds with subsequent release of energy

#### Original toplevel document

Glycolysis
phosphate isomerase6. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase7. Phosphoglycerate kinase8. Phosphoglycerate mutase9. Enolase10. Pyruvate kinaseCompounds:ATPADPGlucosePyruvate Glycolysispublished: 21 Nov 2011 (3:12) Glycolysis, an overview<span>Glycolysis (a sweet splitting process) is a central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates in which the six-carbon sugars are split to three-carbon compounds with subsequent release of energy used to transform ADP to ATP. Glycolysis can proceed under anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic conditions.Why the glycolysis, is the most interesting pathway for studies? First of all, this pathway is almost universal across all living organisms, and therefore all proteins or enzymes which a

#### Annotation 149625411

 Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as simply diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cts here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitusClassification and external resources Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.[1] ICD-10E10–E14ICD-9250MedlinePlus001214eMedicinemed/546 emerg/134MeSHC18.452.394.750 <span>Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[2] This high blood sugar produces the symptoms of frequent urination, increased thi

#### Flashcard 149625423

Question
This high blood sugar produces the symptoms of
frequent urination

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Diabetes mellitus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
ICD-10E10–E14ICD-9250MedlinePlus001214eMedicinemed/546 emerg/134MeSHC18.452.394.750 Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[2] <span>This high blood sugar produces the symptoms of frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[3] Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[4] Seri

#### Flashcard 149625432

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#### Annotation 149625443

 Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as simply diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cts here. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitusClassification and external resources Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes.[1] ICD-10E10–E14ICD-9250MedlinePlus001214eMedicinemed/546 emerg/134MeSHC18.452.394.750 <span>Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[2] This high blood sugar produces the symptoms of frequent urination, increased thi

#### Flashcard 149625464

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#### Flashcard 149625469

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#### Flashcard 149625502

Tags
#finance #yield-curve
Question
The [name of the hypothesis explaining yield curve shape] hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates.
pure expectations (market expectations)

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The pure expectations (market expectations) hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rat

#### Original toplevel document

Yield curve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
g in a credit bubble. Theory There are three main economic theories attempting to explain how yields vary with maturity. Two of the theories are extreme positions, while the third attempts to find a middle ground between the former two. <span>Market expectations (pure expectations) hypothesis Main article: expectation hypothesis This hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates. Using this, future rates, along with the assumption that arbitrage opportunities will be minimal in future markets, and that future rates are unbiased estimates of forthcoming spot rates, is enough information to construct a complete expected yield curve. For example, if investors have an expectation of what 1-year interest rates will be next year, the 2-year interest rate can be calculated as the compounding of this year's interest rate by next year's interest rate. More generally, rates on a long-term instrument are equal to the geometric mean of the yield on a series of short-term instruments. This theory perfectly explains the observation that yields usually move together. However, it fails to explain the persistence in the shape of the yield curve. Shortcomings of expectations theory: Neglects the risks inherent in investing in bonds (because forward rates are not perfect predictors of future rates). 1) Interest rate risk 2) Reinvestment rate risk Liquidity premium theory The Liquidity Premium Theory is an offshoot of the Pure Expectations Theory. The Liquidity Premium Theory asserts that long-term interest rates not only re

#### Flashcard 149625513

Tags
#finance #yield-curve
Question
The pure expectations (market expectations) hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are [...] and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates.

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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The pure expectations (market expectations) hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates.

#### Original toplevel document

Yield curve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
g in a credit bubble. Theory There are three main economic theories attempting to explain how yields vary with maturity. Two of the theories are extreme positions, while the third attempts to find a middle ground between the former two. <span>Market expectations (pure expectations) hypothesis Main article: expectation hypothesis This hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates. Using this, future rates, along with the assumption that arbitrage opportunities will be minimal in future markets, and that future rates are unbiased estimates of forthcoming spot rates, is enough information to construct a complete expected yield curve. For example, if investors have an expectation of what 1-year interest rates will be next year, the 2-year interest rate can be calculated as the compounding of this year's interest rate by next year's interest rate. More generally, rates on a long-term instrument are equal to the geometric mean of the yield on a series of short-term instruments. This theory perfectly explains the observation that yields usually move together. However, it fails to explain the persistence in the shape of the yield curve. Shortcomings of expectations theory: Neglects the risks inherent in investing in bonds (because forward rates are not perfect predictors of future rates). 1) Interest rate risk 2) Reinvestment rate risk Liquidity premium theory The Liquidity Premium Theory is an offshoot of the Pure Expectations Theory. The Liquidity Premium Theory asserts that long-term interest rates not only re

#### Flashcard 149625520

Tags
#finance #yield-curve
Question
The pure expectations (market expectations) hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on [...].
market participants' expectations of future interest rates

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#### Parent (intermediate) annotation

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The pure expectations (market expectations) hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates.

#### Original toplevel document

Yield curve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
g in a credit bubble. Theory There are three main economic theories attempting to explain how yields vary with maturity. Two of the theories are extreme positions, while the third attempts to find a middle ground between the former two. <span>Market expectations (pure expectations) hypothesis Main article: expectation hypothesis This hypothesis assumes that the various maturities are perfect substitutes and suggests that the shape of the yield curve depends on market participants' expectations of future interest rates. Using this, future rates, along with the assumption that arbitrage opportunities will be minimal in future markets, and that future rates are unbiased estimates of forthcoming spot rates, is enough information to construct a complete expected yield curve. For example, if investors have an expectation of what 1-year interest rates will be next year, the 2-year interest rate can be calculated as the compounding of this year's interest rate by next year's interest rate. More generally, rates on a long-term instrument are equal to the geometric mean of the yield on a series of short-term instruments. This theory perfectly explains the observation that yields usually move together. However, it fails to explain the persistence in the shape of the yield curve. Shortcomings of expectations theory: Neglects the risks inherent in investing in bonds (because forward rates are not perfect predictors of future rates). 1) Interest rate risk 2) Reinvestment rate risk Liquidity premium theory The Liquidity Premium Theory is an offshoot of the Pure Expectations Theory. The Liquidity Premium Theory asserts that long-term interest rates not only re

#### Flashcard 149625541

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