Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 05-Jul-2015 (Sun)

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Flashcard 150897651

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What values define a Low Haemoglobin ?
Answer
A low Hb (at sea level) is <135 g/L for men and <115 g/L for women.


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Flashcard 150897658

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the two general causes of Anaemia ?
Answer
  • A low red cell mass
  • ​Increased plasma volume (eg in pregnancy).


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Flashcard 150897668

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the symptoms of Anaemia ?
Answer
  • fatigue
  • dyspnoea
  • faintness
  • palpitations
  • headache
  • tinnitus
  • anorexia
  • angina (if there is pre-exist- ing coronary artery disease)


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Flashcard 150897675

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the signs of Anaemia ?
Answer
  • Pallor
  • Hyperdynamic Circulation, eg tachycardia, flow murmurs (ejection-systolic loudest over apex), and cardiac enlargement; or retinal haemorrhages (rarely)
  • Heart failure


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Flashcard 150897682

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the main causes of Low MCV Anaemia (Microcytic) ?
Answer
  1. Iron-deficiency anaemia
  2. Thalassaemia (suspect if the MCV is ‘too low’ for the Hb level and the red cell count is)
  3. Sideroblastic anaemia (very rare)


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Flashcard 150897690

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the aetiologies of Normocytic Anaemia ?
Answer
  1. Acute blood loss (or MCV)
  2. Anaemia of chronic disease (or MCV )
  3. Bone marrow failure
  4. Renal failure
  5. Hypothyroidism
  6. Haemolysis (or MCV)
  7. Pregnancy


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Flashcard 150897697

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the etiologies behind Macrocytic Anaemia's ?
Answer
  1. B12 or folate deficiency
  2. Alcohol excess — or liver disease
  3. Reticulocytosis (eg with haemolysis)
  4. Cytotoxics (eg hydroxycarbamide)
  5. Myelodysplastic syndromes
  6. Marrow infiltration
  7. Hypothyroidism
  8. Antifolate drugs (eg phenytoin)


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