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on 03-Aug-2015 (Mon)

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Flashcard 150893378

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #language-processing #logic #pease-celt
Question
The [...] (CELT) system translates a restricted uuuuuuuu English grammar to expressions in formal logic. The logic statements use terms from a large formal ontology, the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO), giving each resulting statement a wealth of deep meaning, similar in kind if not in degree to capturing the meaning a human associates with words in context.
Answer
Controlled English to Logic


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The Controlled English to Logic (CELT) system translates a restricted English grammar to expressions in formal logic. The logic statements use terms from a large formal ontology, the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (S

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Flashcard 150893384

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #language-processing #logic #pease-celt
Question
The Controlled English to Logic (CELT) system translates a restricted English grammar to expressions in [...]. The logic statements use terms from a large formal ontology, the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO), giving each resulting statement a wealth of deep meaning, similar in kind if not in degree to capturing the meaning a human associates with words in context.
Answer
formal logic


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The Controlled English to Logic (CELT) system translates a restricted English grammar to expressions in formal logic. The logic statements use terms from a large formal ontology, the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO), giving each resulting statement a wealth of deep meaning, similar in kind if n

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Flashcard 150893390

Tags
#artificial-intelligence #language-processing #logic #pease-celt
Question
The Controlled English to Logic (CELT) system translates a restricted English grammar to expressions in formal logic. The logic statements use terms from a large formal ontology, the [...] (SUMO), giving each resulting statement a wealth of deep meaning, similar in kind if not in degree to capturing the meaning a human associates with words in context.
Answer
Suggested Upper Merged Ontology


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The Controlled English to Logic (CELT) system translates a restricted English grammar to expressions in formal logic. The logic statements use terms from a large formal ontology, the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO), giving each resulting statement a wealth of deep meaning, similar in kind if not in degree to capturing the meaning a human associates with words in context.</bod

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Flashcard 150902501

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the markers of Haemolysis ?
Answer
  • Anaemia with normal or Increased MCV.
  • Increased Bilirubin: unconjugated, from haem breakdown (pre-hepatic jaundice)
  • Increased Urinary urobilinogen (no urinary conjugated bilirubin).
  • Increased Serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) , as it is released from red cells


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Flashcard 150902511

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
How is Increased red cell production seen on FBC and Blood Film ?
Answer
Increased Reticulocytes, causing Increased MCV (reticulocytes are large immature RBC S) and polychromasia


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Flashcard 150902518

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the biochemical features of intravascular haemolysis ?
Answer
Increased Free plasma haemoglobin: released from RBCs
Methaemalbuminaemia: some free Hb is broken down in the circulation to produce haem and globin; haem combines with albumin to make methaemalbumin.
Decreased Plasma haptoglobin: mops up free plasma Hb, then removed by the liver.
Haemoglobinuria: causes red-brown urine, in absence of red blood cells.
Haemosiderinuria: occurs when haptoglobin-binding capacity is exceeded, causing free Hb to be filtered by the renal glomeruli, absorption of free Hb via the renal tubules and storage in the tubular cells as haemosiderin.


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Flashcard 150902525

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What deficiency are Heinz bodies found in ?
Answer
Glucose- 6 -phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency


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Flashcard 150902532

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What does a Positive Direct Coombs test indicate with Haemolysis ?
Answer
An immune cause of the haemolysis


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Flashcard 150902539

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What is the different between a Direct Coombs Test and an Indirect Coombs Test ?
Answer
  • The direct Coombs test detects antibodies on RBCs.
  • The indirect Coombs test detects antibodies against RBCs that are free in serum: used in pre-natal testing and before blood transfusion


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Flashcard 150902552

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
[default - edit me]
Answer
Extravascular haemolysis


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Flashcard 150902556

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the non immune causes of Haemolytic anaemia ?
Answer
  • Direct antiglobulin/Coombs – ve AIHA : ( 2 % of all AIHA ) Autoimmune hepatitis; hepatitis B & C ; post flu and other vaccinations; drugs (piperacillin, rituximab).
  • Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (MAHA): A mechanical disruption of RBCs in circulation, causing intravascular haemolysis and schistocytes. Causes include haemolytic – uraemic syndrome, TTP, DIC, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia.
  • Infection: Malaria: RBC lysis and ‘blackwater fever’ (haemoglobinuria).
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (Marchiafava – Micheli disease)


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Flashcard 150902563

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the causes of Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia ?
Answer
  • Haemolytic – uraemic syndrome
  • TTP
  • DIC
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Eclampsia


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Flashcard 150902570

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
WHat antibody is associated with Warm Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia ?
Answer
IgG mediated


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Flashcard 150902577

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What antibody is associated with Cold Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia ?
Answer
IgM mediated


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Flashcard 150902587

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the Immune Mediated causes of Haemolytic Anaemia ?
Answer
  • Drug-induced (Causing formation of RBC autoantibodies from binding to RBC membranes (eg penicillin) or production of immune complexes (eg quinine))
  • Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
    • Warm AIHA
    • Cold AIHA
  • Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria (viruses/syphilis)
  • Isoimmune:
    • Acute transfusion reaction
    • ​haemolytic disease of newborn


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Flashcard 150902594

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What Enzyme defects cause herediatry haemolytic anaemia ?
Answer
  • Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
  • Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency ​


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Flashcard 150902601

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
How is Glucose 6 Phosphate Deficiency inherited ?
Answer
X– linked


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Flashcard 150902608

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
How is Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Inherited ?
Answer
Autosomal recessive


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Flashcard 150902615

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the Membrane Defects which cause hereditary Haemolytic Anaemia ?
Answer
  • Hereditary spherocytosis
  • Hereditary elliptocytosis
  • Hereditary ovalocytosis
  • Stomatocytosis


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Flashcard 150902622

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are two Haemoglobinopathies ?
Answer
  • Sickle-cell disease
  • Thalassaemia


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Flashcard 150902629

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
What are the Hereditary causes of Haemolytic Anaemia ?
Answer
  • Enzyme Defects
    • Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
    • Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency
  • Membrane Defects
    • Hereditary Sperocytosis
    • Hereditary Elliptocytosis
    • Hereditary Ovalocytosis
  • Haemoglobinopathy
    • Sickle Cell Disease
    • Thalassaemia ​​​​​​​​​


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Flashcard 150902636

Tags
#haematology #medicine
Question
How is Sickle Cell Anaemia Inherited ?
Answer
autosomal recessive disorder


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