Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 26-Apr-2016 (Tue)

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Flashcard 1333213400332

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What are tubulo-toxic drugs causing ATN?
Answer
Aminoglycosides Antibiotics (Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin)
Amphotericin B (antifungal)
Cisplatin (chemo)
IV radiocontrast dye

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Flashcard 1333235682572

Tags
#nephrology
Question
6 steps to slowing progression of CKD:

NB: Remember CHD risk equivalent

1. [...] or [...] (slow progression to ESRD with additional advantages over blood pressure lowering alone)
2. Tight blood pressure control
Multiple antihypertensive medications and dietary sodium restriction may be required
Targets: < 140/90 mmHg without DM, < 130/80 mmHg with DM
3. Use of a statin in patients with dyslipidemia (target LDL < 2 mmol/L) - shown to prevent CV events and may slow the rate of decline
4. Recommend smoking cessation (independent risk for development/progression of CKD)
5. glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (HbA1C < 7%)
6. Patients with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 should avoid NSAIDS, COXIBs and other nephrotoxins such as intravenous contrast if possible
Answer
ACE inhibitor
Angiotensin receptor blocker

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Flashcard 1333277625612

Tags
#nephrology
Question
Presentation of hypernatremia
Answer
presentation = confusion, ↓ LOC (brain cell shrinkage)

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Flashcard 1339505904908

Tags
#nephrology
Question
6 steps to slowing progression of CKD:

​NB: Remember CHD risk equivalent

1. ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin receptor blocker (slow progression to ESRD with additional advantages over blood pressure lowering alone)
2. Tight [...] control
  • Multiple [...] medications and [...] restriction may be required
  • Targets: [...] mmHg without DM, [...] mmHg with DM
3. Use of a statin in patients with dyslipidemia (target LDL < 2 mmol/L) - shown to prevent CV events and may slow the rate of decline
4. Recommend smoking cessation (independent risk for development/progression of CKD)
5. glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (HbA1C < 7%)
6. Patients with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 should avoid NSAIDS, COXIBs and other nephrotoxins such as intravenous contrast if possible
Answer
blood pressure

antihypertensive
dietary sodium

< 140/90
< 130/80

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Flashcard 1339509050636

Tags
#nephrology
Question
6 steps to slowing progression of CKD:

​NB: Remember CHD risk equivalent

1. ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin receptor blocker (slow progression to ESRD with additional advantages over blood pressure lowering alone)
2. Tight blood pressure control
  • Multiple antihypertensive medications and dietary sodium restriction may be required
  • Targets: < 140/90 mmHg without DM, < 130/80 mmHg with DM
3. Use of a [...] in patients with dyslipidemia (target LDL [...] mmol/L) - shown to prevent [...] events and may slow the rate of decline
4. Recommend smoking cessation (independent risk for development/progression of CKD)
5. glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (HbA1C < 7%)
6. Patients with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 should avoid NSAIDS, COXIBs and other nephrotoxins such as intravenous contrast if possible
Answer
statin
< 2
CV

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Flashcard 1339509574924

Tags
#nephrology
Question
6 steps to slowing progression of CKD:

​NB: Remember CHD risk equivalent

1. ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin receptor blocker (slow progression to ESRD with additional advantages over blood pressure lowering alone)
2. Tight blood pressure control
  • Multiple antihypertensive medications and dietary sodium restriction may be required
  • Targets: < 140/90 mmHg without DM, < 130/80 mmHg with DM
3. Use of a statin in patients with dyslipidemia (target LDL < 2 mmol/L) - shown to prevent CV events and may slow the rate of decline
4. Recommend [...] cessation (independent risk for development/progression of CKD)
5. glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (HbA1C < 7%)
6. Patients with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 should avoid NSAIDS, COXIBs and other nephrotoxins such as intravenous contrast if possible
Answer
smoking

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Flashcard 1339511409932

Tags
#nephrology
Question
6 steps to slowing progression of CKD:

​NB: Remember CHD risk equivalent

1. ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin receptor blocker (slow progression to ESRD with additional advantages over blood pressure lowering alone)
2. Tight blood pressure control
  • Multiple antihypertensive medications and dietary sodium restriction may be required
  • Targets: < 140/90 mmHg without DM, < 130/80 mmHg with DM
3. Use of a statin in patients with dyslipidemia (target LDL < 2 mmol/L) - shown to prevent CV events and may slow the rate of decline
4. Recommend smoking cessation (independent risk for development/progression of CKD)
5. [...] control in patients with diabetes mellitus ( [which lab value] < [#] %)
6. Patients with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 should avoid NSAIDS, COXIBs and other nephrotoxins such as intravenous contrast if possible
Answer
glycemic
HbA1C
7

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Flashcard 1339513244940

Tags
#nephrology
Question
6 steps to slowing progression of CKD:

​NB: Remember CHD risk equivalent

1. ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin receptor blocker (slow progression to ESRD with additional advantages over blood pressure lowering alone)
2. Tight blood pressure control
  • Multiple antihypertensive medications and dietary sodium restriction may be required
  • Targets: < 140/90 mmHg without DM, < 130/80 mmHg with DM
3. Use of a statin in patients with dyslipidemia (target LDL < 2 mmol/L) - shown to prevent CV events and may slow the rate of decline
4. Recommend smoking cessation (independent risk for development/progression of CKD)
5. glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (HbA1C < 7%)
6. Patients with eGFR < [...] ml/min/1.73m2 should avoid [...] , [...] and other nephrotoxins such as [...] if possible
Answer
60

NSAIDS
COXIBs
intravenous contrast

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Flashcard 1339516652812

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What are CKD complications?
Answer
anemia & bone mineral metabolism
Cardiovascular disease
Volume overload
Electrolyte abnormalities
Uremia

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Flashcard 1339518487820

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What causes anemia in CKD?
Answer
peritubular fibroblasts produce EPO in response to ↓ O2 sat but less fibroblasts in CKD

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Flashcard 1339520322828

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What causes bone mineral metabolism in CKD?
Answer
2ndary hyperparathyroidism d/t ↓ serum Ca → ↑ PTH

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Flashcard 1339523730700

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What are the Cardiovascular diseases seen as a consequence of CKD?
Answer
– CAD
– Hypertension

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Flashcard 1339525565708

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What are bone and mineral metabolism consequences seen in CKD?
Answer
– Hypocalcemia
– Hyperphosphatemia

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Flashcard 1339527400716

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What are electrolyte abnormalities seen as a consequence of CKD?
Answer
- Hyperkalemia
– Metabolic acidosis

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Flashcard 1339529235724

Tags
#nephrology
Question
What are the sx's of uremia seen as a consequence of CKD?
Answer
– Nausea, vomiting
– Pruritus
– Encephalopathy

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Flashcard 1339536837900

Tags
#nephrology
Question
Mgmt of hypernatremia
Answer
rx = give H2O, rx underlying cause

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