Edited, memorised or added to reading list

on 09-Oct-2016 (Sun)

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Flashcard 1404503461132

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Question
what meds can you give for allergy & resp conditions? (7)
Answer
-diphenhydramine
-nasal steroid (mometasone furoate - nasonex)
-prednisone
-inhaled corticosteroid (fluticasone)
-salbutamol
-leukotrienes
-ipratropium bromide (short acting anti-ch: ipratropium bromide, long acting anti-ch: tiotropium)


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Flashcard 1404505296140

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Question
what is the mechanism of diphenhydramine?
Answer
competes w/ histamine for H1 receptor sites on effector cells in GI tract, resp tract, blood vessels


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Flashcard 1404507131148

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Question
For what would you recommend diphenhydramine?
Answer
allergies, pruritus, urticaria


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Flashcard 1404508966156

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Question
what's to caution for diphenhydramine?
Answer
may cause sedation


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Flashcard 1404511587596

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Question
what is the mechanism of nasal steroids (mometasone furoate - nasonex)?
Answer
anti-inflammatory, glucocorticosteroid


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Flashcard 1404513422604

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Question
For what would you give nasal steroids (mometasone furoate - nasonex)?
Answer
allergic rhinitis, rhinosinusitis


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Flashcard 1404515257612

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Question
Caution for nasal steroids (mometasone furoate - nasonex)?
Answer
nasal drying & epistaxis possible w/ prolonged use


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Flashcard 1404517092620

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Question
what is the mechanism of prednisone?
Answer
decreases neutrophil migration & reverses capillary permeability to prevent/control inflm


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Flashcard 1404518927628

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Question
For what would you give prednisone?
Answer
allergies, allergic rxn, asthma, COPD


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Flashcard 1404520762636

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Question
Caution for prednisone?
Answer
edema, HTN, insomnia, impaired wound healing, bruising, hyperglycemia, wt gain, increased appetite, immunosuppression; CYP 3A4 substrate & inducer


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Flashcard 1404522597644

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Question
what is the mechanism of inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone)?
Answer
decreases neutrophil migration & reverses capillary permeability to prevent/control inflm in resp tract


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Flashcard 1404524432652

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Question
For what would you give inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone)?
Answer
allergies, allergic rxn, asthma, COPD


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Flashcard 1404526267660

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Question
Caution: inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone)
Answer
oral thrush, dry mouth; adverse effects mimic those of systemic steroids when in high doses, CYP3A4 substrate


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Flashcard 1404528102668

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Question
what is the mechanism of salbutamol?
Answer
B2agonist - stimulates B2 receptors which leads to smooth msc relaxation & mast cell stabilization


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Flashcard 1404529937676

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Question
For what would you give salbutamol?
Answer
asthma, COPD, allergies


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Flashcard 1404531772684

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Question
caution: salbutamol
Answer
tachycardia, palpitations, anxiety


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Flashcard 1404533869836

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Question
mechanism of leukotrienes
Answer
leukotriene receptor antagonists - decreases leukotriene-induced bronchospasm, vasc permeability, mucosal edema & mucus production


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Flashcard 1404535704844

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Question
For what would you give leukotrienes?
Answer
asthma


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Flashcard 1404537539852

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Question
caution: leukotrienes
Answer
abdo pain, dyspepsia, elevated liver enzymes, h/a


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Flashcard 1404539374860

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Question
What is the short acting anticholinergic?
Answer
ipratropium bromide


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Flashcard 1404541209868

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Question
What is a long acting anticholinergic?
Answer
tiotropium bromide


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Flashcard 1404543044876

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Question
what is the mechanism of ipratropium bromides?
Answer
competitively & reversibly inhibits Ach at muscarinic receptors in bronchial smooth msc, blocking cholinergic effects of bronchoconstriction & mucus secretion


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Flashcard 1404544879884

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Question
For what would you give ipratropium bromides?
Answer
COPD, sometimes asthma


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Flashcard 1404546714892

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Question
caution: ipratropium bromide
Answer
anticholinergic effects e.g. dry mouth


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Flashcard 1404548549900

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Question
what are analgesic medications? (5)
Answer
-acetaminophen
-asa
-nsaids (ibuprofen)
-narcotics (morphine, hydromorphine, codeine)
-triptans (sumatriptan)


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Flashcard 1404550384908

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Question
what is the mechanism of acetaminophen?
Answer
blocks pain impulse generation, inhibits hypothalamic heat-regulating center to produce antipyresis


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Flashcard 1404552219916

Question
For what would you give acetaminophen?
Answer
pain, fever


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Flashcard 1404554054924

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Question
caution: acetaminophen
Answer
may cause hepatotoxicity at high doses. caution use in pts w/ hepatic impairment


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Flashcard 1404555889932

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Question
asa mechanism?
Answer
inhibit COX, which prevents formation of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandins (which induce plt aggregation)


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Flashcard 1404557724940

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Question
For what would you give ASA?
Answer
analgesia & anti-inflammatory; has been shown to reduce risk of recurrent TIA/stroke; reduces risk of MI


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Flashcard 1404559559948

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Question
caution: ASA
Answer
GI ulceration, bleeding


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Flashcard 1404561394956

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Question
NSAIDs (ibuprofen) mechanism?
Answer
reversibly inhibits COX 1 & 2 to decrease prostaglandin formation


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Flashcard 1404563229964

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Question
For what would you give NSAIDs (ibuprofen)?
Answer
pain, fever


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Flashcard 1404565064972

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Question
caution: NSAIDs (ibuprofen)
Answer
can cause GI irritation. caution use in renal impairment, liver dz, CHF, raises BP


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Flashcard 1404566899980

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Question
narcotics (morphine, hydromorphine, codeine) mechanism?
Answer
binds to opiate receptors in CNS, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering perception of & responses to pain; produces generalized CNS depression


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Flashcard 1404568734988

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Question
For what would you give narcotics (morphine, hydromorphine, codeine)?
Answer
pain


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Flashcard 1404570569996

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Question
caution: narcotics (morphine, hydromorphine, codeine)
Answer
CNS depression, hypotension, decreased resp rate, pruritus, nausea, constipation


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Flashcard 1404572405004

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Question
triptan (sumatriptan) mechanism
Answer
selective agnoist for serotonin in cranial arteries; causes vasoconstriction, reduces neurogenic inflm assc w/ migraine h/a


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Flashcard 1404574240012

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Question
For what would you give triptans (sumatriptan)?
Answer
migraine h/a


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Flashcard 1404576075020

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Question
caution: triptans (sumatriptan)
Answer
don't use w/i 24 h of ergotamine derivatives/another serotonin agonist or w/i 2 wks of discontinuing an MAOI


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Flashcard 1404577910028

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Question
what are antidepressant meds? (5)
Answer
-tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, doxepin, nortriptyline)
-SSRIs (citalopram)
-SNRIs (venlafaxine)
-NDRI (bupropion)
-NaSSA (mirtazapine)


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Flashcard 1404579745036

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Question
TCA (amitriptyline, doxepin, nortriptyline) mechanism?
Answer
inhibits NE & serotonin reuptake; Na channel blockade; alpha adrenergic blockade; histamine blockade; GABA antagonism; muscarinic blockade


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Flashcard 1404581580044

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Question
For what would you give TCA (amitriptyline, doxepin, nortriptyline)?
Answer
depression, chr pain/neuropathy, migraine prophy


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Flashcard 1404583415052

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Question
caution: TCA (amitriptyline, doxepin, nortriptyline)
Answer
anticholinergic effects, orthostatic hypotension, arrhythmias, sedation, seizures, fatal in overdose


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Flashcard 1404585250060

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Question
SSRI (citalopram) mechanism?
Answer
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in CNS


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Flashcard 1404587085068

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Question
For what would you give SSRIs (citalopram)?
Answer
major depression, GAD, panic disorder


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Flashcard 1404588920076

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Question
caution: SSRIs
Answer
nausea, insomnia, tremor, h/a, sexual dysfn


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Flashcard 1404590755084

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Question
SNRI (venlafaxine) mechanism?
Answer
inhibits serotonin & NE reuptake


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Flashcard 1404592590092

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Question
For what would you give SNRIs (venlafaxine)?
Answer
major depression, GAD, panic disorder


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Flashcard 1404594425100

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Question
caution: SNRI (venlafaxine)
Answer
HTN, h/a, sexual dysfn, nausea, restlessness; substrate of CYP2D6+3A4


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Flashcard 1404596260108

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Question
NDRI (bupropion) mechanism?
Answer
inhibits reuptake of NE & dopamine


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Flashcard 1404598095116

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Question
For what would you give NDRI (bupropion)?
Answer
depression, smoking cessation, ADHD


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Flashcard 1404599930124

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Question
caution: NDRI (bupropion)
Answer
agitation, tremor, decreased appetite, nausea, HTN, h/a, less sexual dysfn than SSRIs


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Flashcard 1404601765132

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Question
NaSSA (mirtazapine) mechanism?
Answer
inhibits reuptake of serotonin & NE


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Flashcard 1404603600140

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Question
For what would you give NaSSA (mirtazapine)?
Answer
depression & GAD (particularly useful in elder, addictions, or w/ insomnia)


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Flashcard 1404605435148

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Question
caution: NaSSA (mirtazapine)
Answer
sedation, wt gain, edema, hyperlipidemia


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Flashcard 1404607270156

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Question
what are cardiovascular meds? (10)
Answer
-BB (atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, nadolol, carvedilol, propranolol)
-CCB (diltiazem, amlodipine)
-nitrates
-ACEi (ramipril)
-ARB (losartan)
-thiazide diuretics (chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide)
-loop diuretic (furosemide)
-K sparing diuretic (spironolactone)
-central alpha agonists (clonidine, methyldopa)
-alpha-blockers (terazosin, prazosin)


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Flashcard 1404609105164

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Question
BB (atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, nadolol, carvedilol, propranolol) mechanism?
Answer
preferentially block B1 receptors; decreases HR & output & decreases renin release


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Flashcard 1404610940172

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Question
For what would you give BBs (atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, nadolol, carvedilol, propranolol)?
Answer
angina, post-MI, HTN, rate control in afib


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Flashcard 1404612775180

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Question
caution: BBs (atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, nadolol, carvedilol, propranolol)
Answer
bradycardia; further suppression of failing heart; CNS depression; hypotension, fatigue, insomnia, impotence, dizziness, bronchospasm, h/a, mask/delay sx's of hypoglycemia


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Flashcard 1404614610188

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Question
CCB (diltiazem, amlodipine) mechanism?
Answer
block Ca channels in heart & smooth msc; dilates periph arterioles, slows AV node


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Flashcard 1404616445196

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Question
For what would you give CCB (diltiazem, amlodipine)?
Answer
HTN, angina, afib


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Flashcard 1404618280204

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Question
caution: CCB (diltiazem, amlodipine)
Answer
bradycardia, hypotension, edema, CHF, AV block


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Flashcard 1404620115212

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Question
nitrates mechanism?
Answer
venous & arteriole vasodilation resulting in decreased myocardial O2 demand, decreased preload


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Flashcard 1404621950220

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Question
For what would you give nitrates?
Answer
HTN, angina, CHF


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Flashcard 1404623785228

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Question
caution: nitrates
Answer
hypotension, h/a, flushing


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Flashcard 1404625620236

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Question
ACEi (ramipril) mechanism?
Answer
inhibit ACE which reduces synthesis of vasoconstrictor ang II; suppresses aldosterone resulting in natriuresis


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Flashcard 1404627455244

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Question
For what would you give ACEi (ramipril)?
Answer
HTN, post-MI, CHF, CAD, diabetic nephropathy


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Flashcard 1404629290252

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Question
caution: ACEi (ramipril)
Answer
hypotension, dizziness, angioedema; cough; hyperkalemia, AKI


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Flashcard 1404631125260

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Question
ARB (losartan) mechanism?
Answer
antagonist @ angiotensin II receptor of vasc msc


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Flashcard 1404632960268

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Question
For what would you give ARB (losartan)?
Answer
HTN, HF (candesartan), diabetic nephropathy


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Flashcard 1404634795276

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Question
caution: ARB (losartan)
Answer
hypotension, dizziness, hyperkalemia, AKI


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404636630284

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Question
thiazide diuretics (chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide) mechanism?
Answer
inhibits Na & Cl reabsorption in distal tubule; loss of K, Na, Cl causes increase in urine ouptut


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404639251724

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Question
For what would you give thiazide diuretics (chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide)?
Answer
ideal starting agent for HTN


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404641086732

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Question
caution: thiazide diuretics (chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide)
Answer
hypokalemia, hyponatremia, oliguria; increases toxicity of digitalis & lithium, rash, photosensitivity, increased chol/TG, increased Ca/uric acid/glu


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404643183884

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Question
loop diuretic (furosemide) mechanism
Answer
inhibits Cl reabsorption in thick asc loop of henle; high loss of K in urine


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404645018892

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Question
For what would you give loop diuretic (furosemide)?
Answer
preferred diuretic in pts w/ low GFR & in hypertensive emergencies; CHF


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404646853900

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Question
caution: loop diuretic (furosemide)
Answer
hyponatremia, hypokalemia, dehydration, hypotension, increases toxicity of ototoxic & nephrotoxic drugs & lithium


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill






Flashcard 1404648688908

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Question
K sparing diuretic (spironolactone) mechanism
Answer
antagonist of aldosterone (aldosterone causes Na retention); also directly increases Na excretion & decreases K secretion in distal convoluted tubule


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Flashcard 1404650523916

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Question
For what would you give K sparing diuretic (spironolactone)?
Answer
used w/ other diuretics to tx HTN b/c of K sparing effects; CHF


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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Flashcard 1404652358924

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Question
caution: K sparing diuretic (spironolactone)
Answer
hyperkalemia, Na/H2O depletion


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill