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Flashcard 1425512992012

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows
Question
[...] measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country.
Answer
Gross national product (GNP)

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Gross national product (GNP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such p

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2.1. Basic Terminology
ic product (GDP) measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) located within a country/economy during a given period of time, generally a year or a quarter. <span>Gross national product (GNP), however, measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by factors of production (such as labor and capital) supplied by residents of a country, regardless of whether such production takes place within the country or outside of the country. The difference between a country’s GDP and its GNP is that GDP includes, and GNP excludes, the production of goods and services by foreigners within that country, whereas GNP







Competition
#blue-apron #citychef
Blue Apron is one of three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups are based in New York City.

Plated, which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions.

HelloFresh, which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment).
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d more than $190 million and has been valued at $2 billion, has not yet demonstrated profitability and faces well-funded competitors. It also faces the looming threat of a bursting tech bubble that could turn off the venture capital spigot. <span>It is one of no fewer than three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups based in New York City. Plated, which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions. And HelloFresh, which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment). Food? Delivery? Talk of a bubble? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious f




Flashcard 1428162481420

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Economists refer to the “rules” that govern transformation of factors of production (input) as [...] .

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simplest level, production of a good consists of transforming inputs, or factors of production (such as land, labor, capital, and materials) into finished goods and services. Economists refer to the “rules” that govern this transformation as <span>the technology of production . Because producers have to purchase inputs in factor markets, the cost of production depends on both the technology and the price of those factors.<span><body><html>

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3.3. The Supply Function and the Supply Curve
between those two values, the greater is the willingness of producers to supply the good. In another reading, we will explore the cost of production in greater detail. At this point, we need to understand only the basics of cost. <span>At its simplest level, production of a good consists of transforming inputs, or factors of production (such as land, labor, capital, and materials) into finished goods and services. Economists refer to the “rules” that govern this transformation as the technology of production . Because producers have to purchase inputs in factor markets, the cost of production depends on both the technology and the price of those factors. Clearly, willingness to supply is dependent on not only the price of a producer’s output, but also additionally on the prices (i.e., costs) of the inputs necessary to produce it. For si







Flashcard 1428189482252

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #market-equilibrium #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Variables other than own price and quantity are determined outside of the demand and supply model of a particular market. Because of that, they are called [...] .

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Variables other than own price and quantity are determined outside of the demand and supply model of this particular market. Because of that, they are called exogenous variables . Price and quantity, however, are determined within the model for this particular market and are called endogenous variables

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3.6. Market Equilibrium
al gasoline market, the demand function was given by Qdx=f(Px,I,Py) , and the supply function was given by Qsx=f(Px,W) . Those expressions are called behavioral equations because they model the behavior of, respectively, buyers and sellers. <span>Variables other than own price and quantity are determined outside of the demand and supply model of this particular market. Because of that, they are called exogenous variables . Price and quantity, however, are determined within the model for this particular market and are called endogenous variables . In our simple example, there are three exogenous variables (I, P y , and W) and three endogenous variables: P x , Qdx , and Qsx . Hence, we have a system of two equations and three un







Flashcard 1428232473868

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
Sometimes [...] are used to seek equilibrium prices.
Answer
auctions

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Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that value before the auction is completed.

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SUMMARY
ven price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall. <span>Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that value before the auction is completed. Overly optimistic bidders overestimate the true value and end up paying a price greater than that value. This result is known as the winner’s curse. Private value auctions sell items that (generally) have a unique subjective value for each bidder. Ascending price auctions use an auctioneer to call out ever increasing prices until the last, highest bidder ultimately pays his/her bid price and buys the item. Descending price, or Dutch, auctions begin at a very high price and then reduce that price until one bidder is willing to buy at that price. Second price sealed bid auctions are sometimes used to induce bidders to reveal their true reservation prices in private value auctions. Treasury notes and some other financial instruments are sold using a form of Dutch auction (called a single price auction) in which competitive and non-competitive bids are arrayed in descending price (increasing yield) order. The winning bidders all pay the same price, but marginal bidders might not be able to fill their entire order at the market clearing price. Markets that work freely can optimize society’s welfare, as measured by consumer surplus and producer surplus. Consumer surplus is the difference between the total value







Flashcard 1428645612812

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question
The company works with [...] to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that [...]
Answer
local farmers

minimize food waste

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The company works with local farmers to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that minimize food waste and allow users to try new ingredients and recipes, at an affordable price of $10 per meal per person.</

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
olving a prescient problem facing many Americans today: they love to cook but feel they don’t have the time. Blue Apron “delivers farm fresh ingredients and original recipes so [people] can create an incredible meal any night of the week 2 .” <span>The company works with local farmers to create delivery boxes of perfectly portioned dinners that minimize food waste and allow users to try new ingredients and recipes, at an affordable price of $10 per meal per person. Blue Apron curates meal kits, boxes of ingredients and instructions for cooking exactly three dinners a week. They are sold on a subscription basis for two or four people. As of Decem







#trivium
Sister Miriam Joseph acknowledges her debt to Aristotle, John Milton, and Jacques Maritain.
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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Where does the initial knowledge come from? The section on [...] answers that question.
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Greek grammar of Dionysius Thrax (ca.166 B.C .
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Grammar is an experiment al knowledge of the usages of languages as generally current among poets and prose writers. It is divided into six parts: (1) trained reading with due regard to prosody [versification]; (2) exposition, according to poetic figures [rhetoric]; (3) ready statement of dialectical peculiarities and allusion; (4) discovery of etymologies; (5) the accurate account of analogies; (6) criticism of poet ical product ions which is the noblest part of grammatical art.
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Flashcard 1428861881612

Tags
#derecho #introduccion-al-derecho #orden-juridico-de-las-normas
Question

Así queda el orden de las normas jurídicas:

1) Constitución nacional.

2) Leyes o normas generales.

3) [...]

4) Negocios y actos jurídicos (contratos, testamentos).

5) Sentencias judiciales y resoluciones administrativas.

Answer
3) Reglamentos.

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ón y el resto de normas emanadas de ella son jurídicamente obligatorias. Así queda el orden de las normas jurídicas: 1) Constitución nacional. 2) Leyes o normas generales. <span>3) Reglamentos. 4) Negocios y actos jurídicos (contratos, testamentos). 5) Sentencias judiciales y resoluciones administrativas. <span><body></ht

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1.3.5 Orden jurídico de las normas
lamentos que leyes y así sucesivamente. 8 Jurista filosófico y político austriaco de origen judío (1881-1973), profesor de filosofía del Derecho en la Universidad de Viena desde 1917. 20 Ahora bien, <span>la pirámide sirve para reflejar la idea de validez, cada escalón es una especie de eslabón de la cadena de importancia de leyes, dentro del sistema, pero lo que otorga validez al sistema en sí es la norma fundamental. De acuerdo con el ordenamiento jurídico, la Constitución y el resto de normas emanadas de ella son jurídicamente obligatorias. Así queda el orden de las normas jurídicas: 1) Constitución nacional. 2) Leyes o normas generales. 3) Reglamentos. 4) Negocios y actos jurídicos (contratos, testamentos). 5) Sentencias judiciales y resoluciones administrativas. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1428873415948

Tags
#derecho #introduccion-al-derecho
Question
Las iniciativas presentadas por el Presidente de la República, por las Legislaturas de los Estados o por las Diputaciones de los mismos, pasarán desde luego a [...].
Answer
comisión

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Las iniciativas presentadas por el Presidente de la República, por las Legislaturas de los Estados o por las Diputaciones de los mismos, pasarán desde luego a comisión. Las que presentaren los diputados o los senadores, se sujetarán a los trámites que designe el Reglamento de Debates.

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2.1 CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS FUENTES DEL DERECHO
so mediante el cual los órganos del Estado, (el Congreso de la Unión, que se conforma por la Cámara de Diputados y Cámara de Senadores), crean las normas jurídicas generales, abstractas y obligatorias que integrarán la ley. <span>En nuestro sistema mexicano existen seis etapas para la creación de una ley, a saber: iniciativa, discusión, aprobación, sanción, publicación e iniciación de la vigencia. Al hablar del proceso legislativo surge la idea de un procedimiento que ha de seguirse para la creación de las leyes federales o locales, acto que en nuestra Constitución se consigna en los artículos 71 y 72, que a continuación se explican: a) Iniciativa, el derecho de iniciar leyes, conforme al artículo 71 de nuestra Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, le compete al Presidente de la República, a los Diputados y Senadores, al Congreso de la Unión y a las Legislaturas de los Estados. Las iniciativas presentadas por el Presidente de la República, por las Legislaturas de los Estados o por las Diputaciones de los mismos, pasarán desde luego a comisión. Las que presentaren los diputados o los senadores, se sujetarán a los trámites que designe el Reglamento de Debates. La iniciativa de ley es un proyecto que se presenta al Poder Legislativo para éste lo estudie, analice y, en su caso, siguiendo el proceso que señala la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, se convierta en ley; a la Cámara que primero recibe el proyecto de ley se le llama Cámara de Origen. b) Discusión es el acto por el cual las Cámaras deliberan acerca de las iniciativas, a fin de determinar si deben o no ser aprobadas,11 debaten sobre la proposición que se les ha hecho, exponiendo los puntos de vista que existan a favor o en contra de ella y formulando los puntos de vista que consideran pertinentes para el perfeccionamiento del proyecto. Una vez que la iniciativa de ley ha sido estudiada, discutida y revisada por la Cámara de Origen, si se considera que es prudente, se procede al siguiente paso del proceso legislativo: la aprobación. c) Aprobación, aquí los integrantes de la Cámara de Origen dan su autorización a la iniciativa para que ésta se convierta en ley, una vez aprobada la iniciativa, se envía a la otra Cámara, a cual se denomina Cámara Revisora, para que ésta también la discuta. La aprobación pude ser total o parcial, la primera de ellas se da cuando aceptan que la iniciativa, una vez discutida y analizada, fue autoriza por la Cámara de Origen para que se apruebe la ley; la segunda, se da cuando la iniciativa de ley tiene observaciones, por tal motivo elaborarán la propuesta de reformas o adiciones que se consideren pertinentes y sea discutida nuevamente. d) Sanción, una vez que la iniciativa de ley ha sido aprobada por las dos Cámaras, se debe enviar el Ejecutivo para que éste ordene su publicación, y es el acto por el cual el Presidente de la República manifiesta, mediante su firma, la aprobación del proyecto de ley que le envían las Cámaras, a este hecho se le llama sanción Sin embargo, el Presidente de la República puede hacer observaciones, y en este caso, la devolverá a la Cámara de Origen, en donde será discutido de nuevo, y su fuere confirmado por las dos terceras partes del número total de votos de la Cámara de Origen, y pasará otra vez a la Cámara Revisora, en la cual se analizarán las observaciones, y si la iniciativa también fuere confirmada por la misma mayoría, el proyecto se declarará y será enviado al Ejecutivo para su promulgación; así, en caso de que las observaciones sean aceptadas, el procedimiento será el mismo para el caso de la revisión. A la facultad que tiene el Presidente de la República para hacer observaciones o rechazar iniciativas de ley aprobadas por las Cámaras, se le denomina derecho de veto. El Ejecutivo dispone de un término de 10 días hábiles para ejercer el derecho de veto, pues se entiende que si pasado ese término sin que devuelva el proyecto de ley a su Cámara de Origen, éste ha sido aceptado por el Ejecutivo, si se da el caso de que en ese término concluyan o se suspendan las sesiones del Congreso, la devolución deberá hacerse el primer día hábil en que el Congreso reinicie sus sesiones. f) Promulgación, una vez que el proyecto de ley ha sido aceptado por el Poder Ejecutivo, se procede a la promulgación, que es la aprobación expresa del Ejecutivo, donde se manifiesta la orden de publicación y que se ejecute dicha ley. 32 g) Publicación, una vez que la ley fue promulgada, ésta debe ser puesta en conocimiento de la población. Se publica en el Diario Oficial de la Federación, que es el medio de comunicación que utilizan las autoridades federales para dar a conocer a la población las resoluciones administrativas, las leyes y otros avisos de importancia general. Respecto a la publicación de las leyes que emiten los Estados, éstas se realizan por medio de la Gaceta de Gobierno del Estado. h) Iniciación de la vigencia, aquí es donde la ley empieza a tener fuerza obligatoria para toda la población. En México, existen dos sistemas para que inicie la vigencia de una ley, a saber: El sucesivo consiste en que la ley entra en vigor tres días después de la publicación en el Diario Oficial de la Federación, en los lugares en los cuales no se publiquen el diario oficial, se dará un día más por cada 40 kilómetros o fracción que exceda la mitad de distancia entre el lugar de publicación y el sitio donde habrá de iniciarse la vigencia. Este sistema está considerado en el artículo 3 del Código Civil Federal, y es utilizada en el caso de que la ley no establezca la fecha en que entrará en vigor. El sincrónico es cuando la propia ley señala el día que iniciará su vigencia, en este caso, entrará en vigor en todos los lugares de su aplicación en la fecha establecida, esto lo señala el artículo 4 del Código Civil Federal. 2.1.3.2 La costumbre Es la regulación de la conducta surgida espontáneamente de un grupo social y de observancia voluntaria para quienes lo constituy







Flashcard 1428930301196

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
In general, elasticity is the ratio of [...].
Answer
the percentage change in the dependent variable to the percentage change in the independent variable of interest

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Economists use a quantitative measure of sensitivity called elasticity. In general, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in the dependent variable to the percentage change in the independent variable of interest. Important specific elasticities include own-price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, and cross-price elasticity of demand.

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SUMMARY
tion. Brokers can add value if they reduce search costs and match buyers and sellers. In general, anything that improves information about the willingness of buyers and sellers to engage will reduce search costs and add value. <span>Economists use a quantitative measure of sensitivity called elasticity. In general, elasticity is the ratio of the percentage change in the dependent variable to the percentage change in the independent variable of interest. Important specific elasticities include own-price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand, and cross-price elasticity of demand. Based on algebraic sign and magnitude of the various elasticities, goods can be classified into groups. If own-price elasticity of demand is less than one in absolute va







Flashcard 1428932922636

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and [...].
Answer
price will rise

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If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall.

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SUMMARY
lly will be obtained at a different price and a different quantity than before. The market mechanism is the ability of prices to adjust to eliminate any excess demand or supply resulting from a shift in one or the other curve. <span>If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceeds the quantity demanded, there is excess supply and price will fall. Sometimes auctions are used to seek equilibrium prices. Common value auctions sell items that have the same value to all bidders, but bidders can only estimate that valu







Flashcard 1428951797004

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question

[culinary director]
[...]
[culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.”
Answer
Chris Sorensen’s

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[culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s [culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.”

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
ho only knows how to cook one or two meals off the top of his head—agreed with Henrique’s reasoning. “I don’t have to come up with new recipes,” he said. “If the planning were left to me, I would just eat the same thing over and over again.” <span>As for the explanation behind the man hands pictured in their recipe cards, Wadiak said that was purely a coincidence. “Those hands are either my hands, [culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s hands, or [culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.” The three of them are responsible for testing new recipes in the Blue Apron’s test kitchen and thus end up being photographed the majority of the time. “We’ve had a couple of recipes where it’s women testing,” he said. “But if you have one of those cards, they’re basically considered a collector’s item.” [emptylink] [imagelink] Subscribe now6 Issues for $







Flashcard 1428953369868

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question

[culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s

[culinary manager] [...]
Answer
Tim Kemp’s hands.”

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[culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s [culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.”

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Why Men Love Blue Apron - Vogue
ho only knows how to cook one or two meals off the top of his head—agreed with Henrique’s reasoning. “I don’t have to come up with new recipes,” he said. “If the planning were left to me, I would just eat the same thing over and over again.” <span>As for the explanation behind the man hands pictured in their recipe cards, Wadiak said that was purely a coincidence. “Those hands are either my hands, [culinary director] Chris Sorensen’s hands, or [culinary manager] Tim Kemp’s hands.” The three of them are responsible for testing new recipes in the Blue Apron’s test kitchen and thus end up being photographed the majority of the time. “We’ve had a couple of recipes where it’s women testing,” he said. “But if you have one of those cards, they’re basically considered a collector’s item.” [emptylink] [imagelink] Subscribe now6 Issues for $







Flashcard 1428955991308

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question
Blue Apron is one of three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups are based in New York City.

[...], which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions.

[...] , which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment).
Answer
Plated

HelloFresh

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Blue Apron is one of three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups are based in New York City. Plated, which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions. HelloFresh, which was f

Original toplevel document

Unknown title
d more than $190 million and has been valued at $2 billion, has not yet demonstrated profitability and faces well-funded competitors. It also faces the looming threat of a bursting tech bubble that could turn off the venture capital spigot. <span>It is one of no fewer than three fast-growing, venture-backed meal kit startups based in New York City. Plated, which was founded by Salzberg's former business school classmates, scored a Shark Tank deal and has annual revenue estimated in the tens of millions. And HelloFresh, which was founded in Berlin but operates a regional headquarters in New York, just raised $85 million at a valuation of $2.9 billion and has global revenue of about $40 million a month (HelloFresh declined comment). Food? Delivery? Talk of a bubble? People could be forgiven for mistaking Blue Apron, Plated and HelloFresh for Kozmo and Webvan, two delivery companies that were among the notorious f







Flashcard 1428958874892

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question
Data analysis allows it to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops, as well as to win a better price with farmers, who'll gladly charge less to lock in a bulk order for pork chops or broccoli. And with just the [...] central hubs, Blue Apron avoids the major overhead costs of food waste, maintaining grocery stores and cooking food locally.
Answer
three

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e road. That allows it to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops, as well as to win a better price with farmers, who'll gladly charge less to lock in a bulk order for pork chops or broccoli. And with just the <span>three central hubs, Blue Apron avoids the major overhead costs of food waste, maintaining grocery stores and cooking food locally.<span><body><html>

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Unknown title
y. A bigger facility in Jersey City and a rapidly growing headquarters in Manhattan's SoHo neighborhood came next. Eventually a third facility in Dallas gave Blue Apron coverage of the entire country, all served by 2,600 salaried employees. <span>As a subscription business Blue Apron knows a lot about its collective customers, including how many will cancel an order in any given week and what ingredients will be needed months down the road. That allows it to plan meals based on the expected availability and price of certain crops, as well as to win a better price with farmers, who'll gladly charge less to lock in a bulk order for pork chops or broccoli. And with just the three central hubs, Blue Apron avoids the major overhead costs of food waste, maintaining grocery stores and cooking food locally. Blue Apron says it acquires many of its customers through word of mouth. But it also must fight to keep those customers. Many subscription companies lose customers as early as one mon







Flashcard 1428960972044

Tags
#blue-apron #citychef
Question
Blue Apron has just announced that it closed a [...] million round of funding led by Fidelity Management and Research Company, with participation from existing investors
Answer
$135

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Blue Apron has just announced that it closed a $135 million round of funding led by Fidelity Management and Research Company, with participation from existing investors

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Blue Apron Eats Up $135M At A $2B Valuation | TechCrunch
[emptylink] Next Story Inside GoPro’s Ambitious Plan To Connect Their Cameras To The Cloud <span>Blue Apron has just announced that it closed a $135 million round of funding led by Fidelity Management and Research Company, with participation from existing investors. The WSJ reported last month that this round was being sought at a $2 billion valuation. Update 10:30am ET: A Blue Apron spokesperson has just confirmed to TechCrunch that this rou







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Question
The menus, which change [...] based on seasonal needs and are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs.
Answer
weekly

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d>The service is convenient, offering free delivery in refrigerated boxes whenever best fits the customer’s schedule. The step-by-step recipes are appropriate for beginner and experienced cooks alike. The menus, which change weekly based on seasonal needs, are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs.<html>

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Blue Apron: Fixing the Food Delivery Supply Chain – Technology and Operations Management
rybody who wants to cook is our customer 1 ”. The recipes are simple, with instructions written in a clear and direct way, complete with pictures. The business model focuses on removing the biggest obstacle to cooking – deciding what to cook. <span>The service is convenient, offering free delivery in refrigerated boxes whenever best fits the customer’s schedule. The step-by-step recipes are appropriate for beginner and experienced cooks alike. The menus, which change weekly based on seasonal needs, are created by the culinary team and renowned guest chefs. For its suppliers, Blue Apron works with family-run farmers and artisans to source the highest quality ingredients. On the recipe cards, they provide an information sheet that highlight







Flashcard 1428990856460

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#14-dic-2016 #el-financiero #noticias
Question
Clemente Ruíz, catedrático del Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas de la UNAM, señaló que el valor agregado de la informalidad es bajo si se considera que [...] por ciento de la población está ocupada en ese ámbito y subrayó que en la informalidad hay muchas empresas familiares que no tienen acceso a apoyos que los hagan más eficientes.
Answer
57.9

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Clemente Ruíz, catedrático del Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas de la UNAM, señaló que el valor agregado de la informalidad es bajo si se considera que 57.9 por ciento de la población está ocupada en ese ámbito y subrayó que en la informalidad hay muchas empresas familiares que no tienen acceso a apoyos que los hagan más eficientes.<

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Informalidad ‘captura’ hasta un cuarto de la economía del país
INEGI). En tanto, el año pasado, 76.4 por ciento del PIB del país fue generado en el sector formal, ubicándose como el mayor aporte del sector al menos desde 2003, señala el reporte Medición de la Economía Informal 2015. <span>Clemente Ruíz, catedrático del Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas de la UNAM, señaló que el valor agregado de la informalidad es bajo si se considera que 57.9 por ciento de la población está ocupada en ese ámbito y subrayó que en la informalidad hay muchas empresas familiares que no tienen acceso a apoyos que los hagan más eficientes. “Mientras tengamos esa estructura de ocupación en el sector informal, no habrá manera de subir la productividad, se necesitan políticas de apoyo pues las acciones que han hab







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Question
Si tan sólo la tercera parte de los informales pasara a formar parte del sector formal de la economía, eso significaría que casi 10 millones de trabajadores podrían aumentar su productividad de manera radical.

Con los datos señalados arriba, ese cambio implicaría un crecimiento del PIB en [...] por ciento.
Answer
27

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rmar parte del sector formal de la economía, eso significaría que casi 10 millones de trabajadores podrían aumentar su productividad de manera radical. Con los datos señalados arriba, ese cambio implicaría un crecimiento del PIB en <span>27 por ciento.<span><body><html>

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La oportunidad que nos da la informalidad
ad. Esta es otra de las enormes desigualdades que existen en el país, además de las de carácter regional o de estrato social. Pero, al mismo tiempo nos señala una de las grandes oportunidades que tiene México. <span>Si tan sólo la tercera parte de los informales pasara a formar parte del sector formal de la economía, eso significaría que casi 10 millones de trabajadores podrían aumentar su productividad de manera radical. Con los datos señalados arriba, ese cambio implicaría un crecimiento del PIB en 27 por ciento. Pero no pensemos que ese proceso pueda suceder como por un milagro. Aun si tardara una década completa, ese tránsito a la formalidad daría lugar al crecimiento de 2.4 puntos







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Question
Rafael Camarena, economista de Santander México, destacó que la Fed podría modificar el ritmo al que subiría las tasas, pero dependerá de [...]
Answer
la política fiscal que implemente Donald Trump.

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Rafael Camarena, economista de Santander México, destacó que la Fed podría modificar el ritmo al que subiría las tasas, pero dependerá de la política fiscal que implemente Donald Trump.

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Trump sería el factor clave para predecir a la Fed
amente en el crecimiento económico. Además del comunicado, el banco central publicará sus proyecciones sobre las variables económicas más relevantes, y Janet Yellen ofrecerá una conferencia de prensa a las 13:30 horas. <span>Rafael Camarena, economista de Santander México, destacó que la Fed podría modificar el ritmo al que subiría las tasas, pero dependerá de la política fiscal que implemente Donald Trump. “Será relevante ver la postura que tome la Fed para este miércoles, ya que dará a conocer sus estimados sobre las principales variables económicas, siendo importante la expe







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La economía informal en México empleó en 2015 a [...] de cada 10 personas pero sólo contribuyó en [...] por ciento del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB).
Answer
seis

23.6

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La economía informal en México empleó en 2015 a seis de cada 10 personas pero sólo contribuyó en 23.6 por ciento del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB), lo que es una disminución marginal respecto de 2014, año en el que la informalidad particip

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Informalidad ‘captura’ hasta un cuarto de la economía del país
>La economía informal en México redujo el año pasado marginalmente su participación porcentual en el indicador agregado, ya que en 2014 su contribución fue de 23.9%, de acuerdo con cifras del Inegi. La economía informal en México empleó en 2015 a seis de cada 10 personas pero sólo contribuyó en 23.6 por ciento del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB), lo que es una disminución marginal respecto de 2014, año en el que la informalidad participó con 23.9 por ciento, indicó el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). En tanto, el año pasado, 76.4 por ciento del PIB del país fue generado en el sector formal, ubicándose como el mayor aporte del sector al menos desde 2003, señala el reporte







#citychef #munchery
Tran is telling this story from an office on the third floor of a former warehouse in San Francisco’s Outer Mission district. He’s a Silicon Valley entrepreneur and chief executive officer now. Four years ago he started Munchery, which delivers fully cooked meals to people’s homes, each day presenting an abundance of foods that stands in stark contrast to the deprivation of his early life.
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o sleep standing up. All they received to drink were a few sips of water per day. “I remember being so thirsty that I didn’t even want to think about food,” says Tran, now 40. “I knew that if I ate something, I was going to die.” <span>Tran is telling this story from an office on the third floor of a former warehouse in San Francisco’s Outer Mission district. He’s a Silicon Valley entrepreneur and chief executive officer now. Four years ago he started Munchery, which delivers fully cooked meals to people’s homes, each day presenting an abundance of foods that stands in stark contrast to the deprivation of his early life. Munchery is one of dozens of technology startups around the world trying to solve the challenge of mealtime planning with the tap of an app. GrubHub in the U.S., Just Eat i




#citychef #munchery
Munchery is one of dozens of technology startups around the world trying to solve the challenge of mealtime planning with the tap of an app. GrubHub in the U.S., Just Eat in Europe, and Ele.me in China, to name just a few, all connect Internet users with restaurants and their takeout menus.
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d chief executive officer now. Four years ago he started Munchery, which delivers fully cooked meals to people’s homes, each day presenting an abundance of foods that stands in stark contrast to the deprivation of his early life. <span>Munchery is one of dozens of technology startups around the world trying to solve the challenge of mealtime planning with the tap of an app. GrubHub in the U.S., Just Eat in Europe, and Ele.me in China, to name just a few, all connect Internet users with restaurants and their takeout menus. Critics derisively call the proliferation of these businesses the “lazy food economy,” but Munchery is different. It cooks and delivers its own rela-tively healthy fare. Th




#citychef #munchery
The company is in four cities—San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Seattle—operating industrial kitchens in each.
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ct Internet users with restaurants and their takeout menus. Critics derisively call the proliferation of these businesses the “lazy food economy,” but Munchery is different. It cooks and delivers its own rela-tively healthy fare. <span>The company is in four cities—San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, and Seattle—operating industrial kitchens in each. One recent afternoon in San Francisco, chefs and their assistants, wearing white caps and long-sleeved smocks, toiled over trays of grilled salmon atop brown rice with edamame and sweet




#citychef #munchery
Munchery has served more than 3 million meals since Tran and a friend, Conrad Chu, delivered their first entrees in 2010. The company has raised more than $115 million in venture capital, and Tran says it’s now the largest single-kitchen pro-ducer of freshly prepared food in the cities where it operates.
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ture level. After they’re prepared, the dishes are chilled in refrigerated rooms, packed in compostable boxes, and loaded into cars for delivery. Customers heat them up for about two minutes in a microwave or 10 to 20 in an oven. <span>Munchery has served more than 3 million meals since Tran and a friend, Conrad Chu, delivered their first entrees in 2010. The company has raised more than $115 million in venture capital, and Tran says it’s now the largest single-kitchen pro-ducer of freshly prepared food in the cities where it operates. He hopes to open in at least 10 more markets in the next few years but is secretive about expansion plans. Like many other startups in the frenzied on-demand economy, Munchery isn’t yet




#citychef #munchery
Like many other startups in the frenzied on-demand economy, Munchery isn’t yet profitable. It’s churning through venture capital in search of new customers.
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venture capital, and Tran says it’s now the largest single-kitchen pro-ducer of freshly prepared food in the cities where it operates. He hopes to open in at least 10 more markets in the next few years but is secretive about expansion plans. <span>Like many other startups in the frenzied on-demand economy, Munchery isn’t yet profitable. It’s churning through venture capital in search of new customers. The crowd of well-capitalized dining startups, all fighting for attention, is Munchery’s biggest challenge. There are services that send you groceries, services that send p




#citychef #munchery
The crowd of well-capitalized dining startups, all fighting for attention, is Munchery’s biggest challenge.
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re markets in the next few years but is secretive about expansion plans. Like many other startups in the frenzied on-demand economy, Munchery isn’t yet profitable. It’s churning through venture capital in search of new customers. <span>The crowd of well-capitalized dining startups, all fighting for attention, is Munchery’s biggest challenge. There are services that send you groceries, services that send packages of ingredients and recipes in boxes, even services that send cooks to your home to make you dinner. “People need




#citychef #munchery
There are services that send you groceries, services that send packages of ingredients and recipes in boxes, even services that send cooks to your home to make you dinner.
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nzied on-demand economy, Munchery isn’t yet profitable. It’s churning through venture capital in search of new customers. The crowd of well-capitalized dining startups, all fighting for attention, is Munchery’s biggest challenge. <span>There are services that send you groceries, services that send packages of ingredients and recipes in boxes, even services that send cooks to your home to make you dinner. “People need to eat three times a day,” says Michael Dempsey, an analyst at CB Insights. “Munchery is in a great position. The problem is that there are so many other options, and there




#citychef #munchery
“People need to eat three times a day,” says Michael Dempsey, an analyst at CB Insights. “Munchery is in a great position. The problem is that there are so many other options, and there always will be. There will never be a monopoly on dining out or getting food delivered, and it’s always going to be impossible to raise prices.”
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startups, all fighting for attention, is Munchery’s biggest challenge. There are services that send you groceries, services that send packages of ingredients and recipes in boxes, even services that send cooks to your home to make you dinner. <span>“People need to eat three times a day,” says Michael Dempsey, an analyst at CB Insights. “Munchery is in a great position. The problem is that there are so many other options, and there always will be. There will never be a monopoly on dining out or getting food delivered, and it’s always going to be impossible to raise prices.” After two days in the overcrowded boat’s compartments, Tri and Trac were free to go on deck. They spent hours peering into the churning ocean; the boat was so small, they c




#citychef #munchery

Tran’s in-laws started teasing nervously that he’d gone to MIT to become a food deliv-ery boy. “They half-jokingly asked, ‘Are you going to protect our grandchildren?’ ” Tran says. “I said, ‘Look, I’ll give this a year. If it doesn’t work out, I’ll get a job.’ ”

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obscenities. In the early going, Tran himself ran deliveries in his dark green 1998 Lexus sedan, which already had 200,000 miles on it. The family had moved to a rental in San Francisco, which doubled as Munchery’s headquarters. <span>Tran’s in-laws started teasing nervously that he’d gone to MIT to become a food deliv-ery boy. “They half-jokingly asked, ‘Are you going to protect our grandchildren?’ ” Tran says. “I said, ‘Look, I’ll give this a year. If it doesn’t work out, I’ll get a job.’ ” A year passed, and he still wasn’t making any money. But instead of folding the company, he stopped telling his in-laws about it. Munchery was rejected by Silicon Valley’s




#citychef #munchery
Munchery was rejected by Silicon Valley’s popular Y Combinator startup program in 2011 and the next year started delivering prepared lunches from its chefs to other tech startups to bring in some cash. Customers were fickle. When Munchery didn’t get the boss’s lean grilled chicken breast exactly right, it usually lost the account.
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en?’ ” Tran says. “I said, ‘Look, I’ll give this a year. If it doesn’t work out, I’ll get a job.’ ” A year passed, and he still wasn’t making any money. But instead of folding the company, he stopped telling his in-laws about it. <span>Munchery was rejected by Silicon Valley’s popular Y Combinator startup program in 2011 and the next year started delivering prepared lunches from its chefs to other tech startups to bring in some cash. Customers were fickle. When Munchery didn’t get the boss’s lean grilled chicken breast exactly right, it usually lost the account. Eventually, Tran and Chu, by then his chief technology officer, realized catering was a distraction. They needed to get more production from their chefs, who were constrain




#citychef #munchery
Muvhery needed to get more production from their chefs, who were constrained by their primary jobs. So Munchery rented space at a shared kitchen and offered it to chefs with the promise that they’d sell their cuisine beyond the physical walls of conventional restaurants. Putting so many chefs together, each running his own business, turned out to be a problem. Tran had to break up constant fights over access to tables and equipment.
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r started delivering prepared lunches from its chefs to other tech startups to bring in some cash. Customers were fickle. When Munchery didn’t get the boss’s lean grilled chicken breast exactly right, it usually lost the account. <span>Eventually, Tran and Chu, by then his chief technology officer, realized catering was a distraction. They needed to get more production from their chefs, who were constrained by their primary jobs. So Munchery rented space at a shared kitchen and offered it to chefs with the promise that they’d sell their cuisine beyond the physical walls of conventional restaurants. Putting so many chefs together, each running his or her own business, turned out to be a problem. Tran had to break up constant fights over access to tables and equipment. During one confrontation, he remembers, a chef just stared at him while menacingly sharpening a knife. The company kept shifting strategies. It offered a subscription plan for a few meals each week, then pivoted to an a la carte model, where customers could schedule a delive




#citychef #munchery

The company kept shifting strategies. It offered a subscription plan for a few meals each week, then pivoted to an a la carte model, where customers could schedule a delivery time online if they didn’t feel like cooking dinner that night. A series of angel investors—some of whom first discovered Munchery as customers—contributed the first $210,000 in 2012.

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his or her own business, turned out to be a problem. Tran had to break up constant fights over access to tables and equipment. During one confrontation, he remembers, a chef just stared at him while menacingly sharpening a knife. <span>The company kept shifting strategies. It offered a subscription plan for a few meals each week, then pivoted to an a la carte model, where customers could schedule a delivery time online if they didn’t feel like cooking dinner that night. A series of angel investors—some of whom first discovered Munchery as customers—contributed the first $210,000 in 2012. A year later, Munchery took over the lease for the entire kitchen and started hiring its chefs as employees instead of con-tractors. That was more expensive, but it allowed




#citychef #munchery
A year later, Munchery took over the lease for the entire kitchen and started hiring its chefs as employees instead of con-tractors. That was more expensive, but it allowed the company to control the food’s quality and buy ingredients in bulk. Lamb dishes were popular but hard to make money on—the meat was costly and didn’t come with discounts. Salmon and chicken were both popular and profitable, especially at volume. Anything with kale did brisk business.
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el, where customers could schedule a delivery time online if they didn’t feel like cooking dinner that night. A series of angel investors—some of whom first discovered Munchery as customers—contributed the first $210,000 in 2012. <span>A year later, Munchery took over the lease for the entire kitchen and started hiring its chefs as employees instead of con-tractors. That was more expensive, but it allowed the company to control the food’s quality and buy ingredients in bulk. Lamb dishes were popular but hard to make money on—the meat was costly and didn’t come with discounts. Salmon and chicken were both popular and profitable, especially at volume. Anything with kale did brisk business. Last May, Munchery raised $85 million in a round of venture funding that valued the company at $300 million. It’s a relatively meager sum by Silicon Valley standards, but i




#citychef #munchery
Last May, Munchery raised $85 million in a round of venture funding that valued the company at $300 million. It’s a relatively meager sum by Silicon Valley standards, but it made Tran a mil-lionaire, at least on paper.
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nts in bulk. Lamb dishes were popular but hard to make money on—the meat was costly and didn’t come with discounts. Salmon and chicken were both popular and profitable, especially at volume. Anything with kale did brisk business. <span>Last May, Munchery raised $85 million in a round of venture funding that valued the company at $300 million. It’s a relatively meager sum by Silicon Valley standards, but it made Tran a mil-lionaire, at least on paper. In August, Hillary Clinton visited the offices of Munchery on a presidential campaign swing through the Bay Area. She talked to Tran and a dozen other tech company executiv




#citychef #munchery
Munchery had just reclassified all of its delivery people and kitchen staff as either full-time or hourly employees instead of contractors, out of pragmatism more than benevolence. Categorizing them as employees and giving them benefits—and in some cases a share of the company—made workers feel invested in doing a better job for customers, Tran says. The company had also examined IRS regulations and found its workers met most of the legal definitions for employees. They were carefully screened and trained, asked to work at specific hours, and given Munchery jackets to wear.
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a dozen other tech company executives, including the CEOs of Airbnb, Lyft, and the grocery delivery service Instacart. How to classify contract personnel who work on flexible sched-ules was one of the main topics of conversation. <span>Munchery had just reclassified all of its delivery people and kitchen staff as either full-time or hourly employees instead of contractors, out of pragmatism more than benevolence. Categorizing them as employees and giving them benefits—and in some cases a share of the company—made workers feel invested in doing a better job for customers, Tran says. The company had also examined IRS regulations and found its workers met most of the legal definitions for employees. They were carefully screened and trained, asked to work at specific hours, and given Munchery jackets to wear. Still, Tran told Clinton that a new classification between contractors and full-time hires wouldn’t require employers to shoulder the full burden of health and retirement b




#citychef #munchery
Munchery’s high fixed costs pose one of the main drags on its business.
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a few hours a day around din-nertime. The CEOs were “advocating for a way to make this fair for workers but to allow our businesses to operate,” he says. “Every presi-dential candidate is going to have to deal with this subject.” <span>Munchery’s high fixed costs pose one of the main drags on its business. Services such as GrubHub, which connect diners and restaurants online, don’t have significant fixed costs, because the restaurants make the food and in most cases deliver it to customers. Tran and his executives, naturally, pitch Munchery’s expensive infra structure as its biggest advantage. It enables the company to control all of its operating costs, so it




#citychef #munchery
Tran and his executives, naturally, pitch Munchery’s expensive infra structure as its biggest advantage. It enables the company to control all of its operating costs, so it doesn’t have to wring profits out of delivery charges. Cooking tens of thousands of meals each night also lets Munchery save on ingredients. Using routing and scheduling software and state-of-the-art computerized ovens makes the operation more efficient. Munchery is also trying to save on real estate costs: In the next two months it will open a 30,000-square-foot kitchen in South San Francisco, a less expen-sive neighborhood than the Outer Mission.
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se one of the main drags on its business. Services such as GrubHub, which connect diners and restaurants online, don’t have significant fixed costs, because the restaurants make the food and in most cases deliver it to customers. <span>Tran and his executives, naturally, pitch Munchery’s expensive infra structure as its biggest advantage. It enables the company to control all of its operating costs, so it doesn’t have to wring profits out of delivery charges. Cooking tens of thousands of meals each night also lets Munchery save on ingredients. Using routing and scheduling software and state-of-the-art computerized ovens makes the operation more efficient. Munchery is also trying to save on real estate costs: In the next two months it will open a 30,000-square-foot kitchen in South San Francisco, a less expen-sive neighborhood than the Outer Mission. Over time, Tran and Chu’s argument goes, meal prices will go down while the food stays delicious and nutritious. As evidence, they point to one of their salmon entrees: It




#citychef #munchery
The closest direct competitor Munchery has is Sprig
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hing to build, but when we’ve built it, it’s going to be incredibly difficult to compete with,” says Kris Fredrickson, Munchery’s vice president for operations, who joined the company after six years as a banker at Goldman Sachs. <span>The closest direct competitor Munchery has is Sprig, another San Francisco startup with a haul of venture capital—more than $50 million—a centralized kitchen (in a former Chevys Fresh Mex restaurant), and a gospel of high-quality, low-co




Flashcard 1429049576716

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#trivium
Question
Sister Miriam Joseph acknowledges her debt to [...] John Milton, and Jacques Maritain.
Answer
Aristotle,

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Sister Miriam Joseph acknowledges her debt to Aristotle, John Milton, and Jacques Maritain.

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Flashcard 1429051411724

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Question
Words are categorized by their relationship to [...] and to [...] .
Answer
being

each other

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Words are categorized by their relationship to being and to each other.

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Flashcard 1429054295308

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Rhetoric concerns the choices a speaker or writer makes from the options [...] offer
Answer
grammar and logic

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Rhetoric concerns the choices a speaker or writer makes from the options grammar and logic offer

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Flashcard 1429056130316

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Question
studying the liberal arts is an intransitive activity; the effect of studying these arts stays within [...] and perfects the faculties of the mind and spirit.
Answer
the individual

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studying the liberal arts is an intransitive activity; the effect of studying these arts stays within the individual and perfects the faculties of the mind and spirit.

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Flashcard 1429057965324

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The concept is classical, but the term liberal arts and the division of the arts into the trivium and the quadrivium date from the [...]
Answer
Middle Ages

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The concept is classical, but the term liberal arts and the division of the arts into the trivium and the quadrivium date from the Middle Ages

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Flashcard 1429059538188

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The trivium includes those aspects of t he liberal arts that pertain to [...]
Answer
mind

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The trivium includes those aspects of t he liberal arts that pertain to mind

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Flashcard 1429061111052

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
the quadrivium, those aspects of the liberal arts that pertain to [...]
Answer
matter.

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the quadrivium, those aspects of the liberal arts that pertain to matter.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Logic is the art of thinking
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Logic is the art of thinking; grammar, the art of inventing symbols and combining them to express thought; and rhetoric, the art of communicating thought from one mind to anot her, the adaptation of language

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grammar, the art of inventing symbols and combining them to express thought
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Logic is the art of thinking; grammar, the art of inventing symbols and combining them to express thought; and rhetoric, the art of communicating thought from one mind to anot her, the adaptation of language to circumstance

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rhetoric, the art of communicating thought from one mind to anot her, the adaptation of language to circumstance
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Logic is the art of thinking; grammar, the art of inventing symbols and combining them to express thought; and rhetoric, the art of communicating thought from one mind to anot her, the adaptation of language to circumstance

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Flashcard 1429067402508

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
These arts of (3)[...] have formed the traditional basis of liberal education.
Answer
reading, writing, and reckoning

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These arts of reading, writing, and reckoning have formed the traditional basis of liberal education, each constituting both a field of knowledge and the technique t o acquire that knowledge.

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Flashcard 1429068975372

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The utilitarian artist produces utilities that serve the wants of humanity; the fine artist, if he is of the highest order, produces a work that is “a thing of beauty and a joy forever” and that has the power to [...].
Answer
elevate the human spirit

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head><head>The utilitarian artist produces utilities that serve the wants of humanity; the fine artist, if he is of the highest order, produces a work that is “a thing of beauty and a joy forever” and that has the power to elevate the human spirit.<html>

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Flashcard 1429070548236

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Valuable goods are those which are not only desired for their own sake but which [...] For instance, [...] are valuable goods.
Answer
increase the intrinsic worth of their possessor.

knowledge, virtue, and health.

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Valuable goods are those which are not only desired for their own sake but which increase the intrinsic worth of their possessor. For instance, knowledge, virtue, and health are valuable goods.

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The utilitarian or servile arts enable one to be a servant—of another person, of the state, of a corporation, or of a business—and to earn a living.
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The utilitarian or servile arts enable one to be a servant—of another person, of the state, of a corporation, or of a business—and to earn a living. The liberal arts, in contrast, teach one how to live; they train the faculties and bring them to perfection; they enable a person to rise above his material environment to li

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The liberal arts, in contrast, teach one how to live; they train the faculties and bring them to perfection; they enable a person to rise above his material environment to live an intellectual, a rational, and therefore a free life in gaining t ruth. Jesus Christ said, “You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8:32). 3 The
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The utilitarian or servile arts enable one to be a servant—of another person, of the state, of a corporation, or of a business—and to earn a living. The liberal arts, in contrast, teach one how to live; they train the faculties and bring them to perfection; they enable a person to rise above his material environment to live an intellectual, a rational, and therefore a free life in gaining t ruth. Jesus Christ said, “You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8:32). 3 The

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
An art may be used successfully before one has a formal knowledge of its precepts. For example, a child of three may use correct grammar even though the child knows nothing of formal grammar.
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An art may be used successfully before one has a formal knowledge of its precepts. For example, a child of three may use correct grammar even though the child knows nothing of formal grammar. Similarly, logic and rhetoric may be effectively used by those who do not know the precepts of these arts. It is, however, desirable and satisfying to acquire a clear know

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
logic and rhetoric may be effectively used by those who do not know the precepts of these arts. It is, however, desirable and satisfying to acquire a clear knowledge of the precepts and to know why certain forms of expression or thought are right and wrong.
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>An art may be used successfully before one has a formal knowledge of its precepts. For example, a child of three may use correct grammar even though the child knows nothing of formal grammar. Similarly, logic and rhetoric may be effectively used by those who do not know the precepts of these arts. It is, however, desirable and satisfying to acquire a clear knowledge of the precepts and to know why certain forms of expression or thought are right and wrong.<html>

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Flashcard 1429079461132

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The arts of logic, grammar, and rhetoric are the arts of communication itself in that they govern the means of communication—namely, [...].
Answer
reading, writing, speaking, and listening

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head>The trivium is t he organon, or instrument, of all education at all levels because the arts of logic, grammar, and rhetoric are the arts of communicat ion itself in that they govern the means of communication—namely, reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Thinking is inherent in these four activities.<html>

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Flashcard 1429081033996

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The trivium is used vitally when it is exercised in [...]
Answer
reading and composition.

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The trivium is used vitally when it is exercised in reading and composition.

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Flashcard 1429084179724

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question

This was the training that formed the intellectual habits of Shakespeare and other Renaissance writers...
Answer
Exercising in the reading of the Latin classics and in the composition of Latin prose and verse

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It was systematically and intensively exercised in the reading of the Latin classics and in t he composition of Latin prose and verse by boys in the grammar schools of England and the continent during the sixteenth century. This was the training that formed the int ellectual habits of Shakespeare and other Renaissance writers.

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Flashcard 1429087587596

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Grammar is an experiment al knowledge of the usages of languages as generally current among poets and prose writers. It is divided into six parts:

(1)
[...];

(2) exposition, according to poetic figures [rhetoric];

(3) ready statement of dialectical peculiarities and allusion;

(4) discovery of etymologies; (5) the accurate account of analogies;

(6) criticism of poetical productions which is the noblest part of grammatical art.
Answer
trained reading with due regard to prosody [versification]

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Grammar is an experiment al knowledge of the usages of languages as generally current among poets and prose writers. It is divided into six parts: (1) trained reading with due regard to prosody [versification]; (2) exposition, according to poetic figures [rhetoric]; (3) ready statement of dialectical peculiarities and allusion; (4) discovery of etymologies; (5) the accurate account of analogi

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Flashcard 1429089422604

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A learner must use [...] to join the facts together to form a significant whole. This makes learning easier, more interesting, and much more valuable.
Answer
mental hooks and eyes

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A learner must use mental hooks and eyes to join the facts together to form a significant whole. This makes learning easier, more interesting, and much more valuable.

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Flashcard 1429091257612

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Even if one forgets many of the fact s once learned and related, the mind retains the vigor and perfection gained by its exercise upon them. It can do this, however, only by [...] with facts and ideas
Answer
grappling

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Even if one forgets many of the fact s once learned and related, the mind retains the vigor and perfection gained by its exercise upon them. It can do this, however, only by grappling with facts and ideas. Moreover, it is much easier to remember related ideas than unrelated ideas.

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Flashcard 1429093616908

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is a characteristic of matter only, whereas number is a characteristic of both matter and spirit.
Answer
Extension

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Extension is a characteristic of matter only, whereas number is a characteristic of both matter and spirit.) The function of the trivium is the training of the mind for the study of matter and sp

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Metaphysics or ontology, the science of being, is concerned with reality, with the thing- as-it-exists.
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The three language arts can be defined as they relate to reality and to each other. Metaphysics or ontology, the science of being, is concerned with reality, with the thing- as-it-exists. Logic, grammar, and rhetoric have the following relation to reality. Logic is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-known. Grammar is concerned with the thing-as-i

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Logic is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-known.
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n be defined as they relate to reality and to each other. Metaphysics or ontology, the science of being, is concerned with reality, with the thing- as-it-exists. Logic, grammar, and rhetoric have the following relation to reality. <span>Logic is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-known. Grammar is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-symbolized. Rhetoric is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-communicated.<span><body><html>

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Grammar is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-symbolized.
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hysics or ontology, the science of being, is concerned with reality, with the thing- as-it-exists. Logic, grammar, and rhetoric have the following relation to reality. Logic is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-known. <span>Grammar is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-symbolized. Rhetoric is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-communicated.<span><body><html>

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Rhetoric is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-communicated.
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ith the thing- as-it-exists. Logic, grammar, and rhetoric have the following relation to reality. Logic is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-known. Grammar is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-symbolized. <span>Rhetoric is concerned with the thing-as-it-is-communicated.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1429102005516

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is the master art of the trivium
Answer
Rhetoric

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Rhetoric is the master art of the trivium, 12 for it presupposes and makes use of grammar and logic; it is the art of communicating through symbols ideas about reality</htm

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Flashcard 1429103578380

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] prescribes how to combine sounds so as to form spoken words correctly.
Answer
Phonetics

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Phonetics prescribes how to combine sounds so as to form spoken words correctly.

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Flashcard 1429105151244

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] prescribes how to combine letters so as to form written words correctly.
Answer
Spelling

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Spelling prescribes how to combine letters so as to form written words correctly.

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Flashcard 1429106724108

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] prescribes how to combine words so as to form sentences correctly.
Answer
Grammar

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Grammar prescribes how to combine words so as to form sentences correctly.

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Flashcard 1429108296972

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] prescribes how to combine sentences into paragraphs and paragraphs into a whole composition having unity, coherence, and the desired emphasis, as well as clarity, force, and beauty
Answer
Rhetoric

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Rhetoric prescribes how to combine sentences into paragraphs and paragraphs into a whole composition having unity, coherence, and the desired emphasis, as well as clarity, force, and beauty</spa

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Flashcard 1429109345548

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
A speculative study is one that merely seeks to know—for example, [...].
Answer
astronomy

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A speculative st udy is one that merely seeks to know—for example, astronomy. We can merely know about the heavenly bodies. We cannot influence their movement s

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Flashcard 1429111966988

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is the norm of phonetics, spelling, and grammar
Answer
Correct ness

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Correct ness is the norm of phonetics, spelling, and grammar

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Flashcard 1429113539852

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is the norm of rhetoric.
Answer
Effectiveness

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Effectiveness is the norm of rhetoric.

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Flashcard 1429115112716

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Understanding is the [...]. (For example, of contradictory statements, one must be true, the other false.)
Answer
intuitive grasp of first principles

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Understanding is the intuitive grasp of first principles. (For example, of contradictory statements, one must be true, the other false.)

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Flashcard 1429116947724

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is knowledge of proximate causes (physics, mathematics, economics, etc.)
Answer
Science

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Science is knowledge of proximate causes (physics, mathematics, economics, etc.)

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Flashcard 1429118520588

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is knowledge of ultimate causes—metaphysics in the natural order, theology in the supernatural order
Answer
Wisdom

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Wisdom is knowledge of ultimate causes—metaphysics in the nat ural order, theology in the supernatural order

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Flashcard 1429120093452

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is right reason about something to be done
Answer
Prudence

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Prudence is right reason about something to be done

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Flashcard 1429121666316

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is right reason about something to be made. 14
Answer
Art

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Art is right reason about something to be made. 14

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Flashcard 1429123239180

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#sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
[...] or [...] may be expressed by cries or exclamat ions, as when a baby cries or a dog barks for food.
Answer
Volition (desires)

appetition (appetites)

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Volition (desires) or appetition (appetites) may be expressed by cries or exclamat ions, as when a baby cries or a dog barks for food. Since, however, desires multiply as knowledge increases, humans usual

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#sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
desires multiply as knowledge increases
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Volition (desires) or appetition (appetites) may be expressed by cries or exclamat ions, as when a baby cries or a dog barks for food. Since, however, desires multiply as knowledge increases, humans usually express their desires, choices, and commands in sentences.

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Flashcard 1429127957772

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#sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
Since [...] humans usually express their desires, choices, and commands in sentences.
Answer
desires multiply as knowledge increases,

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Volition (desires) or appetition (appetites) may be expressed by cries or exclamat ions, as when a baby cries or a dog barks for food. Since, however, desires multiply as knowledge increases, humans usually express their desires, choices, and commands in sentences.

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Flashcard 1429130317068

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Humans are [...] and therefore have something to say.
Answer
rational

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humans alone among animals have the power to think. Consequently, they alone have language in the proper sense of the word. 1 This follows from their nature, for they are rational and therefore have something to say, social and therefore have someone to say it to, and animal and therefore require a physical mode of communicating ideas from one mind, which

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Flashcard 1429132152076

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#means-of-communication #sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
There are possible only two modes of communicating ideas through a physical or material medium—by [...] or by [...]
Answer
imitation

symbol.

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There are possible only two modes of communicating ideas through a physical or material medium—by imitation or by symbol.

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Flashcard 1429134511372

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#means-of-communication #sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
A [...] is an arbit rary sensible sign having a meaning imposed on it by convention.
Answer
symbol

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A symbol is an arbit rary sensible sign having a meaning imposed on it by convention. A sign is sensible, for it can be perceived by the senses. Every sign has meaning either from nature or from

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Flashcard 1429137394956

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#trivium
Question
In true liberal education…the essential activity of the student is to relate the facts learned into a unified, organic whole, to assimilate them as…[...]
Answer
the rose assimilates food from the soil and increases in size, vitality, and beauty

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In true liberal education…the essential activity of the student is to relate the facts learned into a unified, organic whole, to assimilate them as…the rose assimilates food from the soil and increases in size, vitality, and beauty

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Flashcard 1429138967820

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Aristotle’s categories enable us to translate the linguistic symbol into a [...] ready to take its place in a proposition.
Answer
logical entity

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Aristotle’s categories enable us to translate the linguistic symbol into a logical entity ready to take its place in a proposition. From propositions, the reader moves to syllogisms, ent hymemes, sorites, formal fallacies, and material fallacies

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Flashcard 1429141064972

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] constitute the quadrivium
Answer
arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy

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arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy constitute the quadrivium

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Flashcard 1429142637836

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Geometry, the theory of space, and astronomy, an application of the theory of space, are the arts of [...].
Answer
continuous quantity or extension

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Geometry, the theory of space, and astronomy, an application of the theory of space, are the arts of continuous quantity or extension.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
The seven liberal arts differ essentially from the many utilitarian arts (such as carpentry, masonry, plumbing, salesmanship, printing, editing, banking, law, medicine, or the care of souls)
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The seven liberal arts differ essentially from the many utilitarian arts (such as carpentry, masonry, plumbing, salesmanship, printing, editing, banking, law, medicine, or the care of souls) and from the seven fine arts (architecture, instrumental music, sculpture, painting, literature, t he drama, and the dance), for both the utilitarian arts and the fine art

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
the seven fine arts (architecture, instrumental music, sculpture, painting, literature, t he drama, and the dance)
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The seven liberal arts differ essentially from the many utilitarian arts (such as carpentry, masonry, plumbing, salesmanship, printing, editing, banking, law, medicine, or the care of souls) and from the seven fine arts (architecture, instrumental music, sculpture, painting, literature, t he drama, and the dance), for both the utilitarian arts and the fine arts are transitive activities, whereas the essential characteristic of the liberal arts is that they are immanent or intransitive

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Flashcard 1429147356428

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Difference between the seven liberal arts and the seven fine arts and many utilitarian arts
Answer
for both the utilitarian arts and the fine arts are transitive activities, whereas the essential characteristic of the liberal arts is that they are immanent or intransitive activities

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rpentry, masonry, plumbing, salesmanship, printing, editing, banking, law, medicine, or the care of souls) and from the seven fine arts (architecture, instrumental music, sculpture, painting, literature, t he drama, and the dance), <span>for both the utilitarian arts and the fine arts are transitive activities, whereas the essential characteristic of the liberal arts is that they are immanent or intransitive activities<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1429150240012

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The trivium, in itself a tool or a skill, has become associated with its most appropriate subject matter— [...], [...], [...], history, philosophy.
Answer
The languages, oratory, literature

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The trivium, in itself a tool or a skill, has become associated with its most appropriate subject matter—the languages, oratory, literature, history, philosophy.

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Flashcard 1429151812876

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Logic prescribes how to combine [...] into judgments and judgments into [...] and chains of reasoning so as to achieve truth.
Answer
concepts

syllogisms

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Logic prescribes how to combine concepts into judgments and judgments into syllogisms and chains of reasoning so as to achieve truth.

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Flashcard 1429153647884

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#rhetoric #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Rhetoric recognizes various levels of discourse, such as the [...] (maiden or damsel, steed), the common (girl, horse), the illiterate (gal, hoss), the slang (skirt, plug), the technical (homo sapiens, equus caballus), each with its appropriate use.
Answer
literary

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Rhetoric recognizes various levels of discourse, such as the literary (maiden or damsel, steed), the common (girl, horse), the illiterate (gal, hoss), the slang (skirt, plug), the technical (homo sapiens, equus caballus), each with its appropriate use.</s

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Flashcard 1429155482892

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Because the arts of language are [...], they are practical studies as contrasted with speculative.
Answer
normative

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Because the arts of language are normative, they are practical studies as contrasted with speculative.

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Flashcard 1429157317900

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is the norm of logic.
Answer
Truth

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Truth is the norm of logic. Correctness in thinking is the normal means to reach truth, which is the conformity of thought with things as they are—with reality.

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Flashcard 1429159939340

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
The function of language is threefold: to communicate [...]
Answer
thought, volition, and emotion.

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The function of language is threefold: to communicate thought, volition, and emotion.

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Flashcard 1429161774348

Tags
#means-of-communication #sister-miriam-joseph #symbols #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
By convention or [...], symbols are devised that are either temporary or permanent
Answer
arbitrary agreement

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By convention or arbitrary agreement, symbols are devised that are either temporary or permanent

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Flashcard 1429163609356

Tags
#means-of-communication #sister-miriam-joseph #symbols #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
[...]: signals adopted by a football team, the password necessary to get through military lines, school or team colors.
Answer
Temporary symbols

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Temporary symbols: signals adopted by a football team, the password necessary to get through military lines, school or team colors. Permanent symbols: traffic lights, flags, a soldier’s salute

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Flashcard 1429165968652

Tags
#means-of-communication #sister-miriam-joseph #symbols #the-function-of-language #trivium
Question
[...]: traffic lights, flags, a soldier’s salute, a nod of affirmation, heraldry, hieroglyphics, chemical formulas, numbers.
Answer
Permanent symbols

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Temporary symbols: signals adopted by a football team, the password necessary to get through military lines, school or team colors. Permanent symbols: traffic lights, flags, a soldier’s salute, a nod of affirmation, heraldry, hieroglyphics, chemical formulas, numbers.

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Some symbols are less convenient than others for t he same purpose. For example, Roman numerals are less convenient for computation than Arabic numerals.
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We are likely to undervalue our precious herit age of symbols and to underestimate their convenience. Some symbols are less convenient than others for t he same purpose. For example, Roman numerals are less convenient for computation than Arabic numerals.

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Flashcard 1429179075852

Tags
#derecho #introduccion-al-derecho
Question
Las iniciativas presentadas por los diputados o los senadores, se sujetarán a los trámites que designe el [...]
Answer
Reglamento de Debates.

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Las iniciativas presentadas por el Presidente de la República, por las Legislaturas de los Estados o por las Diputaciones de los mismos, pasarán desde luego a comisión. Las que presentaren los diputados o los senadores, se sujetarán a los trámites que designe el Reglamento de Debates.

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2.1 CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS FUENTES DEL DERECHO
so mediante el cual los órganos del Estado, (el Congreso de la Unión, que se conforma por la Cámara de Diputados y Cámara de Senadores), crean las normas jurídicas generales, abstractas y obligatorias que integrarán la ley. <span>En nuestro sistema mexicano existen seis etapas para la creación de una ley, a saber: iniciativa, discusión, aprobación, sanción, publicación e iniciación de la vigencia. Al hablar del proceso legislativo surge la idea de un procedimiento que ha de seguirse para la creación de las leyes federales o locales, acto que en nuestra Constitución se consigna en los artículos 71 y 72, que a continuación se explican: a) Iniciativa, el derecho de iniciar leyes, conforme al artículo 71 de nuestra Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, le compete al Presidente de la República, a los Diputados y Senadores, al Congreso de la Unión y a las Legislaturas de los Estados. Las iniciativas presentadas por el Presidente de la República, por las Legislaturas de los Estados o por las Diputaciones de los mismos, pasarán desde luego a comisión. Las que presentaren los diputados o los senadores, se sujetarán a los trámites que designe el Reglamento de Debates. La iniciativa de ley es un proyecto que se presenta al Poder Legislativo para éste lo estudie, analice y, en su caso, siguiendo el proceso que señala la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, se convierta en ley; a la Cámara que primero recibe el proyecto de ley se le llama Cámara de Origen. b) Discusión es el acto por el cual las Cámaras deliberan acerca de las iniciativas, a fin de determinar si deben o no ser aprobadas,11 debaten sobre la proposición que se les ha hecho, exponiendo los puntos de vista que existan a favor o en contra de ella y formulando los puntos de vista que consideran pertinentes para el perfeccionamiento del proyecto. Una vez que la iniciativa de ley ha sido estudiada, discutida y revisada por la Cámara de Origen, si se considera que es prudente, se procede al siguiente paso del proceso legislativo: la aprobación. c) Aprobación, aquí los integrantes de la Cámara de Origen dan su autorización a la iniciativa para que ésta se convierta en ley, una vez aprobada la iniciativa, se envía a la otra Cámara, a cual se denomina Cámara Revisora, para que ésta también la discuta. La aprobación pude ser total o parcial, la primera de ellas se da cuando aceptan que la iniciativa, una vez discutida y analizada, fue autoriza por la Cámara de Origen para que se apruebe la ley; la segunda, se da cuando la iniciativa de ley tiene observaciones, por tal motivo elaborarán la propuesta de reformas o adiciones que se consideren pertinentes y sea discutida nuevamente. d) Sanción, una vez que la iniciativa de ley ha sido aprobada por las dos Cámaras, se debe enviar el Ejecutivo para que éste ordene su publicación, y es el acto por el cual el Presidente de la República manifiesta, mediante su firma, la aprobación del proyecto de ley que le envían las Cámaras, a este hecho se le llama sanción Sin embargo, el Presidente de la República puede hacer observaciones, y en este caso, la devolverá a la Cámara de Origen, en donde será discutido de nuevo, y su fuere confirmado por las dos terceras partes del número total de votos de la Cámara de Origen, y pasará otra vez a la Cámara Revisora, en la cual se analizarán las observaciones, y si la iniciativa también fuere confirmada por la misma mayoría, el proyecto se declarará y será enviado al Ejecutivo para su promulgación; así, en caso de que las observaciones sean aceptadas, el procedimiento será el mismo para el caso de la revisión. A la facultad que tiene el Presidente de la República para hacer observaciones o rechazar iniciativas de ley aprobadas por las Cámaras, se le denomina derecho de veto. El Ejecutivo dispone de un término de 10 días hábiles para ejercer el derecho de veto, pues se entiende que si pasado ese término sin que devuelva el proyecto de ley a su Cámara de Origen, éste ha sido aceptado por el Ejecutivo, si se da el caso de que en ese término concluyan o se suspendan las sesiones del Congreso, la devolución deberá hacerse el primer día hábil en que el Congreso reinicie sus sesiones. f) Promulgación, una vez que el proyecto de ley ha sido aceptado por el Poder Ejecutivo, se procede a la promulgación, que es la aprobación expresa del Ejecutivo, donde se manifiesta la orden de publicación y que se ejecute dicha ley. 32 g) Publicación, una vez que la ley fue promulgada, ésta debe ser puesta en conocimiento de la población. Se publica en el Diario Oficial de la Federación, que es el medio de comunicación que utilizan las autoridades federales para dar a conocer a la población las resoluciones administrativas, las leyes y otros avisos de importancia general. Respecto a la publicación de las leyes que emiten los Estados, éstas se realizan por medio de la Gaceta de Gobierno del Estado. h) Iniciación de la vigencia, aquí es donde la ley empieza a tener fuerza obligatoria para toda la población. En México, existen dos sistemas para que inicie la vigencia de una ley, a saber: El sucesivo consiste en que la ley entra en vigor tres días después de la publicación en el Diario Oficial de la Federación, en los lugares en los cuales no se publiquen el diario oficial, se dará un día más por cada 40 kilómetros o fracción que exceda la mitad de distancia entre el lugar de publicación y el sitio donde habrá de iniciarse la vigencia. Este sistema está considerado en el artículo 3 del Código Civil Federal, y es utilizada en el caso de que la ley no establezca la fecha en que entrará en vigor. El sincrónico es cuando la propia ley señala el día que iniciará su vigencia, en este caso, entrará en vigor en todos los lugares de su aplicación en la fecha establecida, esto lo señala el artículo 4 del Código Civil Federal. 2.1.3.2 La costumbre Es la regulación de la conducta surgida espontáneamente de un grupo social y de observancia voluntaria para quienes lo constituy