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Flashcard 1429121666316

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#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
[...] is right reason about something to be made. 14
Answer
Art


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Art is right reason about something to be made. 14

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Flashcard 1450730196236



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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
If P < AVC, the firm will [...]
Answer
shut down operations


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If P < AVC, the firm will shut down operations and simply absorb the unavoidable fixed costs. This problem occurs at output Q 1 , which corresponds to point C where price is less than average variable cost.

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osts in the short run as a business entity. In the short run, a business is capable of operating in a loss situation as long as it covers its variable costs even though it is not earning sufficient revenue to cover all fixed cost obligations. <span>If variable costs cannot be covered in the short run (P < AVC), the firm will shut down operations and simply absorb the unavoidable fixed costs. This problem occurs at output Q 1 , which corresponds to point C where price is less than average variable cost. However, in the long run, to remain in business, the price must cover all costs. Therefore, in the long run, at any price below the breakeven point, the firm will exit the market, i.e.,







Flashcard 1471381638412

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#python #sicp
Question
data abstraction [...]
Answer
isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.


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data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed.

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2.2 Data Abstraction
r function itself can be replaced by any other function with the same overall behavior. In other words, we can make an abstraction that separates the way the function is used from the details of how the function is implemented. Analogously, <span>data abstraction isolates how a compound data value is used from the details of how it is constructed. The basic idea of data abstraction is to structure programs so that they operate on abstract data. That is, our programs should use data in such a way as to make as few assumptions ab







#bayes #programming #r #statistics
One way of thinking about this assumption is as follows: We assume that every datum is equally representative of the underlying process, regardless of when the datum was observed, and regardless of any data observed before or after.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
a general phenomenon in Bayesian inference: The posterior is a compromise between the prior distribution and the likelihood function.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
The compromise favors the prior to the extent that the prior distribution is sharply peaked and the data are few. The compromise favors the likelihood function (i.e., the data) to the extent that the prior distribution is flat and the data are many.

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
the mode of the posterior distribution is between the mode of the prior distribution and the mode of the likelihood function, but the posterior mode is closer to the likelihood mode for larger sample sizes

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
the width of the posterior highest density intervals (HDI) is smaller for the larger sample size. Even though both samples of data showed 25% heads, the larger sample implied a smaller range of credible underlying biases

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
In general, the more data we have, the more precise is the estimate of the parameter(s) in the model. Larger sample sizes yield greater precision or certainty of estimation

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#matlab #programming
You can use logical vectors to extract a selection of rows or columns from a ma- trix, for example, if a is the original 3-by-3 matrix defined above, the statement a(:, logical([1 0 1])) results in ans = 13 46 79 (first and third columns extracted)

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#matlab #programming
the functions zeros, ones and rand generate matrices of 1s, 0s and random numbers, respectively. With a single argument n, they generate n × n (square) matrices. With two arguments n and m they generate n × m ma- trices.

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#matlab #programming
For very large matrices repmat is usually faster than ones and zeros.

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#matlab #programming
The function eye(n) generates an n × n identity matrix, i.e., a matrix with 1s on the main ‘diagonal’, and 0s everywhere else

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#matlab #programming
pascal(n) generates a Pascal matrix of order n. Technically, this is a symmetric positive definite matrix with entries made up from Pascal’s triangle

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#matlab #programming
magic(n) generates an n × n magic square

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#matlab #programming
the statement all(a) results in ans = 001 For each column of a where all the elements are true (non-zero) all returns 1, otherwise it returns 0. all therefore returns a logical vector when it takes a matrix argument. To test if all the elements of a are true, use all twice

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#matlab #programming
diag extracts or creates a diagonal

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#matlab #programming
fliplr flips from left to right

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#matlab #programming
flipud flips from top to bottom

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#matlab #programming
rot90 rotates.

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#matlab #programming
tril extracts the lower triangular part

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#matlab #programming
triu extracts the upper triangular part

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#matlab #programming
It helps to think of the 3-D array a as a series of ‘pages’, with a matrix on each page. The third dimension of a numbers the pages. This is analogous to a spreadsheet with multiple sheets: each sheet contains a table (matrix)

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#matlab #programming
The matrix operation A 2 means A × A,whereA must be a square matrix. The operator ^ is used for matrix exponentiation

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#matlab #programming
det determinant. eig eigenvalue decomposition. expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. inv inverse. lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices). qr orthogonal factorization. svd singular value decomposition

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#biochem #biology #cell
although the overall conformation of each pro- tein is unique, two regular folding patterns are often found within them. Both pat- terns were discovered more than 60 years ago from studies of hair and silk

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#biochem #biology #cell
The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the α helix, was found in the protein α-keratin, which is abundant in skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.

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#biochem #biology #cell
Within a year of the discovery of the α helix, a second folded structure, called a β sheet, was found in the protein fibroin, the major constituent of silk. These two patterns are particularly common because they result from hydro- gen-bonding between the N–H and C=O groups in the polypeptide backbone, without involving the side chains of the amino acids

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By definition, the opposite of the word comprehensive is incomplete, empty, limited or narrow. Some may say it is exclusive of something or unfinished in some way. So it is not surprising that when accountants speak of detail, they reference the word comprehensive. The more comprehensive a financial statement, the more detailed

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Comprehensive Income Definition | Investopedia
rt comprehensive income in a separate statement from income resulting from owner changes in equity but have the option of providing information in a single statement. BREAKING DOWN 'Comprehensive Income' <span>By definition, the opposite of the word comprehensive is incomplete, empty, limited or narrow. Some may say it is exclusive of something or unfinished in some way. So it is not surprising that when accountants speak of detail, they reference the word comprehensive. The more comprehensive a financial statement, the more detailed. Comprehensive Income One of the most important financial statements is the income statement. It provides an overview of sales and expenses, including taxes and interest. At the end




One of the most important financial statements is the income statement. It provides an overview of sales and expenses, including taxes and interest. At the end of the income statement is net income or earnings, but net income on the income statement is not necessarily all inclusive. That is, it only includes income from business operations. These are the activities that occur due to the company's business model and day-to-day activities. There are times when companies, especially large companies, make or lose money from the change in value of certain assets. These changes can be found on the cash flow statement; however, the net impact to earnings is found in comprehensive or other comprehensive income on the income statement.

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Comprehensive Income Definition | Investopedia
exclusive of something or unfinished in some way. So it is not surprising that when accountants speak of detail, they reference the word comprehensive. The more comprehensive a financial statement, the more detailed. Comprehensive Income <span>One of the most important financial statements is the income statement. It provides an overview of sales and expenses, including taxes and interest. At the end of the income statement is net income or earnings, but net income on the income statement is not necessarily all inclusive. That is, it only includes income from business operations. These are the activities that occur due to the company's business model and day-to-day activities. There are times when companies, especially large companies, make or lose money from the change in value of certain assets. These changes can be found on the cash flow statement; however, the net impact to earnings is found in comprehensive or other comprehensive income on the income statement. A Few Examples For a personal finance example, say a co-worker won the lottery. The lottery winnings are considered part of his taxable or comprehensive income but not regular incom




A discontinued operation occurs when a segment or certain product line in a company's business has been sold, disposed of or abandoned and is subsequently reported on the company's income statement as income separate from continued operations.

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Discontinued Operations Definition | Investopedia
What are 'Discontinued Operations' <span>A discontinued operation occurs when a segment or certain product line in a company's business has been sold, disposed of or abandoned and is subsequently reported on the company's income statement as income separate from continued operations. Because income from discontinued operations is listed separately on the income statement, investors are less likely to be misled as to the source of a company's profit. This is especial




#reading-25-understanding-income-statement #revenue-recognition

However, the amount of revenue reported would be higher, and the amount of revenue can be important to a company’s valuation. In the earlier stages of e-commerce, for example, some equity valuations were based on sales (because many early internet companies reported no net income).

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3.2.3. Barter
from Company B, can Company A report revenue at the fair value of the product sold? Because the company’s revenue would be approximately equal to its expense, the net effect of the transaction would have no impact on net income or cash flow. <span>However, the amount of revenue reported would be higher, and the amount of revenue can be important to a company’s valuation. In the earlier stages of e-commerce, for example, some equity valuations were based on sales (because many early internet companies reported no net income). Under IFRS, revenue from barter transactions must be measured based on the fair value of revenue from similar non-barter transactions with unrelated parties (parties other