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Flashcard 1429240941836

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
Question
Goods with negative income elasticity are called [...]
Answer


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le experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called <span>inferior goods .<span><body><html>

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4.3. Income Elasticity of Demand: Normal and Inferior Goods
that the demand for that particular good rises when income increases and falls when income decreases. Hence, if we find that when income rises, people buy more meals at restaurants, then dining out is defined to be a normal good. <span>For some goods, there is an inverse relationship between quantity demanded and consumer income. That is, when people experience a rise in income, they buy absolutely less of some goods, and they buy more when their income falls. Hence, income elasticity of demand for those goods is negative. By definition, goods with negative income elasticity are called inferior goods . Again, the word inferior means nothing other than that the income elasticity of demand for that good is observed to be negative. It does not necessarily indicate anything at all about t







Flashcard 1429298875660

Tags
#trivium
Question
language evolves from the very nat ure of being human. Because we are rational, we think; because we are social, we interact with other people; because we are corporeal, we [...]
Answer
use a physical medium


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language evolves from the very nat ure of being human. Because we are rational, we think; because we are social, we interact with other people; because we are corporeal, we use a physical medium

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Flashcard 1429309361420

Tags
#sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
Pleasurable goods are those which are desired for [...] because of [...] they give their possessor. For instance, happiness, an honorable reputation, social prestige, flowers, and savory food are pleasurable goods.
Answer
their own sake

the satisfaction


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Pleasurable goods are those which are desired for their own sake because of the satisfaction they give their possessor. For instance, happiness, an honorable reputation, social prestige, flowers, and savory food are pleasurable goods. They do not

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Flashcard 1436069793036

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #introduction #reading-35-capital-budgeting #study-session-10
Question
This reading is organized as follows:

Section 2 presents
[...].

Section 3 introduces the basic principles of capital budgeting.

Section 4 we discuss the criteria by which a decision to invest in a project may be made.
Answer
the steps in a typical capital budgeting process


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This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the steps in a typical capital budgeting process. After introducing the basic principles of capital budgeting in Section 3, in Section 4 we discuss the criteria by which a decision to invest in a project may be made.</bo

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1. INTRODUCTION
ies that are not too complex. Further, analysts may be able to appraise the quality of the company’s capital budgeting process—for example, on the basis of whether the company has an accounting focus or an economic focus. <span>This reading is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the steps in a typical capital budgeting process. After introducing the basic principles of capital budgeting in Section 3, in Section 4 we discuss the criteria by which a decision to invest in a project may be made. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1450741992716



Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #has-images #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-3-analysis-of-revenue-costs-and-profit
Question
in the long run, to remain in business, the price must [...].
Answer
cover all costs


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in the long run, to remain in business, the price must cover all costs.

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covered in the short run (P < AVC), the firm will shut down operations and simply absorb the unavoidable fixed costs. This problem occurs at output Q 1 , which corresponds to point C where price is less than average variable cost. However, <span>in the long run, to remain in business, the price must cover all costs. Therefore, in the long run, at any price below the breakeven point, the firm will exit the market, i.e., the firm will no longer participate in the market. Point D, which corresponds to







Flashcard 1450869656844

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
[...] Se refiere a una reestructuración total de la empresa, enfocada a sus tres aspectos fundamentales.
Answer
REESTRUCTURACIÓN CORPORATIVA


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REESTRUCTURACIÓN CORPORATIVA Se refiere a una reestructuración total de la empresa, enfocada a sus tres aspectos fundamentales a través de las cuales la empresa se manifiesta: la parte organizacion

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Flashcard 1450909240588

Tags
#reestructuracion-financiera
Question
La Reestructura Corporativa tiene tres grandes dimensiones:

1. [...]

2. Reestructuración Operativa

3. Reestructuración Financiera
Answer
Reestructuración Organizacional


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Conocer, manejar y controlar la función financiera significa tener la suficiente capacidad para iniciar la Reestructura Corporativa en sus tres grandes dimensiones: 1. Reestructuración Organizacional 2. Reestructuración Operativa 3. Reestructuración Financiera

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Flashcard 1464957275404

Tags
#ambiguity-of-language #sister-miriam-joseph #trivium
Question
The ambiguity of a word may arise from:



(2) [...], from which arise the three impositions of a word and the two intentions of a term;

Answer
the nature of a symbol


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The ambiguity of a word may arise from: (1) the various meanings imposed on it in the course of time, constituting the history of the word; (2) the nature of a symbol, from which arise the three impositions of a word and the two intentions of a term; (3) the nature of the phantasm for which the word is originally a substitute

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Flashcard 1464988470540

Tags
#sqr4 #study-methods #survey
Question
Survey process is [...].
Answer
repeated before each chapter


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A similar process is repeated before each chapter.

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Flashcard 1465019927820

Tags
#r-2-respond #sqr4 #study-methods
Question
If, after several tries, you still can't answer your question, [...].
Answer
go on to the next few sections and see if things become clearer


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If, after several tries, you still can't answer your question, go on to the next few sections and see if things become clearer.

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Flashcard 1477070687500

Tags
#6-principles #69-ways-to-influence #commitment-and-consistency
Question
In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to [...] in the direction you want them to go in.
Answer
agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions


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In action, you can influence people to act the way you want them to act by getting them to agree and say ‘yes’ and take very small actions in the direction you want them to go in.

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Flashcard 1480448675084

Tags
#has-images
Question

Vad?
Answer
Bild


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Flashcard 1480454180108

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
It is also important to recognize that there is no temporal order in conditional probabilities. When we say “the probability of x given y”wedonot mean that y has already happened and x has yet to happen. All we mean is that we are [...]
Answer
restricting our calculations of probability to a particular subset of possible outcomes.


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It is also important to recognize that there is no temporal order in conditional probabilities. When we say “the probability of x given y”wedonot mean that y has already happened and x has yet to happen. All we mean is that we are restricting our calculations of probability to a particular subset of possible outcomes.<body><html>

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Flashcard 1480455752972

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as [...]
Answer
coenzymes.


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chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as <span>coenzymes. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480457325836

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The [...] store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as coenzymes.
Answer
activated carriers


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The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of

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Flashcard 1480458898700

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a [...] or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as coenzymes.
Answer
readily transferable chemical group


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The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these mol

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Flashcard 1480460471564

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as [...], and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as coenzymes.
Answer
electrons held at a high energy level


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The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as co

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Flashcard 1480462044428

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both [...] and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as coenzymes.
Answer
energy


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ead><head>The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as coenzymes. <html>

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Flashcard 1480463617292

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The activated carriers store serve a dual role as a source of both energy and [...].
Answer
chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions


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The activated carriers store energy in an easily exchangeable form, either as a readily transferable chemical group or as electrons held at a high energy level, and they can serve a dual role as a source of both energy and chemical groups in biosynthetic reactions. For historical reasons, these molecules are also sometimes referred to as coenzymes. <html>

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Flashcard 1480465190156

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to [...]. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules
Answer
regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently


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Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast,

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Flashcard 1480466763020

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze [...] reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules
Answer
anabolic


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Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system

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Flashcard 1480468335884

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the [...] system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules
Answer
catabolic


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ndependently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the <span>catabolic system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480469908748

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that g[...]
Answer
enerate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules


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with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that g<span>enerate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480471481612

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. [...], by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules
Answer
NADH


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in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. <span>NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480473054476

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. [...] operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a special role as an intermediate in the catabolic system of reactions that generate ATP through the oxidation of food molecules
Answer
NADPH


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Why should there be this division of labor? The answer lies in the need to regulate two sets of electron-transfer reactions independently. NADPH operates chiefly with enzymes that catalyze anabolic reactions, supplying the high-energy electrons needed to synthesize energy-rich biological molecules. NADH, by con- trast, has a s

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Flashcard 1480474627340

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
It is tempting to speculate that many of the car- rier molecules that we find today originated in this earlier [...] where their nucleotide portions could have been useful for binding them to RNA enzymes (ribozymes)
Answer
RNA world,


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It is tempting to speculate that many of the car- rier molecules that we find today originated in this earlier RNA world, where their nucleotide portions could have been useful for binding them to RNA enzymes (ribozymes)

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Flashcard 1480476200204

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
It is tempting to speculate that many of the car- rier molecules that we find today originated in this earlier RNA world, where their nucleotide portions could have been useful for binding them to [...]
Answer
RNA enzymes (ribozymes)


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It is tempting to speculate that many of the car- rier molecules that we find today originated in this earlier RNA world, where their nucleotide portions could have been useful for binding them to RNA enzymes (ribozymes)

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Flashcard 1480477773068

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In so-called [...], the reactive bond required for the condensation reaction is carried on the end of the
Answer
head polymerization


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In so-called head polymerization, the reactive bond required for the condensation reaction is carried on the end of the

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Flashcard 1480479345932

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In so-called head polymerization, the [...]
Answer
reactive bond required for the condensation reaction is carried on the end of the sugar base


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In so-called head polymerization, the reactive bond required for the condensation reaction is carried on the end of the

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Flashcard 1480481705228

Tags
#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
Each piece of information included in the representation of the patient is kno wn as a [...]
Answer
feature


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Each piece of information included in the representation of the patient is kno wn as a feature

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
he quin tessen tial example of a representation learning algorithm is the au- to enco der

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he quin tessen tial example of a representation learning algorithm is the au- to enco der . An autoenco der is the com bination of an enco der function that con v erts the input data into a differen t representation, and a deco der function that conv erts the new representati

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
An autoenco der is the com bination of an enco der function that con v erts the input data into a differen t representation, and a deco der function that conv erts the new representation back into the original format

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he quin tessen tial example of a representation learning algorithm is the au- to enco der . An autoenco der is the com bination of an enco der function that con v erts the input data into a differen t representation, and a deco der function that conv erts the new representation back into the original format

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Flashcard 1480486423820

Tags
#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
[...] are trained to preserv e as muc h information as p ossible when an input is run through the enco der and then the deco der, but are also trained to make the new represen tation hav e v arious nice prop erties.
Answer
Auto enco ders


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Auto enco ders are trained to preserv e as muc h information as p ossible when an input is run through the enco der and then the deco der, but are also trained to make the new represen tation hav e v

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Flashcard 1480487996684

Tags
#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
Auto enco ders are trained to [...] when an input is run through the enco der and then the deco der, but are also trained to make the new represen tation hav e v arious nice prop erties. Different kinds of auto enco ders aim to ac hiev e differen t kinds of prop erties.
Answer
preserv e as muc h information as p ossible


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Auto enco ders are trained to preserv e as muc h information as p ossible when an input is run through the enco der and then the deco der, but are also trained to make the new represen tation hav e v arious nice prop erties. Different kinds of auto enco ders a

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Flashcard 1480489569548

Tags
#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
Auto enco ders are trained to preserv e as muc h information as p ossible when an input is run through the enco der and then the deco der, but are also trained to [...]. Different kinds of auto enco ders aim to ac hiev e differen t kinds of prop erties.
Answer
make the new represen tation hav e v arious nice prop erties


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Auto enco ders are trained to preserv e as muc h information as p ossible when an input is run through the enco der and then the deco der, but are also trained to make the new represen tation hav e v arious nice prop erties. Different kinds of auto enco ders aim to ac hiev e differen t kinds of prop erties.

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Flashcard 1480491142412

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
[...] of the genome for a human does not code for proteins, as opposed to 11% of the genome for the bacte- rium E. coli
Answer
~98.5%


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~98.5% of the genome for a human does not code for proteins, as opposed to 11% of the genome for the bacte- rium E. coli

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Flashcard 1480492715276

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
~98.5% of the genome for a human does not code for proteins, as opposed to [...] of the genome for the bacte- rium E. coli
Answer
11%


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~98.5% of the genome for a human does not code for proteins, as opposed to 11% of the genome for the bacte- rium E. coli

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Flashcard 1480495861004

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after [...]. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s
Answer
8–10 weeks


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indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s

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Flashcard 1480497433868

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. [...] has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s
Answer
Arabidopsis


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indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s

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Flashcard 1480499006732

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately [...] nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s
Answer
220 million


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indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s

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Flashcard 1480500579596

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about [...] times the size of yeast’s
Answer
17


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indoors in large numbers and produces thousands of offspring per plant after 8–10 weeks. Arabidopsis has a total genome size of approximately 220 million nucleotide pairs, about 17 times the size of yeast’s

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Flashcard 1480502152460

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In more recent times, [...], more than any other organism, has shown us how to trace the chain of cause and effect from the genetic instructions encoded in the chromosomal DNA to the structure of the adult multicellular body
Answer
Drosophila


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In more recent times, Drosophila, more than any other organism, has shown us how to trace the chain of cause and effect from the genetic instructions encoded in the chromosomal DNA to the structure of the adult multi

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Flashcard 1480503725324

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
[...]—other genes in the same genome that are unmistakably related and must have arisen by gene dupli- cation.
Answer
paralogs


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paralogs—other genes in the same genome that are unmistakably related and must have arisen by gene dupli- cation.

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Flashcard 1480505298188

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
paralogs—[...]
Answer
other genes in the same genome that are unmistakably related and must have arisen by gene dupli- cation.


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paralogs—other genes in the same genome that are unmistakably related and must have arisen by gene dupli- cation.

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Flashcard 1480506871052

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
On average, any two people taken at random differ in about [...] in their DNA sequence.
Answer
one or two in every 1000 nucleotide pairs


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On average, any two people taken at random differ in about one or two in every 1000 nucleotide pairs in their DNA sequence.

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Flashcard 1480510541068

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Enzymes catalyze all of the reactions whereby cells extract energy from food molecules, for example, and an enzyme called [...] helps to convert CO 2 to sugars in photosynthetic organisms, producing most of the organic matter needed for life on Earth
Answer
ribulose bisphosphate car- boxylase


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Enzymes catalyze all of the reactions whereby cells extract energy from food molecules, for example, and an enzyme called ribulose bisphosphate car- boxylase helps to convert CO 2 to sugars in photosynthetic organisms, producing most of the organic matter needed for life on Earth

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Flashcard 1480512113932

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Enzymes catalyze all of the reactions whereby cells extract energy from food molecules, for example, and an enzyme called ribulose bisphosphate car- boxylase helps to [...], producing most of the organic matter needed for life on Earth
Answer
convert CO 2 to sugars in photosynthetic organisms


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Enzymes catalyze all of the reactions whereby cells extract energy from food molecules, for example, and an enzyme called ribulose bisphosphate car- boxylase helps to convert CO 2 to sugars in photosynthetic organisms, producing most of the organic matter needed for life on Earth

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Flashcard 1480513686796

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The [...] into a long chain is a simple way to manufacture a large, complex molecule, since the subunits are added by the same reaction performed over and over again by the same set of enzymes.
Answer
stepwise polymerization of monomers


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The stepwise polymerization of monomers into a long chain is a simple way to manufacture a large, complex molecule, since the subunits are added by the same reaction performed over and over again by the same set of enzymes

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Flashcard 1480515259660

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
the shapes of most biological macromolecules are [...] because of the many weak noncovalent bonds that form between different parts of the same molecule.
Answer
highly constrained


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the shapes of most biological macromolecules are highly constrained because of the many weak noncovalent bonds that form between different parts of the same molecule.

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Flashcard 1480516832524

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
the shapes of most biological macromolecules are highly constrained because of the [...] that form between different parts of the same molecule.
Answer
many weak noncovalent bonds


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the shapes of most biological macromolecules are highly constrained because of the many weak noncovalent bonds that form between different parts of the same molecule.

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Flashcard 1480518405388

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The mathematical formula for the normal probability density is [...]
Answer
\(p(x) = \frac{1} {σ \sqrt{2\pi}} exp( \frac{-(x - μ)^2}{ 2σ^2})\)


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The mathematical formula for the normal probability density is p(x) = 1 σ √ 2π exp − 1 2 x − μ σ 2

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Flashcard 1480521551116

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In such a walk, the average net distance that each molecule travels (as the “crow flies”) from its starting point is proportional to the [...]
Answer
square root of the time involved


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In such a walk, the average net distance that each molecule travels (as the “crow flies”) from its starting point is proportional to the square root of the time involved

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Flashcard 1480523123980

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In such a walk, the [...] that each molecule travels (as the “crow flies”) from its starting point is proportional to the square root of the time involved
Answer
average net distance


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In such a walk, the average net distance that each molecule travels (as the “crow flies”) from its starting point is proportional to the square root of the time involved

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Flashcard 1480524696844

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of [...] Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about 500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to 50,000 per second, and so on.)
Answer
0.5 mM.


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For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that bind

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Flashcard 1480526269708

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is [...] there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about 500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to 50,000 per second, and so on.)
Answer
55.5 M,


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For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bomb

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Flashcard 1480529415436

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every [...] water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about 500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to 50,000 per second, and so on.)
Answer
105


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For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about 500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per se

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Flashcard 1480530988300

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about [...] random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to 50,000 per second, and so on.)
Answer
500,000


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on of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about <span>500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to 50,000 per second, and so on.)<span><

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Flashcard 1480532561164

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For example, some abundant substrates are present at a concentration of 0.5 mM. Since pure water is 55.5 M, there is only about one such substrate molecule in the cell for every 10 5 water molecules. Nevertheless, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about 500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to [...] per second, and so on.)
Answer
50,000


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s, the active site on an enzyme molecule that binds this substrate will be bombarded by about 500,000 random collisions with the substrate molecule per second. (For a substrate concentration tenfold lower, the number of collisions drops to <span>50,000 per second, and so on.)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480534134028

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Free energy, G, is an expression of [what does it mean?]
Answer
the energy available to do work—for exam- ple, the work of driving chemical reactions


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Free energy, G, is an expression of the energy available to do work—for exam- ple, the work of driving chemical reactions

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Flashcard 1480535706892

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
the standard free-energy change of a reaction, ∆G°. The ∆G° is [definition]. Defined in this way, ∆G° depends only on the intrinsic characters of the reacting molecules
Answer
the change in free energy under a standard condition, defined as that where the concentrations of all the reactants are set to the same fixed value of 1 mole/liter


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the standard free-energy change of a reaction, ∆G°. The ∆G° is the change in free energy under a standard condition, defined as that where the concentrations of all the reactants are set to the same fixed value of 1 mole/liter. Defined in this way, ∆G° depends only on the intrinsic characters of the reacting molecules

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Flashcard 1480537279756

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
At 37°C, where RT = 2.58, the equilibrium equation is therefore: [...]
Answer
∆G° = –2.58 ln K


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At 37°C, where RT = 2.58, the equilibrium equation is therefore: ∆G° = –2.58 ln K

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Flashcard 1480538852620

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
At [...]°C, where RT = 2.58, the equilibrium equation is therefore: ∆G° = –2.58 ln K
Answer
37


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At 37°C, where RT = 2.58, the equilibrium equation is therefore: ∆G° = –2.58 ln K

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Flashcard 1480540425484

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Use [...] at the command line to see a list of categories of functions, with links to descriptions of the func- tions.
Answer
helpwin


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Use helpwin at the command line to see a list of categories of functions, with links to descriptions of the func- tions.

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Flashcard 1480541998348

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Use helpwin at the command line to see [...]
Answer
a list of categories of functions, with links to descriptions of the func- tions.


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Use helpwin at the command line to see a list of categories of functions, with links to descriptions of the func- tions.

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Flashcard 1480543571212

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
[...] cumulative sum of the elements of x
Answer
cumsum(x)


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cumsum(x) cumulative sum of the elements of x, e.g., cumsum(1:4) returns [1 3 6 10]

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Flashcard 1480545144076

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
cumsum(x) [...]
Answer
cumulative sum of the elements of x, e.g., cumsum(1:4) returns [1 3 6 10]


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cumsum(x) cumulative sum of the elements of x, e.g., cumsum(1:4) returns [1 3 6 10]

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Flashcard 1480546716940

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
you get the Divide by zero warning, because one of the elements of x is ex- actly zero. A neat way around this problem is to [...]
Answer
use a logical vector to replace the zero with eps


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you get the Divide by zero warning, because one of the elements of x is ex- actly zero. A neat way around this problem is to use a logical vector to replace the zero with eps

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Flashcard 1480548289804

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
In general, if x and v are vectors, where v has n elements, then x(v) means [...]
Answer
[x(v(1)), x(v(2)), ..., x(v(n))]


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In general, if x and v are vectors, where v has n elements, then x(v) means [x(v(1)), x(v(2)), ..., x(v(n))]

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Flashcard 1480549862668

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
The function [...] returns a logical vector, with elements which are 1 or 0 according as the elements of v are non-zero or 0
Answer
logical(v)


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The function logical(v) returns a logical vector, with elements which are 1 or 0 according as the elements of v are non-zero or 0

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Flashcard 1480551435532

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A value represents the central tendency of the distribution if [close to where?]
Answer
the value is close to the highly probable values of the distribution


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A value represents the central tendency of the distribution if the value is close to the highly probable values of the distribution

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Flashcard 1480553008396

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A value represents the [...] of the distribution if the value is close to the highly probable values of the distribution
Answer
central tendency


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A value represents the central tendency of the distribution if the value is close to the highly probable values of the distribution

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Flashcard 1480554581260

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Therefore, we define the [...] of a distribution as whatever value M minimizes the long-run expected distance between it and all the other values of x.
Answer
central tendency


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Therefore, we define the central tendency of a distribution as whatever value M minimizes the long-run expected distance between it and all the other values of x.

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Flashcard 1480556154124

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Therefore, we define the central tendency of a distribution as [long-run distance]
Answer
whatever value M minimizes the long-run expected distance between it and all the other values of x.


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Therefore, we define the central tendency of a distribution as whatever value M minimizes the long-run expected distance between it and all the other values of x.

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Flashcard 1480557726988

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
how should we define “distance” between values? One way to define distance is as [...]:
Answer
squared difference


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how should we define “distance” between values? One way to define distance is as squared difference: The distance between x and M is (x − M) 2 . One virtue of this definition is that the distance from x to M isthesameasthedistancefromM to x, because (x −M) 2 = (M −x)</bo

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Flashcard 1480559299852

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
how should we define “distance” between values? One way to define distance is as squared difference: The distance between x and M is (x − M) 2 . One virtue of this definition is that [...]
Answer
the distance from x to M isthesameasthedistancefromM to x, because (x −M) 2 = (M −x)


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how should we define “distance” between values? One way to define distance is as squared difference: The distance between x and M is (x − M) 2 . One virtue of this definition is that the distance from x to M isthesameasthedistancefromM to x, because (x −M) 2 = (M −x)

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Flashcard 1480560872716

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
When the distribution refers to credibility of values, then the [...] is another way of measuring uncertainty of beliefs. If the HDI is wide, then beliefs are uncertain. If the HDI is narrow, then beliefs are relatively certain.
Answer
width of the HDI


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When the distribution refers to credibility of values, then the width of the HDI is another way of measuring uncertainty of beliefs. If the HDI is wide, then beliefs are uncertain. If the HDI is narrow, then beliefs are relatively certain.

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Flashcard 1480562445580

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A better gloss of [...] is, “among all joint outcomes with value y, this proportion of them also has value x.”
Answer
p(x|y)


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A better gloss of p(x|y) is, “among all joint outcomes with value y, this proportion of them also has value x.”

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Flashcard 1480564018444

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A better gloss of p(x|y) is, “[...].”
Answer
among all joint outcomes with value y, this proportion of them also has value x


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A better gloss of p(x|y) is, “among all joint outcomes with value y, this proportion of them also has value x.”

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Flashcard 1480565591308

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
Among other contexts, independence will come up when we are constructing mathematical descriptions of our beliefs about more than one parameter. We will create a mathematical description of our beliefs about one parameter, and another mathematical description of our beliefs about the other parameter. Then, to describe what we believe about combinations of parameters, we will often assume independence, and simply [...] to specify the joint credibilities
Answer
multiply the separate credibilities


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l description of our beliefs about one parameter, and another mathematical description of our beliefs about the other parameter. Then, to describe what we believe about combinations of parameters, we will often assume independence, and simply <span>multiply the separate credibilities to specify the joint credibilities<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480567164172

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
energy is stored as chemical-bond energy in a small set of activated “[...],” which contain one or more energy- rich covalent bonds. These molecules diffuse rapidly throughout the cell and thereby carry their bond energy from sites of energy generation to the sites where the energy will be used for biosynthesis and other cell activities
Answer
carrier molecules


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energy is stored as chemical-bond energy in a small set of activated “carrier molecules,” which contain one or more energy- rich covalent bonds. These molecules diffuse rapidly throughout the cell and thereby carry their bond energy from sites of energy generation to the

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Flashcard 1480568737036

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
energy is stored as chemical-bond energy in a small set of activated “carrier molecules,” which contain one or more [...]. These molecules diffuse rapidly throughout the cell and thereby carry their bond energy from sites of energy generation to the sites where the energy will be used for biosynthesis and other cell activities
Answer
energy- rich covalent bonds


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energy is stored as chemical-bond energy in a small set of activated “carrier molecules,” which contain one or more energy- rich covalent bonds. These molecules diffuse rapidly throughout the cell and thereby carry their bond energy from sites of energy generation to the sites where the energy will be used for biosynthesis an

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Flashcard 1480570309900

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
[...] of the terminal phosphate of ATP yields between 46 and 54 kJ/mole of usable energy
Answer
Hydrolysis


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Hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate of ATP yields between 46 and 54 kJ/mole of usable energy

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Flashcard 1480571882764

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate of ATP yields between [...] of usable energy
Answer
46 and 54 kJ/mole


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Hydrolysis of the terminal phosphate of ATP yields between 46 and 54 kJ/mole of usable energy

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Flashcard 1480573455628

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The large negative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: [...], and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by resonance and by favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.
Answer
release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges


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The large negative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by resonance and by favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.

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Flashcard 1480575028492

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The large negative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the [...] by resonance and by favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.
Answer
inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized


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The large negative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by resonance and by favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.

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Flashcard 1480576601356

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The large negative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by [...] and by favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.
Answer
resonance


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gative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by <span>resonance and by favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480578174220

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The large negative ΔG of the ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by resonance and by [...]
Answer
favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.


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ATP hydrolysis reaction arises from several factors: release of the terminal phosphate group removes an unfavorable repulsion between adjacent negative charges, and the inorganic phosphate ion (P i ) released is stabilized by resonance and by <span>favorable hydrogen-bond formation with water.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480582892812

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The genesis of NADH from NAD + , and of NADPH from NADP + , occur by different pathways and are independently regulated, so that the cell can [...]
Answer
adjust the supply of electrons for these two contrasting purpose


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The genesis of NADH from NAD + , and of NADPH from NADP + , occur by different pathways and are independently regulated, so that the cell can adjust the supply of electrons for these two contrasting purpose

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Flashcard 1480584465676

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Does the extra phospate group in NADPH have any effect on electron transfer, why or why not?
Answer
The extra phosphate group on NADPH has no effect on the electron-trans- fer properties of NADPH compared with NADH, being far away from the region involved in electron transfer


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The extra phosphate group on NADPH has no effect on the electron-trans- fer properties of NADPH compared with NADH, being far away from the region involved in electron transfer

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Flashcard 1480587611404

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In [...], as in other carrier molecules, the transferable group makes up only a small part of the molecule. The rest consists of a large organic portion that serves as a convenient “handle,” facilitating the recognition of the carrier mole- cule by specific enzymes.
Answer
acetyl CoA


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In acetyl CoA, as in other carrier molecules, the transferable group makes up only a small part of the molecule. The rest consists of a large organic portion that serves as a convenient “handle,” f

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Flashcard 1480589184268

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In acetyl CoA, as in other carrier molecules, the transferable group makes up only a small part of the molecule. The rest consists of a [...] that serves as a convenient “handle,” facilitating the recognition of the carrier mole- cule by specific enzymes.
Answer
large organic portion


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In acetyl CoA, as in other carrier molecules, the transferable group makes up only a small part of the molecule. The rest consists of a large organic portion that serves as a convenient “handle,” facilitating the recognition of the carrier mole- cule by specific enzymes.

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Flashcard 1480590757132

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
In acetyl CoA, as in other carrier molecules, the transferable group makes up only a small part of the molecule. The rest consists of a large organic portion that serves as a [...]
Answer
convenient “handle,” facilitating the recognition of the carrier mole- cule by specific enzymes.


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In acetyl CoA, as in other carrier molecules, the transferable group makes up only a small part of the molecule. The rest consists of a large organic portion that serves as a convenient “handle,” facilitating the recognition of the carrier mole- cule by specific enzymes.

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Flashcard 1480592329996

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For some biosynthetic reactions, however, even [energy released by ATP hydrolysis] does not provide enough of a driving force. In these cases, the path of ATP hydrolysis can be altered so that it initially produces AMP and pyrophos- phate (PP i ), which is itself then hydrolyzed in a subsequent step (Figure 2–42). The whole process makes available a total free-energy change of about –100 kJ/ mole.
Answer
–50 kJ/mole


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For some biosynthetic reactions, however, even –50 kJ/mole does not provide enough of a driving force. In these cases, the path of ATP hydrolysis can be altered so that it initially produces AMP and pyrophos- phate (PP i ), which is itself the

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Flashcard 1480595475724

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
For some biosynthetic reactions, however, even –50 kJ/mole does not provide enough of a driving force. In these cases, the path of ATP hydrolysis can be altered so that it initially produces AMP and pyrophos- phate (PP i ), which is itself then hydrolyzed in a subsequent step (Figure 2–42). The whole process makes available a total free-energy change of about [...]
Answer
–100 kJ/ mole.


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e path of ATP hydrolysis can be altered so that it initially produces AMP and pyrophos- phate (PP i ), which is itself then hydrolyzed in a subsequent step (Figure 2–42). The whole process makes available a total free-energy change of about <span>–100 kJ/ mole.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480597048588

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
Sev eral artificial in telligence pro jects hav e sought to hard-co de knowledge ab out the worl d in formal languages. A computer can reason ab out statements in these formal languages automatically using logical inference rules. This is known as the [...] approac h to artificial in telligence.
Answer
kno wledge base


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artificial in telligence pro jects hav e sought to hard-co de knowledge ab out the worl d in formal languages. A computer can reason ab out statements in these formal languages automatically using logical inference rules. This is known as the <span>kno wledge base approac h to artificial in telligence.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480598621452

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
Sev eral artificial in telligence pro jects hav e sought to [...]. A computer can reason ab out statements in these formal languages automatically using logical inference rules. This is known as the kno wledge base approac h to artificial in telligence.
Answer
hard-co de knowledge ab out the worl d in formal languages


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Sev eral artificial in telligence pro jects hav e sought to hard-co de knowledge ab out the worl d in formal languages. A computer can reason ab out statements in these formal languages automatically using logical inference rules. This is known as the kno wledge base approac h to artificial in telligence

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Flashcard 1480600194316

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
he difficulties faced by systems relying on hard-co ded knowledge suggest that AI systems need the ability to acquire their own kno wledge, b y extracting patterns from ra w data. This capability is known as [...]
Answer
mac hine learning


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he difficulties faced by systems relying on hard-co ded knowledge suggest that AI systems need the ability to acquire their own kno wledge, b y extracting patterns from ra w data. This capability is known as mac hine learning

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Flashcard 1480601767180

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
The p erformance of these simple machine learning algorithms dep ends heavily on the [...] they are giv en
Answer
represen tation of the data


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The p erformance of these simple machine learning algorithms dep ends heavily on the represen tation of the data they are giv en

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Flashcard 1480603340044

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
One solution to this problem is to use machine learning to disco v er not only the mapping from represen tation to output but also [...]. This approac h is kno wn as represen tation learning .
Answer
the representation itself


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One solution to this problem is to use machine learning to disco v er not only the mapping from represen tation to output but also the representation itself. This approac h is kno wn as represen tation learning .

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Flashcard 1480604912908

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
One solution to this problem is to use machine learning to disco v er not only the mapping from represen tation to output but also the representation itself. This approac h is kno wn as [...]
Answer
represen tation learning .


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One solution to this problem is to use machine learning to disco v er not only the mapping from represen tation to output but also the representation itself. This approac h is kno wn as represen tation learning .

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Flashcard 1480606485772

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
A representation learning algorithm can disco v er a go o d set of features for a simple task in [...], or a complex task in hours to mon ths. Manually designing features for a complex task requires a great deal of h uman time and effort; it can take decades for an en tire communit y of researchers
Answer
min utes


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A representation learning algorithm can disco v er a go o d set of features for a simple task in min utes, or a complex task in hours to mon ths. Manually designing features for a complex task requires a great deal of h uman time and effort; it can take decades for an en tire communit y of r

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Flashcard 1480611204364

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
During glycolysis, a glucose molecule with six carbon atoms is converted into [...] each of which contains three carbon atoms. For each glucose molecule, two molecules of ATP are hydro- lyzed to provide energy to drive the early steps, but four molecules of ATP are pro- duced in the later steps. At the end of glycolysis, there is consequently a net gain of two molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule broken down. Two molecules of the activated carrier NADH are also produced
Answer
two molecules of pyruvate,


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During glycolysis, a glucose molecule with six carbon atoms is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, each of which contains three carbon atoms. For each glucose molecule, two molecules of ATP are hydro- lyzed to provide energy to drive the early steps, but four molecules of ATP are pr

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Flashcard 1480612777228

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
During glycolysis, a glucose molecule with six carbon atoms is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, each of which contains three carbon atoms. For each glucose molecule, [...] molecules of ATP are hydro- lyzed to provide energy to drive the early steps, but four molecules of ATP are pro- duced in the later steps. At the end of glycolysis, there is consequently a net gain of two molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule broken down. Two molecules of the activated carrier NADH are also produced
Answer
two


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During glycolysis, a glucose molecule with six carbon atoms is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, each of which contains three carbon atoms. For each glucose molecule, two molecules of ATP are hydro- lyzed to provide energy to drive the early steps, but four molecules of ATP are pro- duced in the later steps. At the end of glycolysis, there is consequentl

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Flashcard 1480615922956

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
During glycolysis, a glucose molecule with six carbon atoms is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, each of which contains three carbon atoms. For each glucose molecule, two molecules of ATP are hydro- lyzed to provide energy to drive the early steps, but four molecules of ATP are pro- duced in the later steps. At the end of glycolysis, there is consequently a net gain of two molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule broken down. [...] molecules of the activated carrier NADH are also produced
Answer
Two


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e hydro- lyzed to provide energy to drive the early steps, but four molecules of ATP are pro- duced in the later steps. At the end of glycolysis, there is consequently a net gain of two molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule broken down. <span>Two molecules of the activated carrier NADH are also produced<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480620641548

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Studies of the commercially important fermentations carried out by yeasts inspired much of early biochemistry. Work in the nineteenth century led in [year] to the then startling recognition that these processes could be studied outside living organisms, in cell extracts.
Answer
1896


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Studies of the commercially important fermentations carried out by yeasts inspired much of early biochemistry. Work in the nineteenth century led in 1896 to the then startling recognition that these processes could be studied outside living organisms, in cell extracts.

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Flashcard 1480622214412

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
[...] giv es elemen t ( i, j ) of the matrix computed by applying the function to . f A
Answer
f ( A ) i,j


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f ( A ) i,j giv es elemen t ( i, j ) of the matrix computed by applying the function to . f A

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Flashcard 1480623787276

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
f ( A ) i,j giv es [...]
Answer
elemen t ( i, j ) of the matrix computed by applying the function to . f A


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f ( A ) i,j giv es elemen t ( i, j ) of the matrix computed by applying the function to . f A

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Flashcard 1480625360140

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
W e allo w the addition of matrix and a vector, yielding another matrix: [...] . In other w ords, the vector b is added to each row of the matrix.
Answer
C = A + b , where C i,j = A i,j + b j


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W e allo w the addition of matrix and a vector, yielding another matrix: C = A + b , where C i,j = A i,j + b j . In other w ords, the vector b is added to each row of the matrix.

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Flashcard 1480626933004

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
W e allo w the addition of matrix and a vector, yielding another matrix: C = A + b , where C i,j = A i,j + b j . In other w ords, the vector b is [...]
Answer
added to each row of the matrix.


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W e allo w the addition of matrix and a vector, yielding another matrix: C = A + b , where C i,j = A i,j + b j . In other w ords, the vector b is added to each row of the matrix.

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Flashcard 1480628505868

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#deeplearning #neuralnetworks
Question
The matrix pro duct of matrices A and B is a third matrix C . In order for this pro duct to b e defined, A m ust ha v e the same num b er of [...] as B has rows. If A is of shap e m n × and B is of shap e n p × , then C is of shap e m p ×
Answer
columns


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The matrix pro duct of matrices A and B is a third matrix C . In order for this pro duct to b e defined, A m ust ha v e the same num b er of columns as B has rows. If A is of shap e m n × and B is of shap e n p × , then C is of shap e m p ×

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Flashcard 1480630078732

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Question
The matrix pro duct of matrices A and B is a third matrix C . In order for this pro duct to b e defined, A m ust ha v e the same num b er of columns as B has rows. If A is of shap e m n × and B is of shap e n p × , then C is of shap e [...]
Answer
m p ×


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an>The matrix pro duct of matrices A and B is a third matrix C . In order for this pro duct to b e defined, A m ust ha v e the same num b er of columns as B has rows. If A is of shap e m n × and B is of shap e n p × , then C is of shap e m p ×<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480631651596

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Question
The pro duct op eration is defined b y [...]
Answer
\(C_{i,j} = \sum_k {A_{i,k} B_{k,j}}\)


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The pro duct op eration is defined b y C i,j = k A i,k B k,j .

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Flashcard 1480633224460

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The [...] b et ween t w o vectors x and y of the same dimensionality is the matrix pro duct x y . W e can think of the matrix product C = AB as computing C i,j as the dot pro duct b et w een ro w of and column of . i A j B
Answer
dot product


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The dot product b et ween t w o vectors x and y of the same dimensionality is the matrix pro duct x y . W e can think of the matrix product C = AB as computing C i,j as the dot pro duct b et w een ro

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Flashcard 1480634797324

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Question
The dot product b et ween t w o vectors x and y of the same dimensionality is the matrix pro duct x y . W e can think of the matrix product C = AB as [...]
Answer
computing C i,j as the dot pro duct b et w een ro w of and column of . i A j B


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The dot product b et ween t w o vectors x and y of the same dimensionality is the matrix pro duct x y . W e can think of the matrix product C = AB as computing C i,j as the dot pro duct b et w een ro w of and column of . i A j B

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Flashcard 1480636370188

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Question
Linear algebra offers a p o w erful to ol called [...] that allo ws us to analytically solv e equation for many v alues of . 2.11 A
Answer
matrix in v ersion


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Linear algebra offers a p o w erful to ol called matrix in v ersion that allo ws us to analytically solv e equation for many v alues of . 2.11 A

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Flashcard 1480637943052

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Question
Linear algebra offers a p o w erful to ol called matrix in v ersion that allo ws us to [...]
Answer
analytically solv e equation for many v alues of . 2.11 A


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Linear algebra offers a p o w erful to ol called matrix in v ersion that allo ws us to analytically solv e equation for many v alues of . 2.11 A

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Flashcard 1480639515916

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An [...] matrix is a matrix that do es not c hange an y vector when we m ultiply that vector by that matrix. W e denote the iden tit y matrix that preserves n -dimensional v ectors as I n . F ormally , I n ∈ R n n × , and ∀ ∈ x R n , I n x x =
Answer
iden tit y


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An iden tit y matrix is a matrix that do es not c hange an y vector when we m ultiply that vector by that matrix. W e denote the iden tit y matrix that preserves n -dimensional v ectors as I n . F or

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Flashcard 1480641088780

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An iden tit y matrix is a matrix that do es not c hange an y vector when we m ultiply that vector by that matrix. W e denote the iden tit y matrix that preserves n -dimensional v ectors as [...] .
Answer
In


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An iden tit y matrix is a matrix that do es not c hange an y vector when we m ultiply that vector by that matrix. W e denote the iden tit y matrix that preserves n -dimensional v ectors as I n . F ormally , I n ∈ R n n × , and ∀ ∈ x R n , I n x x =

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Flashcard 1480642661644

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Question
The structure of the identit y matrix is simple: [...]
Answer
all of the entries along the main diagonal are 1, while all of the other entries are zero


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The structure of the identit y matrix is simple: all of the entries along the main diagonal are 1, while all of the other entries are zero

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Flashcard 1480644234508

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Question
The matrix in verse of A is denoted as [...]
Answer
A-1


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The matrix in verse of A is denoted as A − 1 , and it is defined as the matrix suc h that A − 1 A I = n

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Flashcard 1480645807372

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The matrix in verse of A is denoted as A-1 , and it is defined as [...]
Answer
the matrix suc h that \(A ^{-1} A = I_n\)


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The matrix in verse of A is denoted as A − 1 , and it is defined as the matrix suc h that A − 1 A I = n

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Flashcard 1480647380236

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How ever, A − 1 is primarily useful as a theoretical to ol, and should not actually b e used in practice for most softw are applications. Because A − 1 can b e represented with [...] on a digital computer, algorithms that make use of the v alue of b can usually obtain more accurate estimates of . x
Answer
only limited precision


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How ever, A − 1 is primarily useful as a theoretical to ol, and should not actually b e used in practice for most softw are applications. Because A − 1 can b e represented with only limited precision on a digital computer, algorithms that make use of the v alue of b can usually obtain more accurate estimates of . x

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Flashcard 1480650525964

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
he citric acid cycle accounts for about [...] of the total oxidation of carbon compounds in most cells
Answer
two-thirds


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he citric acid cycle accounts for about two-thirds of the total oxidation of carbon compounds in most cells

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Flashcard 1480652098828

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Question
he citric acid cycle accounts for about two-thirds of the [...] in most cells
Answer
total oxidation of carbon compounds


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he citric acid cycle accounts for about two-thirds of the total oxidation of carbon compounds in most cells

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Flashcard 1480653671692

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he [...] accounts for about two-thirds of the total oxidation of carbon compounds in most cells
Answer
citric acid cycle


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he citric acid cycle accounts for about two-thirds of the total oxidation of carbon compounds in most cells

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Flashcard 1480655244556

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Question
Most organic nitrogen [...]. Thus, present-day nitrogen-fixing reactions can be said to perform a “topping-up” function for the total nitrogen supply
Answer
has been in circulation for some time, passing from one living organism to another


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Most organic nitrogen has been in circulation for some time, passing from one living organism to another. Thus, present-day nitrogen-fixing reactions can be said to perform a “topping-up” function for the total nitrogen supply

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Flashcard 1480656817420

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Question
Most organic nitrogen has been in circulation for some time, passing from one living organism to another. Thus, present-day nitrogen-fixing reactions can be said to perform a [...] function for the total nitrogen supply
Answer
“topping-up”


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Most organic nitrogen has been in circulation for some time, passing from one living organism to another. Thus, present-day nitrogen-fixing reactions can be said to perform a “topping-up” function for the total nitrogen supply

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Flashcard 1480658390284

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THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS MBoC6 m2.87/2.62 [...] Figure 2–62 The nine essential amino acids.
Answer
THREONINE METHIONINE VALINE HISTIDINE LYSINE LEUCINE ISOLEUCINE PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN


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THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS MBoC6 m2.87/2.62 THREONINE METHIONINE LYSINE VALINE LEUCINE ISOLEUCINE HISTIDINE PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN Figure 2–62 The nine essential amino acids.

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Flashcard 1480659963148

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Question
In contrast, [...] cells supply glucose to actively contracting muscle cells and recycle the lactic acid produced by muscle cells back into glucose.
Answer
liver


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In contrast, liver cells supply glucose to actively contracting muscle cells and recycle the lactic acid produced by muscle cells back into glucose.

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Flashcard 1480663108876

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Question
In contrast, liver cells supply glucose to actively contracting muscle cells and [...] produced by muscle cells back into glucose.
Answer
recycle the lactic acid


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In contrast, liver cells supply glucose to actively contracting muscle cells and recycle the lactic acid produced by muscle cells back into glucose.

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Flashcard 1480664681740

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Question
Is the shared chemistry inside all living cells a clue for deciphering the environment on Earth where the first cells originated? For example, what might we conclude from the universally shared [...], neutral pH, and central role of phosphates?
Answer
high K + /Na + ratio


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Is the shared chemistry inside all living cells a clue for deciphering the environment on Earth where the first cells originated? For example, what might we conclude from the universally shared high K + /Na + ratio, neutral pH, and central role of phosphates?

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Flashcard 1480666254604

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Question
Is the shared chemistry inside all living cells a clue for deciphering the environment on Earth where the first cells originated? For example, what might we conclude from the universally shared high K + /Na + ratio, [...], and central role of phosphates?
Answer
neutral pH


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ad>Is the shared chemistry inside all living cells a clue for deciphering the environment on Earth where the first cells originated? For example, what might we conclude from the universally shared high K + /Na + ratio, neutral pH, and central role of phosphates?<html>

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Flashcard 1480667827468

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Question
Is the shared chemistry inside all living cells a clue for deciphering the environment on Earth where the first cells originated? For example, what might we conclude from the universally shared high K + /Na + ratio, neutral pH, and [...]?
Answer
central role of phosphates


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pan>Is the shared chemistry inside all living cells a clue for deciphering the environment on Earth where the first cells originated? For example, what might we conclude from the universally shared high K + /Na + ratio, neutral pH, and <span>central role of phosphates?<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480669400332

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Question
Even at 37 o C, 15% of the water molecules are joined to four others in a short-lived assembly known as a [...].
Answer
“flickering cluster


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Even at 37 o C, 15% of the water molecules are joined to four others in a short-lived assembly known as a “flickering cluster.

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Flashcard 1480670973196

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Even at 37 o C, [...]% of the water molecules are joined to four others in a short-lived assembly known as a “flickering cluster.
Answer
15%


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Even at 37 o C, 15% of the water molecules are joined to four others in a short-lived assembly known as a “flickering cluster.

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Flashcard 1480672546060

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Question
Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP using [...] enzyme to form a sugar phosphate. The negative charge of the phosphate prevents passage of the sugar phosphate through the plasma membrane, trapping glucose inside the cell
Answer
hexokinase


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Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP using hexokinase enzyme to form a sugar phosphate. The negative charge of the phosphate prevents passage of the sugar phosphate through the plasma membrane, trapping glucose inside the cell

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Flashcard 1480674118924

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Question
Glucose is [...] using hexokinase enzyme to form a sugar phosphate. The negative charge of the phosphate prevents passage of the sugar phosphate through the plasma membrane, trapping glucose inside the cell
Answer
phosphorylated by ATP


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Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP using hexokinase enzyme to form a sugar phosphate. The negative charge of the phosphate prevents passage of the sugar phosphate through the plasma membrane, trapping glucose inside the

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Flashcard 1480675691788

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP using hexokinase enzyme to form a sugar phosphate. The negative charge of the phosphate [...]
Answer
prevents passage of the sugar phosphate through the plasma membrane, trapping glucose inside the cell


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Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP using hexokinase enzyme to form a sugar phosphate. The negative charge of the phosphate prevents passage of the sugar phosphate through the plasma membrane, trapping glucose inside the cell

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Flashcard 1480686701836

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Question
The [...] from 2-phosphoglycerate creates a high-energy enol phosphate linkage.
Answer
removal of water


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The removal of water from 2-phosphoglycerate creates a high-energy enol phosphate linkage.

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Flashcard 1480688274700

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Question
Proteins come in a wide variety of shapes, and most are between [...] amino acids long.
Answer
50 and 2000


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Proteins come in a wide variety of shapes, and most are between 50 and 2000 amino acids long.

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Flashcard 1480689847564

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A model of data specifies the probability of particular data values given the model’s structure and parameter values. The model also indicates the probability of the various parameter values. In other words, a model specifies [...] along with the prior, p(parameters values)
Answer
p(data values | parameters values)


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body>A model of data specifies the probability of particular data values given the model’s structure and parameter values. The model also indicates the probability of the various parameter values. In other words, a model specifies p(data values | parameters values) along with the prior, p(parameters values)<body><html>

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Flashcard 1480691420428

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
A model of data specifies the probability of particular data values given the model’s structure and parameter values. The model also indicates the probability of the various parameter values. In other words, a model specifies p(data values | parameters values) along with the [...]
Answer
prior, p(parameters values)


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bability of particular data values given the model’s structure and parameter values. The model also indicates the probability of the various parameter values. In other words, a model specifies p(data values | parameters values) along with the <span>prior, p(parameters values)<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480720518412

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
we use Bayes’ rule to convert that to what we really want to know, which is [...]
Answer
how strongly we should believe in the various parameter values, given the data: p(parameters values | data values


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we use Bayes’ rule to convert that to what we really want to know, which is how strongly we should believe in the various parameter values, given the data: p(parameters values | data values

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Flashcard 1480722091276

Tags
#matlab #programming
Question
Instead of a semi-colon, you can use a [...] to indicate the end of arow
Answer
line-feed (Enter)


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Instead of a semi-colon, you can use a line-feed (Enter) to indicate the end of arow

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Flashcard 1480723664140

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#matlab #programming
Question
Instead of a semi-colon, you can use a line-feed (Enter) to indicate the [...]
Answer
end of arow


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Instead of a semi-colon, you can use a line-feed (Enter) to indicate the end of arow

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Flashcard 1480725237004

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#matlab #programming
Question
The keyword [...] refers to the last row or column of an array
Answer
end


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The keyword end refers to the last row or column of an array

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Flashcard 1480726809868

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#matlab #programming
Question
The keyword end refers to [...]
Answer
the last row or column of an array


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The keyword end refers to the last row or column of an array

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Flashcard 1480728382732

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#matlab #programming
Question
Sometimes it is useful to generate a matrix where all the rows or columns are the same. This can be done with the [...] function
Answer
repmat


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Sometimes it is useful to generate a matrix where all the rows or columns are the same. This can be done with the repmat function

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Flashcard 1480733101324

Tags
#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The denominator of Bayes’ rule, labeled in Equation 5.7 as the evidence for the model, is also called the [...]
Answer
marginal likelihood.


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The denominator of Bayes’ rule, labeled in Equation 5.7 as the evidence for the model, is also called the marginal likelihood.

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Flashcard 1480734674188

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#matlab #programming
Question
You can use logical vectors to extract a [...] from a ma- trix, for example, if a is the original 3-by-3 matrix defined above, the statement a(:, logical([1 0 1])) results in ans = 13 46 79 (first and third columns extracted)
Answer
selection of rows or columns


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You can use logical vectors to extract a selection of rows or columns from a ma- trix, for example, if a is the original 3-by-3 matrix defined above, the statement a(:, logical([1 0 1])) results in ans = 13 46 79 (first and third columns extracted)

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Flashcard 1480736247052

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#matlab #programming
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the statement all(a) results in ans = 001 For each column of a where all the elements are true (non-zero) all returns 1, otherwise it returns 0. all therefore returns a logical vector when it takes a matrix argument. To test if all the elements of a are true, [...]
Answer
use all twice


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(a) results in ans = 001 For each column of a where all the elements are true (non-zero) all returns 1, otherwise it returns 0. all therefore returns a logical vector when it takes a matrix argument. To test if all the elements of a are true, <span>use all twice<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480737819916

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#matlab #programming
Question
[...] flips from left to right
Answer
fliplr


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fliplr flips from left to right

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Flashcard 1480739392780

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#matlab #programming
Question
fliplr [...]
Answer
flips from left to right


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fliplr flips from left to right

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Flashcard 1480740965644

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#matlab #programming
Question
[...] flips from top to bottom
Answer
flipud


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flipud flips from top to bottom

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Flashcard 1480742538508

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#matlab #programming
Question
flipud [...]
Answer
flips from top to bottom


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flipud flips from top to bottom

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Flashcard 1480744111372

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#matlab #programming
Question
[...] extracts the lower triangular part
Answer
tril


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tril extracts the lower triangular part

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Flashcard 1480745684236

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#matlab #programming
Question
tril [...]
Answer
extracts the lower triangular part


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tril extracts the lower triangular part

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Flashcard 1480750402828

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#matlab #programming
Question
The matrix operation A 2 means [...]whereA must be a square matrix. The operator ^ is used for matrix exponentiation
Answer
A × A,


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The matrix operation A 2 means A × A,whereA must be a square matrix. The operator ^ is used for matrix exponentiation

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Flashcard 1480751975692

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#matlab #programming
Question
The matrix operation A 2 means A × A,whereA must be a square matrix. The operator [...] is used for matrix exponentiation
Answer
^


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The matrix operation A 2 means A × A,whereA must be a square matrix. The operator ^ is used for matrix exponentiation

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det determinant.

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det determinant. eig eigenvalue decomposition. expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differenti

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eig eigenvalue decomposition

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det determinant. eig eigenvalue decomposition. expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant co

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expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients

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det determinant. eig eigenvalue decomposition. expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. inv inverse. lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices). qr orthogonal factorization. svd singular value decomposition

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inv inverse.

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det determinant. eig eigenvalue decomposition. expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. <span>inv inverse. lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices). qr orthogonal factorization. svd singular value decomposition<span><body><html>

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lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices).

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nt. eig eigenvalue decomposition. expm matrix exponential, i.e., e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. inv inverse. <span>lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices). qr orthogonal factorization. svd singular value decomposition<span><body><html>

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qr orthogonal factorization

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e A ,whereA is a matrix. The matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. inv inverse. lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices). <span>qr orthogonal factorization. svd singular value decomposition<span><body><html>

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svd singular value decomposition

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matrix exponen- tial may be used to evaluate analytical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. inv inverse. lu LU factorization (into lower and upper triangular matrices). qr orthogonal factorization. <span>svd singular value decomposition<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480764558604

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the [...] was found in the protein α-keratin, which is abundant in skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.
Answer
α helix,


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The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the α helix, was found in the protein α-keratin, which is abundant in skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.

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Flashcard 1480766131468

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the α helix, was found in the protein [...], which is abundant in skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.
Answer
α-keratin


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The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the α helix, was found in the protein α-keratin, which is abundant in skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.

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Flashcard 1480767704332

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the α helix, was found in the protein α-keratin, which is abundant in [...]
Answer
skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.


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The first folding pattern to be discovered, called the α helix, was found in the protein α-keratin, which is abundant in skin and its derivatives—such as hair, nails, and horns.

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Flashcard 1480769277196

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
The terms [...] apply even when there is only a partial shift of electrons between atoms linked by a covalent bond
Answer
“oxidation” and “reduction”


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The terms “oxidation” and “reduction” apply even when there is only a partial shift of electrons between atoms linked by a covalent bond

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Flashcard 1480770850060

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
An enzyme will often catalyze the reaction of [...] of substrate molecules every second. This means that it must be able to bind a new substrate molecule in a fraction of a millisecond. But both enzymes and their substrates are present in relatively small numbers in a cell. How do they find each other so fast? Rapid binding is possible because the motions caused by heat energy are enormously fast at the molecular level.
Answer
thousands


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An enzyme will often catalyze the reaction of thousands of substrate molecules every second. This means that it must be able to bind a new substrate molecule in a fraction of a millisecond. But both enzymes and their substrates are present

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Flashcard 1480772422924

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
An enzyme will often catalyze the reaction of thousands of substrate molecules every second. This means that it must be able to bind a new substrate molecule in a fraction of a millisecond. But both enzymes and their substrates are present in relatively small numbers in a cell. How do they find each other so fast? Rapid binding is possible because [...]
Answer
the motions caused by heat energy are enormously fast at the molecular level.


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t must be able to bind a new substrate molecule in a fraction of a millisecond. But both enzymes and their substrates are present in relatively small numbers in a cell. How do they find each other so fast? Rapid binding is possible because <span>the motions caused by heat energy are enormously fast at the molecular level. <span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480773995788

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
These molecular motions can be classified broadly into three kinds: (1) [...] (2) the rapid back-and-forth movement of covalently linked atoms with respect to one another (vibrations), and (3) rotations.
Answer
the movement of a molecule from one place to another (transla- tional motion),


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These molecular motions can be classified broadly into three kinds: (1) the movement of a molecule from one place to another (transla- tional motion), (2) the rapid back-and-forth movement of covalently linked atoms with respect to one another (vibrations), and (3) rotations.

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Flashcard 1480775568652

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
These molecular motions can be classified broadly into three kinds: (1) the movement of a molecule from one place to another (transla- tional motion), (2) [...], and (3) rotations.
Answer
the rapid back-and-forth movement of covalently linked atoms with respect to one another (vibrations)


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These molecular motions can be classified broadly into three kinds: (1) the movement of a molecule from one place to another (transla- tional motion), (2) the rapid back-and-forth movement of covalently linked atoms with respect to one another (vibrations), and (3) rotations.

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Flashcard 1480777141516

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#biochem #biology #cell
Question
These molecular motions can be classified broadly into three kinds: (1) the movement of a molecule from one place to another (transla- tional motion), (2) the rapid back-and-forth movement of covalently linked atoms with respect to one another (vibrations), and (3) [...]
Answer
rotations.


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an be classified broadly into three kinds: (1) the movement of a molecule from one place to another (transla- tional motion), (2) the rapid back-and-forth movement of covalently linked atoms with respect to one another (vibrations), and (3) <span>rotations.<span><body><html>

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Flashcard 1480778714380

Tags
#biochem #biology #cell
Question
A large globular protein is constantly tumbling, rotating about its axis about a [...] times per second
Answer
million


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A large globular protein is constantly tumbling, rotating about its axis about a million times per second

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