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#### Flashcard 1425516662028

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GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring [...] the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.
within

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GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

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2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch

#### Flashcard 1425521380620

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GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects [...] , [...], and the investment environment.
employment

growth

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GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

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2.1. Basic Terminology
f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch

#### Flashcard 1426252238092

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#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4
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Overall, Study Session [...]. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.
4

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Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

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Study Session 4
nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>

#### Flashcard 1426261675276

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Because each country exports and imports [...], the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number
a large number of goods and services

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Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number

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2.1. Basic Terminology
e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel

#### Flashcard 1430731230476

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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-2-consumer-theory-from-preferences-to-demand-function #study-session-4-microeconomics-analysis
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Although consumer choice theory attempts to model consumers’ preferences or tastes, it does not have much to say about [...].
why consumers have the tastes and preferences they have

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Although consumer choice theory attempts to model consumers’ preferences or tastes, it does not have much to say about why consumers have the tastes and preferences they have.

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2. CONSUMER THEORY: FROM PREFERENCES TO DEMAND FUNCTIONS
to what the consumer can do, we arrive at a model of what the consumer would do under various circumstances. Then by changing prices and income, the model develops consumer demand as a logical extension of consumer choice theory. <span>Although consumer choice theory attempts to model consumers’ preferences or tastes, it does not have much to say about why consumers have the tastes and preferences they have. It still makes assumptions, but does so at a more fundamental level. Instead of assuming the existence of a demand curve, it derives a demand curve as an implication of assumptions abou

#### Flashcard 1431551479052

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#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4
Question
When a consumer assigns a number to his prefered bundles, we have two sets of numbers. One set consists of [...]. The other is the set of numerical quantities of the goods that are contained in each of the respective bundles.
the pieces of paper he has laid on the bundles

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When a consumer assigns a number to his prefered bundles, we have two sets of numbers. One set consists of the pieces of paper he has laid on the bundles. The other is the set of numerical quantities of the goods that are contained in each of the respective bundles.

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3. UTILITY THEORY: MODELING PREFERENCES AND TASTES
them, he must assign the same number to both. Other than that, he is free to begin with any number he wants for the first bundle he considers. In this way, he is simply ordering the bundles according to his preferences over them. <span>Of course, each of these possible bundles has a specific quantity of each of the goods and services. So, we have two sets of numbers. One set consists of the pieces of paper he has laid on the bundles. The other is the set of numerical quantities of the goods that are contained in each of the respective bundles. Under “reasonable assumptions” (the definition of which is not necessary for us to delve into at this level), it is possible to come up with a rule that translates the quantities of goo

#### Flashcard 1480658390284

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#biochem #biology #cell
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THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS MBoC6 m2.87/2.62 [...] Figure 2–62 The nine essential amino acids.
THREONINE METHIONINE VALINE HISTIDINE LYSINE LEUCINE ISOLEUCINE PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN

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THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS MBoC6 m2.87/2.62 THREONINE METHIONINE LYSINE VALINE LEUCINE ISOLEUCINE HISTIDINE PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN Figure 2–62 The nine essential amino acids.

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#### Annotation 1482272410892

 #bayes #programming #r #statistics The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$

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#### Flashcard 1484551752972

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#biochem #biology #cell
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A surprisingly large fraction of pro- teins have the potential to form Amyloid fibril structures, because [...] (Figure 3–32). However, very few proteins will actually form this structure inside cells
the short segment of the polypeptide chain that forms the spine of the fibril can have a variety of different sequences and follow one of several different paths

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A surprisingly large fraction of pro- teins have the potential to form such structures, because the short segment of the polypeptide chain that forms the spine of the fibril can have a variety of different sequences and follow one of several different paths (Figure 3–32). However, very few proteins will actually form this structure inside cells

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#### Flashcard 1489599335692

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#matlab #programming
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You can return to the default of automatic axis scaling with [...]
axis auto

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You can return to the default of automatic axis scaling with axis auto

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#### Flashcard 1489600908556

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#matlab #programming
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You can [...] with axis auto
return to the default of automatic axis scaling

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You can return to the default of automatic axis scaling with axis auto

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#### Flashcard 1489605365004

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
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The ratio of the transition probabilities is [...] =
$$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

$$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$
$$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$

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The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = $$\frac{P(\t #### Original toplevel document (pdf) cannot see any pdfs #### Flashcard 1489606937868 Tags #bayes #programming #r #statistics Question The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ =
[...] (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

$$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$
$$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$

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The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$ </b

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#### Flashcard 1489608510732

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
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The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ =
$$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$

[...] $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$
(if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

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The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$

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#### Flashcard 1489610083596

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
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The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ =
$$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

[...] (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$
$$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$

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>The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$ <span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1489611656460

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
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The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ =
$$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

$$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$
[...]
= $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$
(if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

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abilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ <span>(if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = $$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$ <span><body><html>

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#### Flashcard 1489613229324

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#bayes #programming #r #statistics
Question
The ratio of the transition probabilities is $$\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}$$ =
$$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

$$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

=
[...]
$$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$
)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = $$\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)}$$ (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) $$\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}$$ (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = <span>$$\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}$$ <span><body><html>