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Tags

#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows

Question

GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring *[...]* the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

Answer

within

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GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch

Tags

#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows

Question

GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring *within* the country, which, in turn, affects **[...]** , [...], and the investment environment.

Answer

employment

growth

growth

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment.

f citizens who work abroad (for example, Pakistan and Portugal), and/or pay more for the use of foreign-owned capital in domestic production than they earn on the capital they own abroad (for example, Brazil and Canada). Therefore, <span>GDP is more widely used as a measure of economic activity occurring within the country, which, in turn, affects employment, growth, and the investment environment. Imports are goods and services that a domestic economy (i.e., households, firms, and government) purchases from other countries. For example, the US economy imports (purch

Tags

#cfa-level #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4

Question

Overall, **Study Session [...].** provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

Answer

4

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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

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Overall, Study Session 4. provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.

nsumption. Reading 15 deals with the theory of the firm, focusing on the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. That reading provides the basis for understanding the cost side of firms’ profit equation. <span>Reading 16 completes the picture by addressing revenue and explains the types of markets in which firms sell output. Overall, the study session provides the economic tools for understanding how product and resource markets function and the competitive characteristics of different industries.<span><body><html>

Tags

#cfa-level-1 #economics #economics-in-a-global-context #los #reading-20-international-trade-and-capital-flows

Question

Because each country exports and imports [...], the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number

Answer

a large number of goods and services

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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number

e to a South African diamond exporter, Britain would classify the cost of the insurance as an export of services to South Africa. Other examples of services exported/imported include engineering, consulting, and medical services. <span>The terms of trade are defined as the ratio of the price of exports to the price of imports, representing those prices by export and import price indices, respectively. The terms of trade capture the relative cost of imports in terms of exports. If the prices of exports increase relative to the prices of imports, the terms of trade have improved because the country will be able to purchase more imports with the same amount of exports.2 For example, when oil prices increased during 2007–2008, major oil exporting countries experienced an improvement in their terms of trade because they had to export less oil in order to purchase the same amount of imported goods. In contrast, if the price of exports decreases relative to the price of imports, the terms of trade have deteriorated because the country will be able to purchase fewer imports with the same amount of exports. Because each country exports and imports a large number of goods and services, the terms of trade of a country are usually measured as an index number (normalized to 100 in some base year) that represents a ratio of the average price of exported goods and services to the average price of imported goods and services. Exhibit 1shows the terms of trade reported in Salvatore (2010). A value over (under) 100 indicates that the country, or group of countries, experienced better (worse) terms of trade rel

Tags

#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-2-consumer-theory-from-preferences-to-demand-function #study-session-4-microeconomics-analysis

Question

Although consumer choice theory attempts to model consumers’ preferences or tastes, it does not have much to say about [...].

Answer

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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

Although consumer choice theory attempts to model consumers’ preferences or tastes, it does not have much to say about why consumers have the tastes and preferences they have.

to what the consumer can do, we arrive at a model of what the consumer would do under various circumstances. Then by changing prices and income, the model develops consumer demand as a logical extension of consumer choice theory. <span>Although consumer choice theory attempts to model consumers’ preferences or tastes, it does not have much to say about why consumers have the tastes and preferences they have. It still makes assumptions, but does so at a more fundamental level. Instead of assuming the existence of a demand curve, it derives a demand curve as an implication of assumptions abou

Tags

#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-14-demand-and-supply-analysis-consumer-demand #section-3-utility-theory #study-session-4

Question

When a consumer assigns a number to his prefered bundles, we have two sets of numbers. One set consists of [...]. The other is the set of numerical quantities of the goods that are contained in each of the respective bundles.

Answer

the pieces of paper he has laid on the bundles

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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

When a consumer assigns a number to his prefered bundles, we have two sets of numbers. One set consists of the pieces of paper he has laid on the bundles. The other is the set of numerical quantities of the goods that are contained in each of the respective bundles.

them, he must assign the same number to both. Other than that, he is free to begin with any number he wants for the first bundle he considers. In this way, he is simply ordering the bundles according to his preferences over them. <span>Of course, each of these possible bundles has a specific quantity of each of the goods and services. So, we have two sets of numbers. One set consists of the pieces of paper he has laid on the bundles. The other is the set of numerical quantities of the goods that are contained in each of the respective bundles. Under “reasonable assumptions” (the definition of which is not necessary for us to delve into at this level), it is possible to come up with a rule that translates the quantities of goo

Tags

#biochem #biology #cell

Question

THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS MBoC6 m2.87/2.62 [...] Figure 2–62 The nine essential amino acids.

Answer

THREONINE METHIONINE VALINE HISTIDINE LYSINE LEUCINE ISOLEUCINE PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN

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scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS MBoC6 m2.87/2.62 THREONINE METHIONINE LYSINE VALINE LEUCINE ISOLEUCINE HISTIDINE PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN Figure 2–62 The nine essential amino acids.

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) =

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

status | not read | reprioritisations | ||
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last reprioritisation on | reading queue position [%] | |||

started reading on | finished reading on |

Tags

#biochem #biology #cell

Question

A surprisingly large fraction of pro- teins have the potential to form Amyloid fibril structures, because [...] (Figure 3–32). However, very few proteins will actually form this structure inside cells

Answer

the short segment of the polypeptide chain that forms the spine of the fibril can have a variety of different sequences and follow one of several different paths

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

A surprisingly large fraction of pro- teins have the potential to form such structures, because the short segment of the polypeptide chain that forms the spine of the fibril can have a variety of different sequences and follow one of several different paths (Figure 3–32). However, very few proteins will actually form this structure inside cells

Tags

#matlab #programming

Question

You can return to the default of automatic axis scaling with [...]

Answer

axis auto

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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

You can return to the default of automatic axis scaling with axis auto

Tags

#matlab #programming

Question

You can [...] with axis auto

Answer

return to the default of automatic axis scaling

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

You can return to the default of automatic axis scaling with axis auto

Tags

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

Question

The ratio of the transition probabilities is [...] =

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

Answer

\(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\)

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = \(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = \(\frac{P(\t

Tags

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

Question

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) =

[...] (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

[...] (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

Answer

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \)

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = \(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\) </b

Tags

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

Question

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) =

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \)

[...] \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \)

[...] \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

Answer

(if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = \(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

Tags

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

Question

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) =

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

[...] (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

[...] (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

Answer

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\)

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

>The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = \(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\) <span><body><html>

Tags

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

Question

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) =

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\)

[...]

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\)

[...]

= \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

Answer

(if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

abilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = \(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) <span>(if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = \(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\) <span><body><html>

Tags

#bayes #programming #r #statistics

Question

The ratio of the transition probabilities is \(\frac{p(θ → θ +1)}{ p(θ +1 → θ)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) =

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

=

[...]

\(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta))

\(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta))

=

[...]

Answer

\(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\)

status | not learned | measured difficulty | 37% [default] | last interval [days] | |||
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repetition number in this series | 0 | memorised on | scheduled repetition | ||||

scheduled repetition interval | last repetition or drill |

)} = \frac{0.5 min ( P(θ +1)/P(θ),1 )}{ 0.5 min ( P(θ)/P(θ +1),1 )}\) = \(\frac {1} {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} \) (if P(\theta+1) > P(\theta)) \(\frac {P(\theta)/P(\theta+1)} {1}\) (if P(\theta+1) < P(\theta)) = <span>\(\frac{P(\theta+1)} {P(\theta)}\) <span><body><html>