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Flashcard 1439826840844

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #factors-that-determine-market-structures #microeconomics #reading-16-the-firm-and-market-structures #section-2-analysis-of-mkt-structures #study-session-4
Question
In the case of monopolistic competition If a firm is successful in differentiating its product, the differentiation will provide [...].
Answer
pricing leverage

The more dissimilar the product appears, the more the market will resemble the monopoly market structure.


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s with perfect competition. However, one firm’s product is differentiated in some way that makes it appear better than similar products from other firms. If a firm is successful in differentiating its product, the differentiation will provide <span>pricing leverage. The more dissimilar the product appears, the more the market will resemble the monopoly market structure. A firm can differentiate its product through aggressive advertising campaigns;

Original toplevel document

2. ANALYSIS OF MARKET STRUCTURES
d monopoly is the local electrical power provider. In most cases, the monopoly power provider is allowed to earn a normal return on its investment and prices are set by the regulatory authority to allow that return. <span>2.2. Factors That Determine Market Structure Five factors determine market structure: The number and relative size of firms supplying the product; The degree of product differentiation; The power of the seller over pricing decisions; The relative strength of the barriers to market entry and exit; and The degree of non-price competition. The number and relative size of firms in a market influence market structure. If there are many firms, the degree of competition increases. With fewer firms supplying a good or service, consumers are limited in their market choices. One extreme case is the monopoly market structure, with only one firm supplying a unique good or service. Another extreme is perfect competition, with many firms supplying a similar product. Finally, an example of relative size is the automobile industry, in which a small number of large international producers (e.g., Ford and Toyota) are the leaders in the global market, and a number of small companies either have market power because they are niche players (e.g., Ferrari) or have little market power because of their narrow range of models or limited geographical presence (e.g., Škoda). In the case of monopolistic competition, there are many firms providing products to the market, as with perfect competition. However, one firm’s product is differentiated in some way that makes it appear better than similar products from other firms. If a firm is successful in differentiating its product, the differentiation will provide pricing leverage. The more dissimilar the product appears, the more the market will resemble the monopoly market structure. A firm can differentiate its product through aggressive advertising campaigns; frequent styling changes; the linking of its product with other, complementary products; or a host of other methods. When the market dictates the price based on aggregate supply and demand conditions, the individual firm has no control over pricing. The typical hog farmer in Nebraska and the milk producer in Bavaria are price takers . That is, they must accept whatever price the market dictates. This is the case under the market structure of perfect competition. In the case of monopolistic competition, the success of product differentiation determines the degree with which the firm can influence price. In the case of oligopoly, there are so few firms in the market that price control becomes possible. However, the small number of firms in an oligopoly market invites complex pricing strategies. Collusion, price leadership by dominant firms, and other pricing strategies can result. The degree to which one market structure can evolve into another and the difference between potential short-run outcomes and long-run equilibrium conditions depend on the strength of the barriers to entry and the possibility that firms fail to recoup their original costs or lose money for an extended period of time and are therefore forced to exit the market. Barriers to entry can result from very large capital investment requirements, as in the case of petroleum refining. Barriers may also result from patents, as in the case of some electronic products and drug formulas. Another entry consideration is the possibility of high exit costs. For example, plants that are specific to a special line of products, such as aluminum smelting plants, are non-redeployable, and exit costs would be high without a liquid market for the firm’s assets. High exit costs deter entry and are therefore also considered barriers to entry. In the case of farming, the barriers to entry are low. Production of corn, soybeans, wheat, tomatoes, and other produce is an easy process to replicate; therefore, those are highly competitive markets. Non-price competition dominates those market structures where product differentiation is critical. Therefore, monopolistic competition relies on competitive strategies that may not include pricing changes. An example of non-price competition is product differentiation through marketing. In other circumstances, non-price competition may occur because the few firms in the market feel dependent on each other. Each firm fears retaliatory price changes that would reduce total revenue for all of the firms in the market. Because oligopoly industries have so few firms, each firm feels dependent on the pricing strategies of the others. Therefore, non-price competition becomes a dominant strategy. Exhibit 1. Characteristics of Market Structure Market Structure Number of Sellers Degree of Product Differentiation Barriers to Entry Pricing Power of Firm Non-price Competition Perfect competition Many Homogeneous/ Standardized Very Low None None Monopolistic competition Many Differentiated Low Some Advertising and Product Differentiation Oligopoly Few Homogeneous/ Standardized High Some or Considerable Advertising and Product Differentiation Monopoly One Unique Product Very High Considerable Advertising From the perspective of the owners of the firm, the most desirable market structure is that with the most control over price, because this control can lead to large profits. Monopoly and oligopoly markets offer the greatest potential control over price; monopolistic competition offers less control. Firms operating under perfectly competitive market conditions have no control over price. From the consumers’ perspective, the most desirable market structure is that with the greatest degree of competition, because prices are generally lower. Thus, consumers would prefer as many goods and services as possible to be offered in competitive markets. As often happens in economics, there is a trade-off. While perfect competition gives the largest quantity of a good at the lowest price, other market forms may spur more innovation. Specifically, there may be high costs in researching a new product, and firms will incur such costs only if they expect to earn an attractive return on their research investment. This is the case often made for medical innovations, for example—the cost of clinical trials and experiments to create new medicines would bankrupt perfectly competitive firms but may be acceptable in an oligopoly market structure. Therefore, consumers can benefit from less-than-perfectly-competitive markets. PORTER’S FIVE FORCES AND MARKET STRUCTURE A financial analyst aiming to establish market conditions and consequent profitability of incumbent firms should start with the questions framed by Exhibit 1: How many sellers are there? Is the product differentiated? and so on. Moreover, in the case of monopolies and quasi monopolies, the analyst should evaluate the legislative and regulatory framework: Can the company set prices freely, or are there governmental controls? Finally, the analyst should consider the threat of competition from potential entrants. This analysis is often summarized by students of corporate strategy as “Porter’s five forces,” named after Harvard Business School professor Michael E. Porter. His book, Competitive Strategy, presented a systematic analysis of the practice of market strategy. Porter (2008) identified the five forces as: Threat of entry; Power of suppliers; Power of buyers (customers); Threat of substitutes; and Rivalry among existing competitors. It is easy to note the parallels between four of these five forces and the columns in Exhibit 1. The only “orphan” is the power of suppliers, which is not at the core of the theoretical economic analysis of competition, but which has substantial weight in the practical analysis of competition and profitability. Some stock analysts (e.g., Dorsey 2004) use the term “economic moat” to suggest that there are factors protecting the profitability of a firm that are similar to the moats (ditches full of water) that used to protect some medieval castles. A deep moat means that there is little or no threat of entry by invaders, i.e. competitors. It also means that customers are locked in because of high switching costs. <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1473654689036

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #fra-introduction #reading-22-financial-statement-analysis-intro
Question
The additional information provided may include:


A report from [...]
Answer
management discussing the results.


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The additional information provided may include: A letter from the chairman of the company, A report from management discussing the results (typically called management discussion and analysis or management commentary), An external auditor’s report providing assurances, A governance report describing the structure of the company’s board of directors, and a corporate responsibility

Original toplevel document

3.1. Financial Statements and Supplementary Information
with the required financial statements, a company typically provides additional information in its financial reports. In many jurisdictions, some or all of this additional information is mandated by regulators or accounting standards boards. <span>The additional information provided may include a letter from the chairman of the company, a report from management discussing the results (typically called management discussion and analysis [MD&A] or management commentary), an external auditor’s report providing assurances, a governance report describing the structure of the company’s board of directors, and a corporate responsibility report. As part of his or her analysis, the financial analyst should read and assess this additional information along with the financial statements. The following sections describe and illustr







Flashcard 1478497013004

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-25-understanding-income-statement
Question
For companies [...], operating profit is useful in evaluating the performance of the individual business segments.
Answer
with many separate business segments


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Open it
For some companies composed of a number of separate business segments, operating profit can be useful in evaluating the performance of the individual business segments, because interest and tax expenses may be more relevant at the level of the overall com

Original toplevel document

2. COMPONENTS AND FORMAT OF THE INCOME STATEMENT
companies, before deducting interest expense. For financial companies, interest expense would be included in operating expenses and subtracted in arriving at operating profit because it relates to the operating activities for such companies. <span>For some companies composed of a number of separate business segments, operating profit can be useful in evaluating the performance of the individual business segments, because interest and tax expenses may be more relevant at the level of the overall company rather than an individual segment level. The specific calculations of gross profit and operating profit may vary by company, and a reader of financial statements can consult the notes to the statements to identify significant







Flashcard 1479996214540

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-25-understanding-income-statement #revenue-recognition
Question
Under US GAAP when do you use the installment method and the cost recovery method ?
Answer
When the seller has not completed the significant activities in the earnings process

or if

The seller cannot be assured of collecting the selling price nor able to estimate amounts that will not be collected.


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3.2.2. Installment Sales
for some installment sales. An example of such deferral arises for certain sales of real estate on an installment basis. Revenue recognition for sales of real estate varies depending on specific aspects of the sale transaction.19 <span>Under US GAAP, when the seller has completed the significant activities in the earnings process and is either assured of collecting the selling price or able to estimate amounts that will not be collected, a sale of real estate is reported at the time of sale using the normal revenue recognition conditions.20 When those two conditions are not fully met, under US GAAP some of the profit is deferred. Two of the methods may be appropriate in these limited circumstances and relate to the amou







Flashcard 1603007810828

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #financial-reporting-and-analysis #reading-26-understanding-balance-sheets
Question
[...] represents the net amount of a company's relatively liquid resources; that is the margin of safety, available to meet the financial demands of the operating cycle.
Answer
Working Capital


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Subject 1. Components and Format of the Balance Sheet
current assets or the creation of other current liabilities within one year or within the operating cycle, whichever is longer. The excess of total current assets over total current liabilities is referred to as working capital. <span>It represents the net amount of a company's relatively liquid resources; that is, it is the liquid buffer, or margin of safety, available to meet the financial demands of the operating cycle. Long-Term Liabilities These are obligations that are not reasonably expected to be liquidated within the normal operating cycle but instead at some date beyond







Flashcard 1603054210316

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #financial-reporting-and-analysis #reading-26-understanding-balance-sheets
Question
What kind of cash should be excluded from the current asset section?
Answer
Cash restricted to use in something other than current obligations or operations


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Subject 2. Measurement Bases of Assets and Liabilities
how the values relate to economic reality and to each other. Current Assets Current assets are presented in the balance sheet in order of liquidity. The five major items found in the current assets section are: <span>Cash. Valued at its stated value. Cash restricted for purpose other than payment of current obligations or for use in current operations should be excluded from the current asset section. Marketable securities. Valued at cost or lower of cost and market value. Accounts receivables. Amounts owed to the company by its customers for goods and services delivered. Valued at t







Flashcard 1613883641100

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #corporate-finance #understanding-cashflow-statements
Question
Obtaining capital from owners and giving them a return on their investments is a kind of [...] activity
Answer
Financing activity


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Subject 1. Classification of Cash Flows and Non-Cash Activities
affiliates and long-term investments in securities. Loans to other entities or collection of loans from other entities. Financing Activities These involve liability and owner's equity items, and include: <span>Obtaining capital from owners and providing them with a return on (and a return of) their investments. Borrowing money from creditors and repaying the amounts borrowed. In general, the items in this section relate to the debt and the equity items on the balance sheet. Financ







Flashcard 1614198738188

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #financial-reporting-and-analysis #reading-26-understanding-balance-sheets
Question
What is the most difficult section of the balance sheet to understand
Answer
owner's equity


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Subject 1. Components and Format of the Balance Sheet
dent upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events to confirm the amount payable, or the payee, or the date payable, such as services or product warranties and other contingencies. Owner's Equity <span>The complexity of capital stock agreements and the various restrictions on residual equity imposed by state corporation laws, liability agreements, and boards of directors make the owner's equity section one of the most difficult sections to prepare and understand. This section is usually divided into three parts: Capital stock: the par or stated value of the shares issued. Additional paid-in capital: the excess of amounts paid in ove







Flashcard 1614200573196

Tags
#analyst-notes #cfa-level-1 #financial-reporting-and-analysis #reading-26-understanding-balance-sheets
Question
The owner's equity is the most difficult section because of:

The complexity of [...]

The legal restrictions on residual equity

liability agreements

and boards of directors
Answer
capital stock agreements


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Subject 1. Components and Format of the Balance Sheet
dent upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future events to confirm the amount payable, or the payee, or the date payable, such as services or product warranties and other contingencies. Owner's Equity <span>The complexity of capital stock agreements and the various restrictions on residual equity imposed by state corporation laws, liability agreements, and boards of directors make the owner's equity section one of the most difficult sections to prepare and understand. This section is usually divided into three parts: Capital stock: the par or stated value of the shares issued. Additional paid-in capital: the excess of amounts paid in ove







Flashcard 1614202932492

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #financial-reporting-and-analysis #reading-26-understanding-balance-sheets
Question
What is Amortised cost?
Answer

The historical cost of an asset, adjusted for amortisation and impairment.


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3.1.1. Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash equivalents are highly liquid, short-term investments that are so close to maturity,6 the risk is minimal that their value will change significantly with changes in interest rates. Cash and cash equivalents are fina







Flashcard 1614387481868

Tags
#excel
Question
Como le hago para que no arrastre el autofill?
Answer
Le picas alt cuando pones el cursor en la esquina de abajo y aparece una crucesita negra arriba de la +


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Flashcard 1614485261580

Tags
#excel
Question
Como le hago para que cuando pongo un número autofill los siga en secuencia?
Answer
Le picas alt para jalarla


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Flashcard 1614714637580

Tags
#excel
Question
Como le hago para que cuando pongo un número autofill los siga en secuencia? (sin alt)
Answer
pones 1 en una celda 2 en la otra, los highlighteas los dos y ahi usas autofill


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Flashcard 1614946635020

Tags
#excel
Question
como aumento el tamaño al necesario de muchas columnas a la vez?
Answer
Highlighteas todas y das doble click en la pared


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Flashcard 1614948470028

Tags
#excel
Question
Como hago una secuencia de fecha? ej. trimestral
Answer
Pones una fecha en una celda, otra fecha a tres meses en la de al lado, highlighteas las dos y autofill.


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Flashcard 1614951091468

Tags
#excel
Question
Como oculto una hoja en Excel?
Answer
Click derecho y ocultar


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Flashcard 1614953450764

Tags
#excel
Question
De que me sirve agrupar hojas?
Answer
Lo que le muevas a una se le mueve a todas (escribir, formato etc.)


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Flashcard 1614955285772

Tags
#excel
Question
Como agrupas hojas en excel?
Answer
Dejas presionado cmd y picas las que quieres agrupar


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Flashcard 1614957120780

Tags
#excel
Question
Como agrego headers and footers en una hoja?
Answer
Le pones la vista dividida y ahi se pone arriba y abajo


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Flashcard 1614958955788

Tags
#excel
Question
Como agrego numeros de pagina como footers?
Answer
Picas en el footer y escoges #de paginas (va a poner &[Página])


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Flashcard 1614961052940

Tags
#excel
Question
Como pongo en footer 5 páginas de 10?
Answer
&[Página] de &[Páginas]

Nota el plural y singular


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Flashcard 1614963936524

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirven las vistas personalizadas?
Answer
Hacer diferentes vistas y despues accesar rápido a ellas.


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Flashcard 1614965771532

Tags
#excel
Question
Como hago una vista personalizada?
Answer
Le picas en VER --------> Vista personalizada


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Flashcard 1614967606540

Tags
#excel
Question
Como saltas de un libro a otro que estén abiertos?
Answer
Ventana y hasta abajo salen los libros


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Flashcard 1614969441548

Tags
#excel
Question
Como puedo ver dos hojas del mismo libro en la pantalla al mismo tiempo?
Answer
Dejas solo ese libro abierto, le picas en ventana----> nueva ventana y se abre una copia simultanea


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Flashcard 1614971276556

Tags
#excel
Question
Como arreglo dos libros abiertos?
Answer
Ventana-----> Organizar y escoges como lo quieres


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Flashcard 1614973111564

Tags
#excel
Question
Como oculto un libro que tengo abierto?
Answer
Highlighteas el libro Ventana-----> Ocultar


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Flashcard 1614975733004

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la funcion Max?
Answer
Te da el valor mas alto de un rango de celdas


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Flashcard 1614977568012

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la funcion Contar?
Answer
De un rango de celdas te dice cuales tienen numeros


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Flashcard 1614980713740

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la funcion Contara?
Answer
De un rango de celdas te dice cuales tienen numeros o letras (alfanumérico)


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Flashcard 1614982548748

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la funcion Contar.blanco?
Answer
De un rango de celdas te dice cuantas celdas estan en blanco


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Flashcard 1614984383756

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la función redondeo?
Answer
Redondea a los digitos que quieras.


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Irssi is a text-only IRC client. It does not get in your way and its commands are intuitive and useful. Non-standard features are implemented with perl scripts, rather than in the core. Irssi can range from a functional, no-frills client to a highly-customized and automated client.

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A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen
>A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen quadpoint.org Projects · Articles · Notes A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen <span>Irssi is a text-only IRC client. It does not get in your way and its commands are intuitive and useful. Non-standard features are implemented with perl scripts, rather than in the core. Irssi can range from a functional, no-frills client to a highly-customized and automated client. Irssi is not the only focus of this guide. GNU screen, the well-known terminal multiplexer, is also discussed. Screen is a highly useful tool that allows a user to manipulate multipl




Flashcard 1614989888780

Tags
#excel
Question
Para que sirve la función redondeo?
Answer
Redondea a los digitos que quieras.

Hay hacia arriba y hacia abajo.


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irssi screen guide
quadpoint.org Projects · Articles · Notes
A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen

Irssi is a text-only IRC client. It does not get in your way and its commands are intuitive and useful. Non-standard features are implemented with perl scripts, rather than in the core. Irssi can range from a functional, no-frills client to a highly-customized and automated client.

Irssi is not the only focus of this guide. GNU screen, the well-known terminal multiplexer, is also discussed. Screen is a highly useful tool that allows a user to manipulate multiple windows inside of a single session. Each window operates independently of the others and acts like another terminal. For example, a user can create a screen session with Irssi running in the first window, an instant messenger program open in the second window, and a general purpose shell prompt in the third window. The beauty of the screen is that users can “detach” from their screens, logout, and then at a later time, login again “reattach” to find their programs still running just as they left them. The steps to do this are explained in this guide.

Irssi Basics
Getting Connected
Switching Windows
Query Windows
More Irssi
Changing Settings
Tab Completion
Perl Scripts
Defining networks and servers
Learning Screen
Starting Screen
Detaching
Reattaching
More Screen Functionality
Troubleshooting
Customizing Irssi’s Display
Theme
Hilight Window
Statusbar
Channel Statusbar Using Advanced Windowlist
Irssi Command Reference
Tips
Launching URLs from rxvt-unicode (urxvt)
UTF-8 in Irssi and Screen
Resources
Irssi Basics

Getting Connected

The first step is to start irssi. Run from your shell:

irssi
You should now see Irssi in its default state–disconnected, with some blue bars at the top and bottom.

In Irssi, there are three important connection-related commands: /server, /connect, and /disconnect. Irssi can handle multiple IRC connections simultaneously, thus it is possible to be active in channels on different networks at the same time. The first command, /server, will connect to the specified server on the current network. On the other hand, /connect will open a new network connection and connect to the specified server on the new network.

For example, typing /connect irc.foo.com will open a new network connection and connect to irc.foo.com. If you then type /connect irc.bar.com, there will be two network connections open, one for irc.foo.com, one for irc.bar.com. Typing /server irc.baz.com while the network connection for irc.bar.com is active will disconnect the client from irc.bar.com and connect to irc.baz.com on that network connection. You can use Ctrl-X to switch between network connections. You can see what the active network is by looking at the status bar, which looks something like this:

(05:23:10) (ms[+abilorsuwxyz]) (1:NullIRC (change with ^X))

In this example, NullIRC is the active network. Feel free to test this on your own. Use /disconnect to disconnect from the active server. Move on after you have disconnected from all servers.

At this point you should have a just-opened instance of Irssi, with no connections to any server. Connect to an IRC server by typing:

/connect irc.nullirc.net
If everything connected fine, join a channel by typing:

/join #test
Switching Windows

You should now notice that the “status” window is now hidden, and you’re looking at the channel you just joined. You should also notice that your status bar says “2:#test”. This means that the window for #test is assigned window number 2. The status window is by default window number 1. To switch between windows in Irssi, use Alt-#, where # is 0-9. Windows start at number 1, and Alt-0 goes to window number 10. You can use Alt-q through Alt-o for windows 11 to 19. It is possible to have more than 19 windows. Use ...

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Flashcard 1614993034508

Tags
#excel
Question
Donde esta Auto Sum?
Answer
Pestaña de Formulas


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Flashcard 1614995655948

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#excel
Question
Que hace el boton Auto Sum?
Answer
Suma, promedia o lo que le pidas de las celdas seleccionadas y lo pone hasta abajo.


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Flashcard 1614998801676

Question
Irssi is a text-only IRC client. It does not get in your way and its commands are intuitive and useful. Non-standard features are [...] with perl scripts, rather than in the core. Irssi can range from a functional, no-frills client to a highly-customized and automated client.
Answer
implemented


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Open it
Irssi is a text-only IRC client. It does not get in your way and its commands are intuitive and useful. Non-standard features are implemented with perl scripts, rather than in the core. Irssi can range from a functional, no-frills client to a highly-customized and automated client.

Original toplevel document

A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen
>A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen quadpoint.org Projects · Articles · Notes A Guide to Efficiently Using Irssi and Screen <span>Irssi is a text-only IRC client. It does not get in your way and its commands are intuitive and useful. Non-standard features are implemented with perl scripts, rather than in the core. Irssi can range from a functional, no-frills client to a highly-customized and automated client. Irssi is not the only focus of this guide. GNU screen, the well-known terminal multiplexer, is also discussed. Screen is a highly useful tool that allows a user to manipulate multipl







Flashcard 1615001160972

Tags
#excel
Question
Como haces referencia absoluta a una celda en mac? (que se trabe pa cuando arrastras la formula)
Answer
cmd + T


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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill