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Flashcard 1428220677388

Tags
#cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-13-demand-and-supply-analysis-introduction #study-session-4 #summary
Question
Demand and supply curves are drawn on the assumption that everything except the price of the good itself is [...].
Answer
held constant (an assumption known as ceteris paribus or “holding all other things constant”)


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Demand and supply curves are drawn on the assumption that everything except the price of the good itself is held constant (an assumption known as ceteris paribus or “holding all other things constant”). When something other than price changes, the demand curve or the supply curve will shift relative to the other curve. This shift is referred to as a change in demand or supply, as oppo

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SUMMARY
s and households as sellers of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial risk-taking ability. Capital markets are used by firms to sell debt or equity to raise long-term capital to finance the production of goods and services. <span>Demand and supply curves are drawn on the assumption that everything except the price of the good itself is held constant (an assumption known as ceteris paribus or “holding all other things constant”). When something other than price changes, the demand curve or the supply curve will shift relative to the other curve. This shift is referred to as a change in demand or supply, as opposed to quantity demanded or quantity supplied. A new equilibrium generally will be obtained at a different price and a different quantity than before. The market mechanism is the ability of prices to adjust to eliminate any excess demand or supply resulting from a shift in one or the other curve. If, at a given price, the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, there is excess demand and price will rise. If, at a given price, the quantity supplied exceed







Flashcard 1446841027852

Tags
#estructura-interna-de-las-palabras #formantes-morfológicos #gramatica-española #la #morfología #tulio
Question
Algunos afijos preceden a la base: Son los [...].
Answer
prefijos

in-útil, des-contento, a-político


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Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas.

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La estructura interna de la palabra
1. Los formantes morfológicos Una palabra tiene estructura interna cuando contiene más de un formante morfológico. Un formante morfológico o morfema es una unidad mínima que consta de una forma fonética y de un significado. Comparemos las siguientes palabras: gota, gotas, gotita, gotera, cuentagotas. Gota es la única de estas palabras que consta de un solo formante. Carece, entonces, de estructura interna. Es una palabra simple. Todas las otras palabras tienen estructura interna. [31] Los formantes que pueden aparecer como palabras independientes son formas libres. Los otros, los que necesariamente van adosados a otros morfe- mas, son formas ligadas. Cuentagotas contiene dos formantes que pueden aparecer cada uno como palabra independiente. Es una palabra compuesta. Gotas, gotita y gotera también contienen dos formantes, pero uno de ellos (-s, -ita, -era) nunca puede ser una palabra independiente. Son formas ligadas que se denominan afijos. Algunos afijos van pospuestos a la base (gota), como los de nuestros ejemplos: son los s u f i j o s . Otros afijos la preceden: in-útil, des-contento, a-político: Son los prefijos. Las palabras que contienen un afijo se denominan palabras complejas. Del inventario de formantes reconocidos, reconoceremos dos clases: a. Algunos son formantes léxicos: tienen un significado léxico, que se define en el diccionario: gota, cuenta. Se agrupan en clases abiertas. Pertenecen a una clase particular de palabras: sustantivos (gota), adjetivos (útil), adverbios (ayer), verbos (cuenta). Pueden ser: - palabras simples (gota, útil, ayer); - base a la que se adosan los afijos en palabras complejas (got-, politic-); - parte de una palabra, compuesta (cuenta, gotas). b. Otros son formantes gramaticales: tienen significado gramatical, no léxico. Se agrupan en clases cerradas. Pueden ser: - palabras independientes: preposiciones (a, de, por), conjunciones (que, si); - afijos en palabras derivadas (-s, -ero, in-, des-); - menos frecuentemente, formantes de compuestos (aun-que, por-que, si-no). Entre las palabras no simples consideradas hasta aquí, cada una contenía sólo dos formantes. En otras un mismo tipo de formantes se repite: - sufijos: region-al-izar, util-iza-ble; - prefijos: des-com-poner. ex-pro-soviético, o también formantes de diferentes tipos pueden combinarse entre sí: - prefijo y sufijo: des-leal-tad, em-pobr-ecer; - palabra compuesta y sufijo: rionegr-ino, narcotrafic-ante. En la combinación de prefijación y sufijación, se distinguen dos casos, ilustrados en nuestros ejemplos. En deslealtad, la aplicación de cada uno de los afijos da como resultado una palabra bien formada: si aplicamos sólo el prefijo se obtiene el adjetivo desleal; si aplicamos sólo el sufijo el resultado será el sustantivo lealtad. En cambio, en empobrecer, si se aplica sólo un afijo [32] el resultado no será una palabra existente: *empobre, *pobrecer. Prefijo y sufijo se aplican simultáneamente, constituyendo un único formante morfológico – discontinuo– que se añade a ambos lados de la base léxica. Este segundo caso se denomina parasíntesis. Para establecer la estructura interna de las palabras, la morfología se ocupa de: a. identificar los formantes morfológicos; b. determinar las posibles variaciones que éstos presenten; c. describir los procesos involucrados; d. reconocer la organización de las palabras. 2. Identificación de los formantes morfológicos Comparemos ahora las siguientes palabras: sol, sol-ar; sol-azo, quita- sol, gira-sol, solter-o, solaz. En las







Write out your to-do items for the week, being sure to categorize your to-do list by Research, Service, and Teaching. * Map that list onto specific blocks of time in your calendar, and proactively decide what to do with the items that don't fit. * Try working just one week with your time (literally) aligned with your priorities.

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Flashcard 1617024126220

Tags
#costeo
Question

Son los que se identifican directa e indirectamente con el producto.

Answer
Costos del producto


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Costos del producto
Costos del producto Son los que se identifican directa e indirectamente con el producto. Están dentro de ellos: material directo, mano de obra y carga fabril. Estos tienen la particularidad de tenerse en inventarios hasta cuando se venden, situación en la cual estos se en







Flashcard 1617032514828

Tags
#costeo
Question

Son los que no están ni directa ni indirectamente relacionados con el producto, no son inventariados.

Answer
Costos del periodo


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Costos del periodo
Costos del periodo Son los que no están ni directa ni indirectamente relacionados con el producto, no son inventariados. Se caracterizan por ser cancelados inmediatamente, estos se originan pero no puede determinarse ninguna relación con el costo de producción. Las clasificaciones enunciada







Flashcard 1620209962252

Question
The label "classical;' in its application to pre-nineteenth-century Arabic poetry and especially the poetry of the Abbasid age, carries significant impli- cations that shape the way this poetry is read and appreciated both in the Arab world and outside it. It assumes a rigid antiquated literature that is to be read and studied, but [...].
Answer
eventually overcome


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Abbasid age, carries significant impli- cations that shape the way this poetry is read and appreciated both in the Arab world and outside it. It assumes a rigid antiquated literature that is to be read and studied, but <span>eventually overcome. <span><body><html>

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Subject 3. Cash Flow Statement Analysis
#cashflow-statement

Evaluation of the Sources and Uses of Cash

Analysts should assess the sources and uses of cash between the three main categories and investigate what factors drive the change of cash flow within each category. For example, if operating cash flow is growing, does that indicate success as the result of increasing sales or expense reductions? Are working capital investments increasing or decreasing? Is the company dependent on external financing? Answers to questions like these are critical for analysts and can help form a foundation for evaluating the financial health of an industry or company.

Please refer to the textbook for specific examples.

Common-Size Analysis of the Statement of Cash Flows

This topic will be discussed in detail in Reading 27 [Financial Analysis Techniques].

Free Cash Flow to the Firm and Free Cash Flow to Equity

From an analyst's point of view, cash flows from operation activities have two major drawbacks:

  • CFO does not include charges for the use of long-lived assets. Recall that depreciation is added back to net income in arriving at CFO.
  • CFO does not include cash outlays for replacing old equipment.

Free Cash Flow (FCF) is intended to measure the cash available to a company for discretionary uses after making all required cash outlays. It accounts for capital expenditures and dividend payments, which are essential to the ongoing nature of the business.

The basic definition is cash from operations less the amount of capital expenditures required to maintain the company's present productive capacity.

Free cash flow = CFO - capital expenditure

Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF): Cash available to shareholders and bondholders after taxes, capital investment, and WC investment.

FCFF = NI + NCC + Int (1 - Tax rate) - FCInv - WCInv

  • NI: Net income available to common shareholders. It is the company's earnings after interest, taxes and preferred dividends.
  • NCC: Net non-cash charges. These represent depreciation and other non-cash charges minus non-cash gains. The add-back of net non-cash expenses is usually positive, because depreciation is a major part of total expenses for most companies.
  • Int (1 - Tax rate): After-tax interest expense. Add this back to net income because:

    • FCFF is the cash flow available for distribution among all suppliers of capital, including debt-holders, and
    • Interest expense net of the related tax savings was deducted in arriving at net income.

    The add-back is after-tax, because the discount rate in the FCFF model (WACC) is also calculated on an after-tax basis.
  • FCInv: Investment in fixed capital. It equals capital expenditures for PP&E minus sales of fixed assets.
  • WCInv: Investment in working capital. It equals the increase in short-term operating assets net of operating liabilities.

Example

Quinton is evaluating Proust Company for 2014. Quinton has gathered the following information (in millions):

  • Net income: $250
  • Interest expense: $50
  • Depreciation: $130
  • Investment in working capital: $20
  • Investment in fixed capital: $100
  • Tax rate: 30%
  • Net borrowing: $180
  • Proust has launched a new product in the market. It has capitalized $200 as an intangible asset out of a product launch expense of $240.
  • During the year, Proust has written down restructuring non-cash charges amounting to $30.
  • The tax treatment of all non-cash items is the same as that of other items in the books. There are no differed taxes incurred.

Calculate the FCFF for Proust for the year.

Solution

NCC = D...

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Damage to the frontal lobes is most often caused by traumatic brain injury, a stroke, or a tumor, and may result in loss of movement of various body parts (paralysis), changes in personality, emotional lability, perseveration, inattention, difficulty with problem solving, and inability to express language (Broca's Aphasia).

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The parietal lobes, located just behind the frontal lobes, contain the primary sensory areas that process somatosensory information. The parietal lobes enable us to integrate sensations of touch such as shape, size, weight, and texture, merging these into a three-dimensional experience of objects around us. The parietal lobes also process sensations of pain, heat, and proprioception (ability to sense position, location, and movement of the body).

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The right parietal lobe plays a key role in directing attention, as well as in visual and spatial skills. The left parietal lobe is involved in overlearned motor routines and linguistic skills such as reading, writing, and naming objects.

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Damage to the parietal lobes is more often caused by a stroke, and may result in inability to name objects (anomia), inability to write (agraphia), problems with reading (alexia), difficulty doing math (acalculia), difficulty drawing objects, difficulty distinguishing right from left, lack of awareness of certain body parts that leads to difficulty with self-care, problems with eye-hand coordination, and problems with attending to more than one object at a time

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Gerstmann's syndrome, which involves lesions of the left parietal lobe, results in four primary symptoms that include agraphia, acalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia

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People suffering from finger agnosia are unable to recognize their own fingers as part of their body

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