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Flashcard 1442949238028

Tags
#2-2-comparison-of-profit-measures #cfa #cfa-level-1 #economics #microeconomics #reading-15-demand-and-supply-analysis-the-firm #section-2-objectives-of-the-firm #study-session-4
Question
Exhibit 2. Relationship of Accounting, Normal, and Economic Profit to Equity Value
Relationship between Accounting Profit and Normal ProfitEconomic ProfitFirm’s Market Value of Equity
Accounting profit > Normal profitEconomic profit > 0 and firm is able to protect economic profit over the long run[...]
Accounting profit = Normal profitEconomic profit = 0[...]
Accounting profit < Normal profitEconomic profit < 0
implies economic loss
[...]
Answer
Positive effect

No effect

Negative effect


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Value Relationship between Accounting Profit and Normal Profit Economic Profit Firm’s Market Value of Equity Accounting profit > Normal profit Economic profit > 0 and firm is able to protect economic profit over the long run <span>Positive effect Accounting profit = Normal profit Economic profit = 0 No effect Accounting profit < Normal profit Economic profit < 0 implies economic loss Negative effect<span></bod

Original toplevel document

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM
quence, the spot price has dramatically increased by 44.3 percent. Economic rent has resulted from this market relationship of a relatively fixed supply of gold and a rising demand for it. <span>2.2. Comparison of Profit Measures All three types of profit are interconnected because, according to Equation 4, accounting profit is the summation of normal and economic profit. In the short run, the normal profit rate is relatively stable, which makes accounting and economic profit the two variable terms in the profit equation. Over the longer term, all three types of profit are variable, where the normal profit rate can change according to investment returns across firms in the industry. Normal profit is necessary to stay in business in the long run; positive economic profit is not. A business can survive indefinitely by just making the normal profit return for investors. Failing to earn normal profits over the long run has a debilitating impact on the firm’s ability to access capital and to function properly as a business enterprise. Consequentially, the market value of equity and shareholders’ wealth deteriorates whenever risk to achieving normal profit materializes and the firm fails to reward investors for their risk exposure and for the opportunity cost of their equity capital. To summarize, the ultimate goal of analyzing the different types of profit is to determine how their relationships to one another influence the firm’s market value of equity. Exhibit 2 compares accounting, normal, and economic profits in terms of how a firm’s market value of equity is impacted by the relationships among the three types of profit. Exhibit 2. Relationship of Accounting, Normal, and Economic Profit to Equity Value Relationship between Accounting Profit and Normal Profit Economic Profit Firm’s Market Value of Equity Accounting profit > Normal profit Economic profit > 0 and firm is able to protect economic profit over the long run Positive effect Accounting profit = Normal profit Economic profit = 0 No effect Accounting profit < Normal profit Economic profit < 0 implies economic loss Negative effect <span><body><html>







Flashcard 1479985466636

Tags
#cfa-level-1 #reading-25-understanding-income-statement #revenue-recognition
Question
For installment sales under IFRS, Revenue attributable to the sale price is recognized [...], and revenue attributable to the interest component is recognized over time.
Answer
at the date of sale


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For installment sales under IFRS, Revenue attributable to the sale price is recognized at the date of sale, and revenue attributable to the interest component is recognized over time.

Original toplevel document

3.2.2. Installment Sales
rvices are rendered, independent of the period in which cash payments for those goods or services are received. This principle applies even to installment sales —sales in which proceeds are to be paid in installments over an extended period. <span>For installment sales, IFRS separate the installments into the sale price, which is the discounted present value of the installment payments, and an interest component. Revenue attributable to the sale price is recognized at the date of sale, and revenue attributable to the interest component is recognized over time.18 International standards note, however, that the guidance for revenue recognition must be considered in light of local laws regarding the sale of goods in a particular country. Under l







Article 1665586564364

한국어를 공부하는 방법

저는 한국어를 좋아하니까 2개원 한국어를 공부하기 시작했어요. 사실은 한국어를 공부하기가 쉬운 일이 아니에요. 그래서 한국어를 잘 하려면 좋은 밤법이 있고 열심히 공부해야 하는데. 제가 한국어를 공부하는 방법을 찾기 노략했어요. 지금부터 제 한국어를 공부하는 방법에 대한 이야기를 해줄게요. 어휘와 문법이 아주 중요한 것입니다. 먼저 수업시간에 선생님의 말씀을 잘 들어야 돼요. 그후에는 집에서 책을 보면서 혼자 공부할 수 있는데 어휘를 외우고 문법을 이해합니다. 스스로 문장을 만들고 책에 있는 질문을 대답하고 책에 있는 예문을 봅니다. 외우기도 문법구조를 기억하기를 많이 도와주게 될 수 있습니다. 하지만 쓰기가 쉬우 일이 아닙니다. 조사를 사용하는 경우에는 자주 실수합니다. 그래서 쓰기가 열심히 열습해야 하는 것이 필요합니다. 마지막으로 발음하고 듣기도 아주 중요하는 것입니다. 대화할때는 발음이 잘 못하고 듣기 잘 못 하면 사람들이 이해가 안 될 것 같아요. 그러니까 발음도 듣기도 많이 열습하게 돼야 해요. CD를 듣고 CD대로 발음하는데 읽기가 크고 발음이 잘 해요. 그리고 한국말로 영화도 보고 한국 음악도 듣는 것이 정신을 집중해 줘야해요. 대화문장을 들어서 다시 써요. 이런하면 문장에 부족한 점을 나타날 수있습니다. 아무리 많이 밥브도 하루에 삼십분 쯤 연습해야 해요. 그런데 발음이 잘 하고 듣기 잘 하면 쓰기도 잘 하기가 아니고 연습 많이 해야 해요. 쓰기가 연십하지 많으면 당면하 잘 못 써요. 제가 한국어를 공부하면서 더 좋은 방법을 잦고 있어요. 한국어를 공부를 잘 하려면 열심히 공부해야 해요. 어휘, 문법, 듣기, 쓰기 등 다 열습해요. 온제든지 항상 열습하면 희망이 포기하지 마세요.



#7 #chapter #clinical #pharmacology
Rectal administration partly bypasses the portal system, and represents an alternative route in small children or patients who are unable to tolerate oral ingestion. However, rectal absorption can be erratic, and many drugs irritate the rectal mucosa. Transdermal drug administration can provide prolonged continuous administration for some drugs.

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#7 #chapter #clinical #pharmacology
Pharmacokinetics defines the relationships among drug dosing, drug concentration in body fluids and tissues, and time.

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Flashcard 1666926644492

Tags
#7 #chapter #clinical #pharmacology
Question
Pharmacokinetics is defined as
Answer
the relationships among drug dosing, drug concentration in body fluids and tissues, and time.


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