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The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market struc

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The dynamic programming approach describes the optimal plan by finding a rule that tells what the controls should be, given any possible value of the state.

to the current control. For example, in the simplest case, today's wealth (the state) and consumption (the control) might exactly determine tomorrow's wealth (the new state), though typically other factors will affect tomorrow's wealth too. <span>The dynamic programming approach describes the optimal plan by finding a rule that tells what the controls should be, given any possible value of the state. For example, if consumption (c) depends only on wealth (W), we would seek a rule c ( W ) {\displaystyle c(W)} that gi

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d-SEPARATION WITHOUT TEARS (At the request of many readers) Introduction d-separation is a criterion for deciding, from a given a causal graph, whether a set X of variables is independent of another set Y, given a third set Z. <span>The idea is to associate "dependence" with "connectedness" (i.e., the existence of a connecting path) and "independence" with "unconnected-ness" or "separation". The only twist on this simple idea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that we are dealing with a system of directed arrows in which some vertices (those residing in Z) correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely. To account for the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional"). We start by considering separation between two singleton variables, x and y; the extension to sets of variables is straightforward (i.e., two sets are separated if and only if each el

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Debentures are bonds issued by a company. It has fixed rate of interest usually payable half-yearly, on specific dates and the principal amount repayable on a particular date on redemption of debenture. It is an <span>unsecured debt <span><body><html>

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Training Establishments Subsidiaries Establishment <span>The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Calcutta but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The Central Offi

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Commercial papers are borrowing of a company from the market. These money market instruments are issued for 90 days.

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Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs 50 lacs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only 3 months. <body><html>

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Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs 50 lacs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only 3 months.

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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed

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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The

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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified on

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ring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of <span>FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement. </spa

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s which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with <span>Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement. <span><body><html>

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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) +

Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one

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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars.

Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one

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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars.

Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one

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dea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that we are dealing with a system of directed arrows in the graph some vertices correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely. To account for <span>the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional"). <span><body><html>

d-SEPARATION WITHOUT TEARS (At the request of many readers) Introduction d-separation is a criterion for deciding, from a given a causal graph, whether a set X of variables is independent of another set Y, given a third set Z. <span>The idea is to associate "dependence" with "connectedness" (i.e., the existence of a connecting path) and "independence" with "unconnected-ness" or "separation". The only twist on this simple idea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that we are dealing with a system of directed arrows in which some vertices (those residing in Z) correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely. To account for the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional"). We start by considering separation between two singleton variables, x and y; the extension to sets of variables is straightforward (i.e., two sets are separated if and only if each el

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Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational

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In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational

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In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational

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The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability . In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits

The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market struc