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5.Cloze deletion is easy and effective
#rules-of-formulating-knowledge

Cloze deletion is a sentence with its parts missing and replaced by three dots. Cloze deletion exercise is an exercise that uses cloze deletion to ask the student to fill in the gaps marked with the three dots. For example, Bill ...[name] was the second US president to go through impeachment.

If you are a beginner and if you find it difficult to stick to the minimum information principle, use cloze deletion! If you are an advanced user, you will also like cloze deletion. It is a quick and effective method of converting textbook knowledge into knowledge that can be subject to learning based on spaced repetition. Cloze deletion makes the core of the fast reading and learning technique called incremental reading.

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Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures (Intro)
#has-images #microscopio-session #reading-pluma-fuente
The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects.
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Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures Introduction
The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market struc




Flashcard 1737658076428

Tags
#bellman-equation #dynamic-programming
Question
The dynamic programming approach describes [...] by finding a rule that tells what the controls should be, given any possible value of the state.
Answer
the optimal plan

It's a function, and in functional analysis a point in the functional space, and thus Banach fixed point theorem applies.

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The dynamic programming approach describes the optimal plan by finding a rule that tells what the controls should be, given any possible value of the state.

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Bellman equation - Wikipedia
to the current control. For example, in the simplest case, today's wealth (the state) and consumption (the control) might exactly determine tomorrow's wealth (the new state), though typically other factors will affect tomorrow's wealth too. <span>The dynamic programming approach describes the optimal plan by finding a rule that tells what the controls should be, given any possible value of the state. For example, if consumption (c) depends only on wealth (W), we would seek a rule c ( W ) {\displaystyle c(W)} that gi







#d-separation
The idea (of d-separation) is to associate "dependence" with "connectedness" (i.e., the existence of a connecting path) and "independence" with "unconnected-ness" or "separation".
The only twist on this simple idea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that
  1. we are dealing with a system of directed arrows
  2. in the graph some vertices correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely.
To account for the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional").
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Unknown title
d-SEPARATION WITHOUT TEARS (At the request of many readers) Introduction d-separation is a criterion for deciding, from a given a causal graph, whether a set X of variables is independent of another set Y, given a third set Z. <span>The idea is to associate "dependence" with "connectedness" (i.e., the existence of a connecting path) and "independence" with "unconnected-ness" or "separation". The only twist on this simple idea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that we are dealing with a system of directed arrows in which some vertices (those residing in Z) correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely. To account for the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional"). We start by considering separation between two singleton variables, x and y; the extension to sets of variables is straightforward (i.e., two sets are separated if and only if each el




Flashcard 1739110616332

Question
No single investor can hold shares in an Indian Stock Exchange beyond a limit
Answer
5%.

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Government securities are coupon bearing instruments which are issued by RBI on behalf of Government of India. Government securities have maturity dates ranging from less than 1 year to a max of 30 year.
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Debentures are bonds issued by a company. It has fixed rate of interest usually payable half-yearly, on specific dates and the principal amount repayable on a particular date on redemption of debenture. It is an unsecured debt
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Flashcard 1739118742796

Question
Debentures are bonds issued by a company. It has fixed rate of interest usually payable half-yearly, on specific dates and the principal amount repayable on a particular date on redemption of debenture. It is an [...] debt
Answer
unsecured

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Debentures are bonds issued by a company. It has fixed rate of interest usually payable half-yearly, on specific dates and the principal amount repayable on a particular date on redemption of debenture. It is an <span>unsecured debt <span><body><html>

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The Mumbai Interbank Offered Rate (MIBOR) is calculated everyday by the National Stock Exchange of India (NSEIL) as a weighted average of lending rates of a group of banks, on funds lent to first-class borrowers. 26. It is the interest rate at which banks can borrow funds, in marketable size, from other banks in the Indian interbank market. 27. The MIBOR was launched on June 15, 1998 by the Committee for the Development of the Debt Market, as an overnight rate.
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LIBOR or ICE LIBOR (previously BBA LIBOR) is a benchmark rate that some of the world’s leading banks charge each other for short-term loans.
22. It stands for Intercontinental Exchange London Interbank Offered Rate and serves as the first step to calculating interest rates on various loans throughout the world.

23. LIBOR is administered by the ICE Benchmark Administration (IBA), and is based on five currencies: U.S. dollar (USD), Euro (EUR), pound sterling (GBP), Japanese yen (JPY) and Swiss franc (CHF).
24. It serves seven different maturities: overnight, one week, and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months. There are a total of 35 different LIBOR rates each business day. The most commonly quoted rate is the three- month U.S. dollar rate.
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Features of Government Securities 1. Issued at face value. 2. No default risk as the securities carry sovereign guarantee. 3. Ample liquidity as the investor can sell the security in the secondary market. 4. Interest payment on a half yearly basis on face value. 5. No tax deducted at source. 6. Can be held in Demat form
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#rbi
The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
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Reserve Bank of India - About Us
Training Establishments Subsidiaries Establishment <span>The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Calcutta but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The Central Offi




The NSEIL launched the 14-day MIBOR on November 10, 1998, and the one month and three month MIBORs on December 1, 1998. 29. Since the launch, MIBOR rates have been used as benchmark rates for the majority of money market deals made in India.
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FII can invest up to 49 % in Stock Exchange in India.
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Corporatization is the process of converting the organizational structure of the Stock Exchange from a non-corporate to a corporate structure. 4. Demutualization refers to the transition process of a Stock Exchange from a mutually owned association to a shareholders-owned company.
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Commercial papers are borrowing of a company from the market. These money market instruments are issued for 90 days.
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Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs 50 lacs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only 3 months.
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DIP stands for Disclosure and Investor Protection guidelines
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Offer document means prospectus in case of public issue. 20. Offer document means an offer for sale and letter of offer in case of a RI. 21. Offer documents are filed with Registrar of Companies and Stock Exchanges. 22. A draft offer document means the offer document in a draft stage. 23. The draft offer documents are filed with SEBI. 24. The period of filing draft offer document is at least 21 days prior to that of offer document.
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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement.
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Flashcard 1739151248652

Question
Commercial papers are borrowing of a company from the market. These are issued for [...] days.
Answer
90

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Commercial papers are borrowing of a company from the market. These money market instruments are issued for 90 days.

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Flashcard 1739153607948

Question
Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs 50 lacs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only [...] months.
Answer
3

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Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs 50 lacs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only 3 months. <body><html>

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Flashcard 1739155180812

Question
Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs [...] is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only 3 months.
Answer
50 lacs

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Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a RI of a value of more than Rs 50 lacs is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its observations. This observation period is only 3 months.

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Flashcard 1739156753676

Question
RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either [...] of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement.
Answer
price

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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed

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Flashcard 1739158326540

Question
RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the [...]. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement.
Answer
amount of issue

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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The

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Flashcard 1739159899404

Question
RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the [...] and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement.
Answer
number of shares

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RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified on

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Flashcard 1739161472268

Question
RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of [...], the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement.
Answer
FPO

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ring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of <span>FPO, the RHP can be filed with Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement. </spa

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Flashcard 1739163045132

Question
RHP (Red Herring Prospectus) is a prospectus which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with [...] without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement.
Answer
Registrar of Companies

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s which doesn’t have details of either price of number of shares being offered or the amount of issue. But the number of shares and the upper and lower price bands are disclosed. 26. In case of FPO, the RHP can be filed with <span>Registrar of Companies without the price band. The price band is notified one day prior to the opening of the issue by way of an advertisement. <span><body><html>

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Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: Consumer Demand
#has-images #prerequisite-session #reading-codo

By now it should be clear that economists are model builders. In the previous reading, we examined one of their most fundamental models, the model of demand and supply. And as we have seen, models begin with simplifying assumptions and then find the implications that can then be compared to real-world observations as a test of the model’s usefulness. In the model of demand and supply, we assumed the existence of a demand curve and a supply curve, as well as their respective negative and positive slopes. That simple model yielded some very powerful implications about how markets work, but we can delve even more deeply to explore the underpinnings of demand and supply. In this reading, we examine the theory of the consumer as a way of understanding where consumer demand curves originate. In a subsequent reading, the origins of the supply curve are sought in presenting the theory of the firm.

This reading is organized as follows:

Section 2 describes consumer choice theory in more detail.

Section 3 introduces utility theory, a building block of consumer choice theory that provides a quantitative model for a consumer’s preferences and tastes.

Section 4 surveys budget constraints and opportunity sets. Section 5 covers the determination of the consumer’s bundle of goods and how that may change in response to changes in income and prices.

Section 6 examines substitution and income effects for different types of goods.

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#linear-algebra
In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × VK , where K is the field of scalars.
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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) +

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Bilinear form - Wikipedia
Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one




Flashcard 1739186113804

Tags
#linear-algebra
Question
a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map [...] ,
Answer
V × VK

K is the field of scalars.
An inner product is obviously a bilinear form

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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars.

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Bilinear form - Wikipedia
Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one







Flashcard 1739187686668

Tags
#linear-algebra
Question
a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × VK , where K is [...]
Answer
the field of scalars.

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In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K , where K is the field of scalars.

Original toplevel document

Bilinear form - Wikipedia
Bilinear form - Wikipedia Bilinear form From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map V × V → K, where K is the field of scalars. In other words, a bilinear form is a function B : V × V → K that is linear in each argument separately: B(u + v, w) = B(u, w) + B(v, w) and B(λu, v) = λB(u, v) B(u, v + w) = B(u, v) + B(u, w) and B(u, λv) = λB(u, v) The definition of a bilinear form can be extended to include modules over a ring, with linear maps replaced by module homomorphisms. When K is the field of complex numbers C, one








Prerequisite Demand and Supply Analysis: The firm
#has-images #introduction #prerequisite-session #reading-saco-de-polipropileno

In studying decision making by consumers and businesses, microeconomics gives rise to the theory of the consumer and theory of the firm as two branches of study.

The theory of the consumer is the study of consumption—the demand for goods and services—by utility-maximizing individuals. The theory of the firm, the subject of this reading, is the study of the supply of goods and services by profit-maximizing firms. Conceptually, profit is the difference between revenue and costs. Revenue is a function of selling price and quantity sold, which are determined by the demand and supply behavior in the markets into which the firm sells/provides its goods or services. Costs are a function of the demand and supply interactions in resource markets, such as markets for labor and for physical inputs. The main focus of this reading is the cost side of the profit equation for companies competing in market economies under perfect competition. A subsequent reading will examine the different types of markets into which a firm may sell its output.

The study of the profit-maximizing firm in a single time period is the essential starting point for the analysis of the economics of corporate decision making. Furthermore, with the attention given to earnings by market participants, the insights gained by this study should be practically relevant. Among the questions this reading will address are the following:

  • How should profit be defined from the perspective of suppliers of capital to the firm?

  • What is meant by factors of production?

  • How are total, average, and marginal costs distinguished, and how is each related to the firm’s profit?

  • What roles do marginal quantities (selling prices and costs) play in optimization?

This reading is organized as follows:

Section 2 discusses the types of profit measures, including what they have in common, how they differ, and their uses and definitions.

Section 3 covers the revenue and cost inputs of the profit equation and the related topics of breakeven analysis, shutdown point of operation, market entry and exit, cost structures, and scale effects. In addition, the economic outcomes related to a firm’s optimal supply behavior over the short run and long run are presented in this section.

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Flashcard 1739212852492

Tags
#d-separation
Question
the "d" in terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" accounts for [...]
Answer
the orientations of the arrows

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dea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that we are dealing with a system of directed arrows in the graph some vertices correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely. To account for <span>the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional"). <span><body><html>

Original toplevel document

Unknown title
d-SEPARATION WITHOUT TEARS (At the request of many readers) Introduction d-separation is a criterion for deciding, from a given a causal graph, whether a set X of variables is independent of another set Y, given a third set Z. <span>The idea is to associate "dependence" with "connectedness" (i.e., the existence of a connecting path) and "independence" with "unconnected-ness" or "separation". The only twist on this simple idea is to define what we mean by "connecting path", given that we are dealing with a system of directed arrows in which some vertices (those residing in Z) correspond to measured variables, whose values are known precisely. To account for the orientations of the arrows we use the terms "d-separated" and "d-connected" (d connotes "directional"). We start by considering separation between two singleton variables, x and y; the extension to sets of variables is straightforward (i.e., two sets are separated if and only if each el







#fields
In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
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Field (mathematics) - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational




Flashcard 1739221241100

Tags
#fields
Question
In mathematics, a [...] is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.
Answer
field

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In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

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Field (mathematics) - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational







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In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to [...]
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In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers.

Original toplevel document

Field (mathematics) - Wikipedia
Module-like[show] Module Group with operators Vector space Linear algebra Algebra-like[show] Algebra Associative Non-associative Composition algebra Lie algebra Graded Bialgebra v t e <span>In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined, and behave as when they are applied to rational and real numbers. A field is thus a fundamental algebraic structure, which is widely used in algebra, number theory and many other areas of mathematics. The best known fields are the field of rational








Importance of Market Structures in Firms
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As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability.
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The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability . In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits

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Reading 15  The Firm and Market Structures Introduction
The purpose of this reading is to build an understanding of the importance of market structure. As different market structures result in different sets of choices facing a firm’s decision makers, an understanding of market structure is a powerful tool in analyzing issues such as a firm’s pricing of its products and, more broadly, its potential to increase profitability. In the long run, a firm’s profitability will be determined by the forces associated with the market structure within which it operates. In a highly competitive market, long-run profits will be driven down by the forces of competition. In less competitive markets, large profits are possible even in the long run; in the short run, any outcome is possible. Therefore, understanding the forces behind the market structure will aid the financial analyst in determining firms’ short- and long-term prospects. Section 2 introduces the analysis of market structures. The section addresses questions such as: What determines the degree of competition associated with each market struc