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#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
The Somatic Nervous System is a voluntary motor system under conscious control. Each of its pathways consists of a single motoneuron and the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates. The cell body of the motoneuron is located in the central nervous system, in either the brain stem or spinal cord, and its axon synapses directly on skeletal muscle, the effector organ. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from presynaptic terminals of the motoneurons and activates nicotinic receptors located on the motor end plates of the skeletal muscle. An action potential in the motoneuron causes an action potential in the muscle fiber, which causes the muscle to contract.
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#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
The Autonomic Nervous System is an involuntary system that controls and modulates the functions primarily of visceral organs. Each pathway in the autonomic nervous system consists of two neurons: a preganglionic neuron and a postganglionic neuron. The cell body of each preganglionic neuron resides in the central nervous system. The axons of these preganglionic neurons synapse on the cell bodies of postganglionic neurons in one of several autonomic ganglia located outside the central nervous system. The axons of the postganglionic neurons then travel to the periphery, where they synapse on visceral effector organs such as the heart, bronchioles, vascular smooth muscle, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, and genitalia. All preganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system release acetylcholine. Postganglionic neurons release either acetylcholine or norepinephrine or, in some cases, neuropeptides.
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[unknown IMAGE 1801227996428] #S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function #has-images
The autonomic nervous system has two major divisions: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic, which often complement each other in the regulation of organ system function, and the enteric nervous system, is located in plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract.
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Flashcard 1801224326412

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function #has-images
Question
The Autonomic Nervous System has two major divisions: the [...] and the [...] , which often complement each other in the regulation of organ system function, and a third division the [...] nervous system, is located in plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract.
[unknown IMAGE 1801227996428]
Answer
The autonomic nervous system has two major divisions: the Sympathetic and the Parasympathetic, which often complement each other in the regulation of organ system function, and a third division the Enteric nervous system, is located in plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract.

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#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
The terms sympathetic and parasympathetic are strictly anatomic terms and refer to the anatomic origin of the preganglionic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS; see Table 2.1). Preganglionic neurons in the sympathetic division originate in the thoracolumbar spinal cord. Preganglionic neurons in the parasympa- thetic division originate in the brain stem and sacral spinal cord.
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Flashcard 1801242414348

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Preganglionic neurons in the Sympathetic ANS originate in the [...] , whereas, Preganglionic neurons in the Parasympathetic ANS originate in the [...] and [...] .
Answer
Preganglionic neurons in the Sympathetic ANS originate in the thoracolumbar spinal cord, whereas, Preganglionic neurons in the Parasympathetic ANS originate in the brain stem and sacral spinal cord.

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Flashcard 1801244249356

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Adrenergic neurons release [...] .
Answer
Norepinephrine

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Flashcard 1801246608652

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine; receptors for norepinephrine on the effector organs are called [...] .
Answer
Adrenoreceptors

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Flashcard 1801248443660

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Adrenoreceptors may be activated by [...] , which is released from adrenergic neurons, or by [...], which is secreted into the circulation by the adrenal medulla.
Answer
Adrenoreceptors may be activated by norepinephrine, which is released from adrenergic neurons, or by epinephrine, which is secreted into the circulation by the adrenal medulla.

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Flashcard 1801250278668

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Adrenoreceptors may be activated by norepinephrine, which is released from [...] , or by epinephrine, which is secreted into the circulation by the [...] .
Answer
Adrenoreceptors may be activated by norepinephrine, which is released from adrenergic neurons, or by epinephrine, which is secreted into the circulation by the adrenal medulla.

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Flashcard 1801252375820

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine (ACh); receptors for ACh are called [...] .
Answer
cholinoreceptors

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Flashcard 1801254210828

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#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
In reference to the ANS, the terms nonadrenergic and noncholinergic describe?
Answer
Nonadernergic and noncholinergic, describe some postganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the gastrointestinal tract that release peptides [e.g., substance P] or other substances [e.g., nitric oxide (NO)] as their neurotransmitter rather than ACh.)

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Flashcard 1801256045836

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
What type of neurons release peptides [e.g., substance P] or other substances [e.g., nitric oxide (NO)] as their neurotransmitter rather than ACh?
Answer
Nonadernergic and noncholinergic, describe some postganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the gastrointestinal tract that release peptides [e.g., substance P] or other substances [e.g., nitric oxide (NO)] as their neurotransmitter rather than ACh.)

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Flashcard 1801257356556

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Whether located in the sympathetic division or in the parasympathetic division, all preganglionic neurons release [...] and therefore are called [...].
Answer
Whether located in the sympathetic division or in the parasympathetic division, all preganglionic neurons release ACh and therefore are called cholinergic.

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Flashcard 1801259191564

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
Postganglionic neurons may be either [...] or [...].
Answer
Postganglionic neurons may be either adrenergic (they release norepinephrine) or cholinergic (they release ACh).

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Flashcard 1801261026572

Tags
#S1::Autonomic_Nervous_System_Function
Question
The junctions between postganglionic autonomic neurons and their effectors (target tissues), the [...] , are analogous to the neuromuscular junctions of the somatic nervous system.
Answer
The junctions between postganglionic autonomic neurons and their effectors (target tissues), the neuro-effector junctions, are analogous to the neuromuscular junctions of the somatic nervous system.

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#emacs
The Theory of Movement Movement in Emacs is local, regional or global. Local move- ment is what you do when you edit and move around text near to the point.
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#emacs
Regional and local movement are similar but regional movement involves whole functions or class defi- nitions, if you are writing code; or chapters and such con- structs, if you are writing prose.
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#emacs
Global movement is any- thing that takes you from one buffer to another, or from one window to the next.
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#emacs
In Emacs, windows are transient; they come and go as you need them.
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#has-images
买个房,好多泪
  • 梁萧 发布于 7小时前
  • 分类:文摘

[imagelink]

猪小蒋:

和男朋友去看房。

房子很满意,但买的太急,跟中介、房东很多东西没谈清楚,过程中交了很多学费。

如果越女能讲一讲二手楼买卖的流程,帮助一下后面买房的小可爱们就好啦!

越女:

说说我的经验吧。

二手房买卖的流程,大致来说是这样的:

准备:看房子——讨价还价

前期:双方签约——给付定金——审查购房资格

中期:交首付——网签——申请和办理贷款

后期:过户——交房

房子这种大东西,因为交易太漫长,哪个环节出问题,后续波及都会很大。

所以建议大家在买房时,把所有可能产生纠纷的地方明确下来,再签约。

不然很容易被坑。

很多人会比较依赖房产中介,因为他们专业。

未必。

楼市政策变化快、中介的流性又大。有一些人其实半懂不懂的,未必能给你最佳的指导。

同时他们又特别希望你早点成交,所以很多人会在催促之下快速签约了。

然后再被迎面而来的困难糊一脸。

这种情况不少见。

据我观察,最近容易出现问题的流程,是贷款。

随便举俩栗子。

一位读者小伙伴今年在京买房,中介一直说贷款没问题。

但事实上他们夫妻俩在京已有一套房贷、在外地也有一套,虽然还有购房资格 ,但贷款是不行了的,很多银行都拒绝。

中介也不知道咋办好,只能不停的联系新银行、四处托关系。

还有一个朋友因为工作原因被拒贷,自己托了很多关系才找到靠谱的业务员。

情况基本类似吧...

中介事先打保票,事到临头一头包。

这种情况怎么办?

其实很简单,各种政策都有主管机构,自己最好直接联系官方平台,一一咨询清楚。

比如去房管局查房子的产权归属、抵押、转让、查封情况;

问一问房地产交易中心最新的限购政策;

去银行咨询贷款方案;

打电话给税务局问一下税费。

....

虽然看起来费点事,但能在开端把隐患都消除。

免得流程走了一半了,才临时卡壳。

我的一个经验是:

很多人觉得官方很冰冷,没有效率。但你在办大事时,无论是房管局,还是银行,你打个电话问一下,比中介的信息要准确、靠谱得多。

虽然委托中介一般也没问题,但自己舍得花时间去研究一下,会少吃很多亏。

有一些问题不常遇到,但遇到了会比较难办。

比如房子抵押好几个地方怎么办?房子产权是几人共有怎么办?涉及继承问题怎么办?

我有一个朋友在国贸租了一个办公室,房东是两个好友,一起出钱买的。

最近其中一位突然去世了,身后好几个子女,现在房子归属迟迟不能决定,物业费都没人交了...

两个房东还算少,我另一个朋友租的房子,还有四个房东呐。

想想就头疼。

遇到以上情况咋办?

一定要看房产证,最好能去房地产交易中心查房地产登记簿,明确房子是几人共有。

以及抵押、查封、转让等情况。

如果产权属于好几个人,签合同时大家一定都要到场。

尤其是买老人名下房子,不能一切让房主子女代劳。

而像我朋友这样,房东是几个人而一个人已经去世的情况,一定要等继承问题解决清楚明白了,再下手。

免得纠纷。

买二手房时常见的另一种纠纷,是卖方毁约,不卖了。

在房价飞涨时尤其常见。

能协商当然最好协商,但一旦准备诉讼,一定记得先把房子申请保全了,为强制过户做准备。

免得房东转卖他人,让情况更复杂。

当然涉及到诉讼,就需要请专业律师,具体我不多说了。

官司嘛,谁都不想打...费心费力。

还是在源头把隐患消除——

咱们在签房产合同时,对容易产生纠纷的地方,最好要在附加条款里约定清晰。

比如,卖方违约怎么处理、遇到限购限贷了怎么办、房贷没办下来怎么办、过户时间超出约定时间怎么办、户口什么时候迁出去、房主到期不迁怎么办....

具体时间点、违约惩罚措施,一一写清楚。

不要嫌麻烦,也别不好意思。

毕竟买房是大事,利益相关必须较真,最好专门抽一天时间,买卖双方坐下来聊透了。

可别全听中介的,在合同上随便打几个勾勾,就糊弄过去。

让我想想...

买房时还容易遇到的一个事,乱收费。

我弟弟前段时间买房,中介对他说,我可以帮你贷款,收3%手续费;还有一些人买新房时,开发商说必须通过代办公司贷款。

也是很让人费解了。

3%的手续费,实在是个不小的成本啊。

如果你要包装自己,美化一下收入流水、信用资质什么的,那找中介代办贷款,没毛病。

但像我弟弟这种良好公民,从不逾期,身家清白,其实没必要找代办吖。

直接问银行更好。

同学在银行做支行长,他说,银行是很愿意房贷客户直接找上门的。

没有中间商赚差价,大家都开心。

写了很多了...

其实买房过程中可能遇到的坑,也不止这一点点,我只是写了常见的一些。

说多了,眼泪都成诗。

各位买房达人,在留言区帮我继续列举吧~

来源:越女事务所 WeChat ID:ynducai

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#has-images
买个房,好多泪
  • 梁萧 发布于 7小时前
  • 分类:文摘

[imagelink]

猪小蒋:

和男朋友去看房。

房子很满意,但买的太急,跟中介、房东很多东西没谈清楚,过程中交了很多学费。

如果越女能讲一讲二手楼买卖的流程,帮助一下后面买房的小可爱们就好啦!

越女:

说说我的经验吧。

二手房买卖的流程,大致来说是这样的:

准备:看房子——讨价还价

前期:双方签约——给付定金——审查购房资格

中期:交首付——网签——申请和办理贷款

后期:过户——交房

房子这种大东西,因为交易太漫长,哪个环节出问题,后续波及都会很大。

所以建议大家在买房时,把所有可能产生纠纷的地方明确下来,再签约。

不然很容易被坑。

很多人会比较依赖房产中介,因为他们专业。

未必。

楼市政策变化快、中介的流性又大。有一些人其实半懂不懂的,未必能给你最佳的指导。

同时他们又特别希望你早点成交,所以很多人会在催促之下快速签约了。

然后再被迎面而来的困难糊一脸。

这种情况不少见。

据我观察,最近容易出现问题的流程,是贷款。

随便举俩栗子。

一位读者小伙伴今年在京买房,中介一直说贷款没问题。

但事实上他们夫妻俩在京已有一套房贷、在外地也有一套,虽然还有购房资格 ,但贷款是不行了的,很多银行都拒绝。

中介也不知道咋办好,只能不停的联系新银行、四处托关系。

还有一个朋友因为工作原因被拒贷,自己托了很多关系才找到靠谱的业务员。

情况基本类似吧...

中介事先打保票,事到临头一头包。

这种情况怎么办?

其实很简单,各种政策都有主管机构,自己最好直接联系官方平台,一一咨询清楚。

比如去房管局查房子的产权归属、抵押、转让、查封情况;

问一问房地产交易中心最新的限购政策;

去银行咨询贷款方案;

打电话给税务局问一下税费。

....

虽然看起来费点事,但能在开端把隐患都消除。

免得流程走了一半了,才临时卡壳。

我的一个经验是:

很多人觉得官方很冰冷,没有效率。但你在办大事时,无论是房管局,还是银行,你打个电话问一下,比中介的信息要准确、靠谱得多。

虽然委托中介一般也没问题,但自己舍得花时间去研究一下,会少吃很多亏。

有一些问题不常遇到,但遇到了会比较难办。

比如房子抵押好几个地方怎么办?房子产权是几人共有怎么办?涉及继承问题怎么办?

我有一个朋友在国贸租了一个办公室,房东是两个好友,一起出钱买的。

最近其中一位突然去世了,身后好几个子女,现在房子归属迟迟不能决定,物业费都没人交了...

两个房东还算少,我另一个朋友租的房子,还有四个房东呐。

想想就头疼。

遇到以上情况咋办?

一定要看房产证,最好能去房地产交易中心查房地产登记簿,明确房子是几人共有。

以及抵押、查封、转让等情况。

如果产权属于好几个人,签合同时大家一定都要到场。

尤其是买老人名下房子,不能一切让房主子女代劳。

而像我朋友这样,房东是几个人而一个人已经去世的情况,一定要等继承问题解决清楚明白了,再下手。

免得纠纷。

买二手房时常见的另一种纠纷,是卖方毁约,不卖了。

在房价飞涨时尤其常见。

能协商当然最好协商,但一旦准备诉讼,一定记得先把房子申请保全了,为强制过户做准备。

免得房东转卖他人,让情况更复杂。

当然涉及到诉讼,就需要请专业律师,具体我不多说了。

官司嘛,谁都不想打...费心费力。

还是在源头把隐患消除——

咱们在签房产合同时,对容易产生纠纷的地方,最好要在附加条款里约定清晰。

比如,卖方违约怎么处理、遇到限购限贷了怎么办、房贷没办下来怎么办、过户时间超出约定时间怎么办、户口什么时候迁出去、房主到期不迁怎么办....

具体时间点、违约惩罚措施,一一写清楚。

不要嫌麻烦,也别不好意思。

毕竟买房是大事,利益相关必须较真,最好专门抽一天时间,买卖双方坐下来聊透了。

可别全听中介的,在合同上随便打几个勾勾,就糊弄过去。

让我想想...

买房时还容易遇到的一个事,乱收费。

我弟弟前段时间买房,中介对他说,我可以帮你贷款,收3%手续费;还有一些人买新房时,开发商说必须通过代办公司贷款。

也是很让人费解了。

3%的手续费,实在是个不小的成本啊。

如果你要包装自己,美化一下收入流水、信用资质什么的,那找中介代办贷款,没毛病。

但像我弟弟这种良好公民,从不逾期,身家清白,其实没必要找代办吖。

直接问银行更好。

同学在银行做支行长,他说,银行是很愿意房贷客户直接找上门的。

没有中间商赚差价,大家都开心。

写了很多了...

其实买房过程中可能遇到的坑,也不止这一点点,我只是写了常见的一些。

说多了,眼泪都成诗。

各位买房达人,在留言区帮我继续列举吧~

来源:越女事务所 WeChat ID:ynducai

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#has-images
怎么避开那些贩卖焦虑恐慌、偷换概念的鸡汤?
  • 梁萧 发布于 43分钟前
  • 分类:文摘

[imagelink]

作者:华沙

甄别信息的能力,的确是处理题主问题的核心。但是锻炼这个能力很难,我下面会具体说一下。

具有一定的科学素养,还有基本的概率论知识能很好的破解上述难题。如果加之以一定社会经验,其实不难。但是,我们在焦虑的情况下本身的认知能力受到影响;判断能力自然下降。不然怎么会有高学历还被骗的呢?

其实题主说的很对,不少公众号问题就在于制造恐慌;制造恐慌的方法就是偷换概念。如果了解这一点就能很好的对应了。

第一点,不少公众号也不是胡来,都会举几个例子。这就是攻破他们的第一道防线。就好比知乎上我曾经看到的回答,我转述一下:

很多人在谈穿越的时候,都喜欢把自己往帝王将相带入。事实上,单纯从概率角度,我们穿预成平头百姓的概率才是大的离谱。

举例子都会据,但是例子就能证明某一个概念么?我想说的是,用最粗浅角度看,这类孤立特例最多能用来反驳一些定论,但是难以真的证明某事。

相类似的,高收入群体也是极少数。更何况很多人的成果根本算不得“个人的奋斗”,而是在于“历史的机遇”。比如一个 2004 年毕业在北京的大学生,进入绝大多数工作岗位都是朝阳的;如果按部就班结婚买房,也能赶上房产涨价前的一波红利。但是我们看 2018 年的毕业生,哪怕一模一样的家庭条件和实力,根本遇不上这个机会。那么,你去看别人的例子有用么?鸡汤里的例子有价值么?

其次,要注意一点,相关不是因果。有时候因果也不是那么简单的来。对于相关不是因果我可以举个例子,好比说成功的家庭教育都需要 xxx,这就是典型的问题。好比这个例子:

如果你去小学调查就会发现,鞋子越大的孩子算数水平越高。能说是脚大智力高么?其实这里是混淆了另一个变量年龄。年龄越大,在小学阶段,推理能力越强,鞋码也越大。

所以说鞋码预测智力你们不信,为什么类似的你就信了呢?

还有因果也不是那么简单的来的。好比说一升水正巧是一公斤,并不是有什么深刻道理在,仅仅是早期就是如此定义的这些单位的。再比如,似乎水果都是甜的。那是因为长期的自然选择和育种带来,也就是甜的才叫水果。

因此,我倒建议各位看到似是而非的例子时候;静下心来思考下,这个例子真实么?有价值么?和你有关系么?和这个事情有关系么?

第二点,就是防止偷换概念。这就得要尤其小心‘伪·心理学概念’了。这个问题的重灾区就是发展和社会心理学,顺带躺枪的是心理咨询。其实很好分辨,名字越炫酷的理论,越不靠谱。比如大家都爱说的“皮革马利翁效应”,正经说法是“教师期望效应”。理论的使用,都有严格的条件。越是现代的科研成果,越在意信效度,越在意使用的界限。如果单独抛出一个概念就说的;基本就认为是假的吧。

其次,偷换概念的应对方法,就是静下心来想一想。不妨反思一下说的道理是不是如此。老板和你画饼,你都会三思一下是不是随口一说。为什么看文章时候不多想呢?能避免逻辑上的漏洞,重点就是反复思考。

当然最好的方法,是看到那类标题就别看。深藏功与名。

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Many organic biomaterials, including proteins, peptides, amino acids, and polysaccharides, have highly organized molecular dipole assemblies and are frequently piezoelectric due to the presence of polar bonds and natural asymmetry
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Compared to inorganic ferroelectrics/pie- zoelectrics, they are far cheaper, and their structure can be eas- ily controlled through chemistry, which makes them highly versatile and flexible
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Recently, it was demonstrated that peptide nanotubes (PNTs) are also strongly piezoelectric with the orientation of polarization along the tube axis. 18 How- ever, previous attempts to switch the polarization in this mate- rial were unsuccessful due to the geometry of vertical nanotubes and the extremely high coercive field, which did not allow full polarization switching.
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n these measurements, the conducting PFM tip is scanned in a con- tact mode while an ac voltage is applied between the tip and a counter electrode. The piezoresponse contrast is acquired in the form of the mixed signal A cos u, with A being the am- plitude of the piezoelectric vibration and u being the phase shift between the driving and detected signals. 21 In this way, polarizations with opposite directions exhibit contrasts of op- posite signs
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The temperature dependence of the tube morphology and the lateral piezoresponse measured in situ on as-grown horizontal tubes are presented in detail in Fig. 3. The topog- raphy and PFM signal were followed while the tube sample was slowly heated in the PFM setup. We found that the to- pography of the tubes does not change until 100 C, and only at temperatures close to 150 C do the tubes contract by about 10% to 12% relative to their initial height. This finding confirms the occurrence of some structural changes; how- ever, no collapsing of the tubes or integrity loss were docu- mented in our experimental conditions, in contrast to a recent study by Sedman et al
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Flashcard 1801672330508

Tags
#dconst::principiosfundamentais
Question
A República Federativa do Brasil, formada pela união indissolúvel dos Estados e Municípios e do Distrito Federal, constitui-se em Estado Democrático de Direito e tem como fundamentos:
Answer
I - a soberania;
II - a cidadania
III - a dignidade da pessoa humana;
IV - os valores sociais do trabalho e da livre iniciativa;
V - o pluralismo político

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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#platão
Sócrates — Em verdade, Céfalo, eu aprecio conversar com os velhos. Penso que devemos aprender com eles, pois são pes- soas que nos antecederam num caminho que também iremos trilhar, para assim conhecermos como é: áspero e árduo ou tran- qüilo e cômodo
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#platão
Trasímaco, ele- vando a voz no meio do auditório, gritou: — Que tagarelice é essa, Sócrates, e por que agis como tolos, inclinando-vos alter- nadamente um diante do outro? Se queres mesmo saber o que é justo, não te limites a indagar e não teimes em refutar aquele que responde, mas, tendo reconhecido que é mais fácil indagar do que responder, responde tu mesmo e diz como defines a justiça. E abstém-te de pretender ensinar o que se deve fazer, o que é o útil, proveitoso, lucrativo ou vantajoso; exprime-te com clareza e precisão, pois eu não admitirei tais banalidades.
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#platão
Aquele que se engana o faz quando a ciência o abandona, no instante em que não é mais artesão; assim, ar- tesão, sábio ou governante, ninguém se engana no exercido das suas funções, apesar de todos dizerem que o médico se enganou, que o governante se enganou. Portanto, admito que te tenha respondido há pouco neste sentido; mas, para me expressar de forma mais exata, o governante, enquanto governante, não se engana, não comete um erro ao fazer passar por lei o seu maior interesse, que deve ser realizado pelo governado. Deste modo, como no mído, afirmo que a justiça consiste em fazer o que e vantajoso para o mais forte
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