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#economia #mises
As notas ban- cárias tornaram-se meios fiduciários pelo próprio funcionamento do mercado não obstruído. O pai da expansão de crédito foi o banqueiro e não a autoridade pública
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#economia #mises
tributar os cidadãos ou tomar-lhes um empréstimo, nada estará acrescentando ao que os keynesianos denominam de despesa agregada. Estará apenas restringindo o poder de os cidadãos consumirem ou in- vestirem, na mesma medida em que aumenta o seu.
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#economia #mises
obras públicas agravam o verdadeiro proble- ma, que é a escassez de bens de capital
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Flashcard 2978410007820

Question
A: The police came to my house today and accused me of stealing a diamond necklace. They said it had been taken from Lady Badger’s house at 1.00 am.
B: And had you done it?
A: No, they were [...] as usual. I was miles away robbing a bank in Manchester at 1.00 am!
Answer
[default - edit me]

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Scripting Languages
#ruby
A scripting language such as Ruby, Javascript, or Python relies upon an application's source code all the time. Scripting languages have no compiler or compilation phase per se; instead, they use an interpreter—a program that runs on the web server—to translate handwritten code into machine-executable code on the fly. The link between the running application and your handcrafted code is never severed, because that scripting code is translated every time it's invoked; in other words, for every web page that your application renders.

As you might have gathered from the name, the use of an interpreter rather than a compiler is the major difference between a scripting language and a compiled language.

Translating code on the web server every time it's needed is certainly more expensive performance-wise than executing precompiled code, as it requires more effort on the part of your machine's processor. The good news is that there are ways to speed up scripted languages, including techniques such as code caching—caching the output of a script for reuse rather than executing the script every time—and persistent interpreters—loading the interpreter once and keeping it running instead of having to load it for every request.


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Object Oriented Programming
#ruby
OOP is a programming paradigm that first surfaced in the 1960s, but didn't gain traction until the 1980s with C++. Its core idea is that programs should be composed of individual entities, or objects, each of which has the ability to communicate with other objects around it by passing messages. Additionally, each object may have the facility to store data internally (called state).

Objects in an OOP application are often modeled on real-world objects, so even non-programmers usually recognize the basic role that an object plays. And, just like the real world, OOP defines objects and classes with similar characteristics belonging to the same classes and objects. A class is a construct for defining properties for objects that are alike and equipping them with functionality. For example, a class named Car might define the attributes color and mileage for its objects, and assign them functionality: actions such as open the trunk, start the engine, and change gears. These different actions are known as methods, although you'll often see Rails enthusiasts refer to the methods of a controller (a kind of object used in Rails with which you'll become very familiar) as actions; you can safely consider the two terms to be interchangeable.

Understanding the relationship between a class and its objects is integral to understanding how OOP works. For instance, one object can invoke functionality on another object, and can do so without affecting other objects of the same class. So, if one car object was instructed to open its trunk, its trunk would open, but the trunk of other cars would remain closed—think of KITT, the talking car from the television show Knight Rider, if it helps with the metaphor. Similarly, if our high-tech talking car were instructed to change color to red, it would do so, but other cars would not.

When we create a new object in OOP, we base it on an existing class. The process of creating new objects from a class is called instantiation.

As I've mentioned, objects can communicate with each other via messages, invoking functionality (methods) on other objects. Invoking an object's methods can be thought of as asking the object a question and getting an answer in return. Consider the example of our famous talking car again. Let's say we ask the talking car object to report its current mileage. This question is not ambiguous: the answer that the object gives is called a return value.

In some cases, the question-and-answer analogy seems ill-fitting. In these situations, we might rephrase the analogy to consider the question to be an instruction, and the answer a status report indicating whether or not the instruction was executed successfully.

Sometimes we need more flexibility with our instructions. For example, if we wanted to tell our car to change gear, we tell it not only to change gear, but also which gear to change to. The process of asking these kinds of questions is referred to as passing an argument to the method. An argument (also called a "parameter") is an input value that's provided to a method. An argument can be used to influence: how a method operates on which object a method operates. As one might expect, the object sending the message is called the sender, and the object receiving the message is called the receiver.

















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#economia #mises
num regime de livre comércio e de liberdade de migração nenhum indivíduo se preocupa com o tamanho do território de seu país, num regime de medidas protecionistas adotadas pelo nacionalis- mo econômico quase todo cidadão tem um interesse substancial nessas questões territoriais. O aumento do território sujeito à so- berania do seu próprio governo significa uma melhoria material para si mesmo ou pelo menos um alívio em relação às restrições que são impostas ao seu bem-estar, por um governo estrangeiro
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Constants, Classes and Capitals
#ruby
Constants, Classes, and Capitals Class names start with a capital letter because they are constants. In programming-speak, a constant is a value that, once set, does not change throughout the lifetime of the program. Classes are considered constants, so they are capitalized. You'll see other constants in ALL_CAPS, which is a Ruby convention that says "this value is a constant, but it is not a class.

















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Literal Objects
#ruby
Literal objects are character strings or numbers that appear directly in the code, such as the number 1 returned in the previous section. We've seen numbers in action, so let's now look at a string literal. A string literal is an object that contains a string of characters, such as a name, an address, or an especially witty phrase. In the same way that we created the 1 literal object in the previous example, we can easily create a new string literal object, then send it a message.


















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Scoping Scope
#ruby
There's one more special (and, you might say, evil) side to a variable: scope. The scope of a variable is the part of the program to which a variable is visible. If you try to access a variable from outside its scope (for example, from a part of an application to which that variable is not visible), your attempts will generally fail.

Scoping Scope Scope is a big concept in most programming languages, and understanding it is a true way to hone your craft. I wish I could spend more time on scope, but since I can't, check out this article on SitePoint in your spare time. The notable exception to the rules defining a variable's scope are global variables. As the name implies, a global variable is accessible from any part of the program. While this might sound convenient, using global variables is discouraged—that they can be written to and read from any part of the program introduces security concerns.




















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Chaining Statements Together
#ruby
Using characters to separate commands in Ruby is unnecessary, unless we want to chain multiple statements together on a single line. In this case, a semicolon (;) is used as the separator. However, if you put every statement on its own line (as we've been doing until now), the semicolon is completely optional. If you chain multiple statements together in the interactive shell, only the output of the last command that was executed will be displayed to the screen:

irb> fox.class; fox.length; fox.upcase

=> "THE QUICK BROWN FOX"

Don't be confused. All the messages were sent and methods executed, but irb only shows us the last one.























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Parentheses
#ruby
In Ruby, the use of parentheses for method calls is optional in cases where no arguments are passed to the method. The following statements are therefore equal: irb> fox.class() => String irb> fox.class => String It's common practice (and encouraged) to include parentheses for method calls with multiple arguments, such as the insert method of the String class:

irb> "jumps over the lazy dog".insert(0, 'The quick brown fox ')

=> "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog"


This call inserts the second argument passed to the insert object ("The quick brown fox ") at position 0 of the receiving String object ("jumps over the lazy dog"). Position 0 refers to the very beginning of the string.

























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Predicate Method
#ruby
A method that returns only true or false is also known as a predicate method. These naming conventions make it easy to recognize methods that are destructive and those that return Boolean values, making your Ruby code more readable.



























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Encapsulation
#ruby
Another basic principle in OOP is encapsulation. According to this principle, objects should be treated as independent entities, each taking care of its own internal data and functionality. If we need to access an object's information—its internal variables, for instance—we make use of the object's interface, which is the subset of the object's methods that are made available for other objects to call.





























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Access Levels
#ruby
Object methods can have different access levels, meaning, some are accessible publicly, while others are accessible only by the object itself. A method can have one of three access levels within an object: public, protected, or private. Go and ask Google what these mean.






























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Object-Level Functionality
#ruby
At the object level, data storage (state) is handled by instance variables (a name that's derived from the instantiation process mentioned). Think of instance variables as storage containers that are attached to the object, but to which other objects do not have direct access.

To store or retrieve data from these variables, another object must call an accessor method defined on the object. An accessor method has the ability to set (and get) the value of the object's instance variables.

Let's look at how instance variables and accessor methods relate to each other, and how they're implemented in Ruby.

Instance Variables

Instance variables are bound to an object, and contain values for that object only. Revisiting our car example, the mileage values for a number of different Car objects are likely to differ, as each car will have a different mileage. Therefore, mileage is held in an instance variable.

An instance variable can be recognized by its prefix: a single “at” (@) sign. What's more, instance variables don't even need to be declared! There's only one issue: we don't have any way to retrieve or change them from outside the object once they do exist. This is where instance methods come into play.

A Link to Social Media
I like to think of instance variables as the inspiration for mentions on Twitter and social media. I have no idea if this is true, but Twitter did start life in Ruby.

Instance Methods
Data storage and retrieval is not the only capability that can be bound to a specific object; functionality can also be bound to objects. We achieve this binding through the use of instance methods that are specific to an object. Invoking an instance method (in other words, sending a message that contains the method name to an object) will invoke that functionality on the receiving object only.

Instance methods are defined using the def keyword, and end with the end keyword.

Enter the following example into a new Ruby shell:

$ irb irb> class Car
irb> def open_trunk
irb> # code to open trunk goes here
irb> end
irb> end => nil
irb> kitt = Car.new
=> #<Car:0x75e54>


What you've done is define a class called Car, which has an instance method with the name open_trunk. A Car object instantiated from this class will—possibly using some fancy robotics connected to our Ruby program—open its trunk when its open_trunk method is called. Ignore that nil return value for the moment; we'll look at nil values in the next section.




































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Article 2978441989388

Cross and women earlyvages

Religion and Little M ages - Unknown (Highlight: 6; Note: 0)-------------"skies 24/7. Phoebe was the trusted messenger of Apostle Paul, and she was partly responsible for helping establish a standardized dogma. Women like Paula, Marcella, and Fabiola were the driving force behind social services projects that organized religion would eventually become known for -- you know, little things such as monasteries and convents and hospitals for the underprivileg"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Besides money and organizational talent, early female Christians were highly represented in {{c1::ministerial roles and preaching. }}They're believed to have comprised a v"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"In the most notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an{{c2:: apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order. "(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Before{{c3::



Phoebe was the trusted messenger of Apostle Paul, and she was partly responsible for helping establish a standardized dogma. W
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Cross and women earlyvages
Religion and Little M ages - Unknown (Highlight: 6; Note: 0)-------------"skies 24/7. Phoebe was the trusted messenger of Apostle Paul, and she was partly responsible for helping establish a standardized dogma. Women like Paula, Marcella, and Fabiola were the driving force behind social services projects that organized religion would eventually become known for -- you know, little things such as




Women like Paula, Marcella, and Fabiola were the driving force behind social services projects that organized religion would eventually become known for -- you know, little things such as monasteries and convents and hospitals for the underprivileg"
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Cross and women earlyvages
d><head>Religion and Little M ages - Unknown (Highlight: 6; Note: 0)-------------"skies 24/7. Phoebe was the trusted messenger of Apostle Paul, and she was partly responsible for helping establish a standardized dogma. Women like Paula, Marcella, and Fabiola were the driving force behind social services projects that organized religion would eventually become known for -- you know, little things such as monasteries and convents and hospitals for the underprivileg"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Besides money and organizational talent, early female Christians were highly represented in {{c1::ministerial rol




In the most notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order.
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Cross and women earlyvages
money and organizational talent, early female Christians were highly represented in {{c1::ministerial roles and preaching. }}They're believed to have comprised a v"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"<span>In the most notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an{{c2:: apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order. "(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation be




Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation between the{{c3:: "Old" (Jewish) and "New" (Christian) Testaments before}} him. It was just hundreds of different stories in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit.
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Cross and women earlyvages
t notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an{{c2:: apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order. "(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"<span>Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation between the{{c3:: "Old" (Jewish) and "New" (Christian) Testaments before}} him. It was just hundreds of different stories in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit."(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Because Marcion believed that the deity of what would eventually be Old Testament texts was a completely di




Because Marcion believed that the deity of what would eventually be Old Testament texts was a completely different and more{{c4:: malevolent creator-god}}"(
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Cross and women earlyvages
s in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit."(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"<span>Because Marcion believed that the deity of what would eventually be Old Testament texts was a completely different and more{{c4:: malevolent creator-god}}"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"To make things even more intriguing, one early Gnostic sect called the{{c5:: Carpocratians}} depicted Jesus Christ




ty)"To make things even more intriguing, one early Gnostic sect called the{{c5:: Carpocratians}} depicted Jesus Christ as not only a sexual being but a{{c6:: full-on libertine who indulged in flamboyantly gay and bisexual antics with his followers}}. That's right, the Gnostic JC was AC/DC"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)
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Cross and women earlyvages
Christianity)"Because Marcion believed that the deity of what would eventually be Old Testament texts was a completely different and more{{c4:: malevolent creator-god}}"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christiani<span>ty)"To make things even more intriguing, one early Gnostic sect called the{{c5:: Carpocratians}} depicted Jesus Christ as not only a sexual being but a{{c6:: full-on libertine who indulged in flamboyantly gay and bisexual antics with his followers}}. That's right, the Gnostic JC was AC/DC"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)<span><body><html>




Flashcard 2978453523724

Question
In the most notable case, [...], an early female church figure praised as an apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order.
Answer
Junia

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In the most notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order.

Original toplevel document

Cross and women earlyvages
money and organizational talent, early female Christians were highly represented in {{c1::ministerial roles and preaching. }}They're believed to have comprised a v"(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"<span>In the most notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an{{c2:: apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order. "(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation be







Flashcard 2978455096588

Question
Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation between the{{c3:: "Old" (Jewish) and "New" (Christian) Testaments before}} him. It was just hundreds of different stories in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit.
Answer
[default - edit me]

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Cross and women earlyvages
t notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an{{c2:: apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order. "(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"<span>Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation between the{{c3:: "Old" (Jewish) and "New" (Christian) Testaments before}} him. It was just hundreds of different stories in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit."(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Because Marcion believed that the deity of what would eventually be Old Testament texts was a completely di







Flashcard 2978456145164

Question
Marcion cross hist was?
Answer
Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation between the{{c3:: "Old" (Jewish) and "New" (Christian) Testaments before}} him. It was just hundreds of different stories in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit

statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
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scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill
Cross and women earlyvages
t notable case, Junia, an early female church figure praised as an{{c2:: apostle,}} was edited into a male in the Middle Ages to reflect a repressive social order. "(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"<span>Before{{c3:: Marcion, }}the Christian Bible as we know it did not exist. There was no known segregation between the{{c3:: "Old" (Jewish) and "New" (Christian) Testaments before}} him. It was just hundreds of different stories in free circulation: multiple books of revelation, too many gospels to count, and more coming in every week. So Marcion decided to go Brothers Grimm on that shit."(Chapter:5 Insane Facts That Will Change How You View Christianity)"Because Marcion believed that the deity of what would eventually be Old Testament texts was a completely d







Flashcard 2978458504460

Question
Adult insects typically move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming. As it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their [...]
Answer
legs touching the ground in alternating triangles.

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Open it
Adult insects typically move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming. As it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles.

Original toplevel document

Insect - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
apoda is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm (22–28 in). The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. <span>Adult insects typically move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming. As it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, and some adult insects







PROTEINS THAT ARE SAFE FOR CATS
Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they need meat to live. Meat is a great source of protein for your cat. However, too much fat can give your cat a stomachache, so make sure to trim off any excess fatty portions beforehand and to cook all meat thoroughly before you feed it to your cat*.
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Flashcard 2978462698764

Question
PROTEINS THAT ARE SAFE FOR CATS
Cats are [...] which means that they need meat to live. Meat is a great source of protein for your cat. However, too much fat can give your cat a stomachache, so make sure to trim off any excess fatty portions beforehand and to cook all meat thoroughly before you feed it to your cat*.
Answer
obligate carnivores,

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PROTEINS THAT ARE SAFE FOR CATS Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they need meat to live. Meat is a great source of protein for your cat. However, too much fat can give your cat a stomachache, so make sure to trim off any excess fatty







Flashcard 2978465320204

Tags
#biology
Question
Parasympathetic nervous system: does what?
Answer
Parasympathetic nervous system: The part of the involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase intestinal and glandular activity, and relax the sphincter muscles. The parasympathetic nervous system, together with the sympathetic nervous system, constitutes the autonomic nervous system

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A new sign of political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on the writings of William Shakespeare. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over
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Welcome to A+E Networks | UK
URL http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/chinese-government-removes-ban-on-shakespeare Access Date May 25, 2018 Publisher A+E Networks <span>A new sign of political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on the writings of William Shakespeare. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over. In 1966, Mao Tse-Tung, the leader of the People’s Republic of China, announced a “Cultural Revolution,” which was designed to restore communist revolutionary fervor and vigor to Chin




Flashcard 2978470563084

Question
A new sign of political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on [...]. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over
Answer
the writings of William Shakespeare

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A new sign of political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on the writings of William Shakespeare. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over

Original toplevel document

Welcome to A+E Networks | UK
URL http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/chinese-government-removes-ban-on-shakespeare Access Date May 25, 2018 Publisher A+E Networks <span>A new sign of political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on the writings of William Shakespeare. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over. In 1966, Mao Tse-Tung, the leader of the People’s Republic of China, announced a “Cultural Revolution,” which was designed to restore communist revolutionary fervor and vigor to Chin







n 1966, Mao Tse-Tung, the leader of the People’s Republic of China, announced a “Cultural Revolution,” which was designed to restore communist revolutionary fervor and vigor to Chinese society. His wife, Chiang Ching, was made the unofficial secretary of culture for China.
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Welcome to A+E Networks | UK
f political liberalization appears in China, when the communist government lifts its decade-old ban on the writings of William Shakespeare. The action by the Chinese government was additional evidence that the Cultural Revolution was over. I<span>n 1966, Mao Tse-Tung, the leader of the People’s Republic of China, announced a “Cultural Revolution,” which was designed to restore communist revolutionary fervor and vigor to Chinese society. His wife, Chiang Ching, was made the unofficial secretary of culture for China. What the revolution meant in practice, however, was the assassination of officials deemed to have lost their dedication to the communist cause and the arrest and detention of thousands




#economia #mises
a inflação e as tentativas de re- duzir a taxa de juro abaixo da que seria o nível de mercado realizam uma virtual expropriação das dotações dos hospitais, asilos, orfanatos e estabelecimentos similares. Quando os defensores do estado prove- dor lamentam a insuficiência de fundos disponíveis para a assistência humanitária, estão lamentando um dos resultados de políticas que eles mesmos recomendaram
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#economia #mises
Suponhamos que Paulo, no ano de 1940, tenha poupado cem dó- lares e os tenha aplicado num sistema de previdência social perten- cente ao estado. 11 Em troca, passou a ser credor de algum benefício futuro que lhe deverá ser pago pelo governo. Se o governo gastou os cem dólares em despesas correntes, não houve investimento adi- cional e, portanto, também não houve aumento na produtividade do trabalho. A dívida contraída pelo governo terá de ser paga pe- los futuros contribuintes. Em 1970, um certo Pedro poderá ver-se obrigado a pagar o compromisso assumido pelo governo, embora ele mesmo não tenha auferido nenhum benefício com o fato de Paulo ter poupado cem dólares em 1940
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