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It was initially a typical cramming tool, however, by 2015, backed by venture capital, Quizlet announced a higher emphasis on long-term retention, which resulted in adopting a variant of Algorithm SM-2. By 2017, they decided to use machine learning to deploy a new algorithm

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The true history of spaced repetition | SuperMemo.com
owever, not for SuperMemo . It simply opened the floodgates for the competition to rush in into the field of spaced repetition. 2008: explosion Quizlet was written in 2005 and released in 2007. <span>It was initially a typical cramming tool, however, by 2015, backed by venture capital, Quizlet announced a higher emphasis on long-term retention, which resulted in adopting a variant of Algorithm SM-2 . By 2017, they decided to use machine learning to deploy a new algorithm that would capitalize on billions of repetition records collected. The short stint for SuperMemo at Quizlet must have given a mutation of Algorithm SM-2 an exposure to the largest user




Non-linearities come from : Kinematic (movement and strains) : large displacement, large rotation, large strains Material : non-linear response, history-dependent response Contact/friction

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The three non-linearities should been coupled

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16 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material GNU FDL Licence Equations – Finite element approximation Non-linear problem : stress depending on displacement From displacement u to strain : kinematic non-linearity From strain to stress : material non-linearity Non

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Why parametrization ? Real boundary conditions should been applied by non-constant values Non-linear material produced non-linear equation, precision should depends on incremental step size An non-linear problem is easier to solve when cut by small step size

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Solving non-linear problem Global algorithm : 1)Compute internal and external forces 2)Compute tangent matrix 3)Solve linear system 4)Update displacements 5)Evaluate convergence

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[转载]婚姻的五道坎




你的感情出现问题了吗?
我们每个人都渴望美好幸福的婚姻、浪漫甜蜜的爱情,但我们往往忽略了现实问题:每段婚姻都会至少遭遇五道坎,同时每个人因原生家庭不同,从小养成的生活习惯、价值观不同,男女大不同,彼此人格不同,这些冲撞在婚姻关系中会体现, 这些差异以及带来的问题会贯穿婚姻中的五个阶段,处理不好,婚姻就可能面临各种威胁,甚至解体。
一、新婚蜜月期过后
新婚蜜月期过后,婚姻呈现出最本真的一面,两个人之间的浪漫激情逐渐被柴米油盐的生活所淹没。毫无经验和心理准备的新人极易出现浮躁心态,特别是新生代崇尚个性自由、选择自由,对于伴侣的包容度很低,处理夫妻和家庭关系的能力还没成长起来,之前隐藏在两个人之间的三观问题也显得比较突出,很多人感叹自己选错了人,并萌生出离婚的念头。
二、女性怀孕期
女性怀孕后,受体内激素变化影响,会带来身体和心理上的不适,对丈夫的关心、关注不比从前。丈夫也因心理和身体变化难以调整,双方矛盾激发,很可能这时男性以婚外情方式来逃避问题。
三、孩子出生后(包括二胎)
小生命的到来,给家庭带来无尽的欢乐。同时也带来另一些问题:
1.经济压力心理压力加大,女性在生产哺乳期间无法工作,收入会减少。另外多了一个人的开支,也会无形中增加经济压力。
2.丈夫容易被忽视,所有的关注点都会被孩子吸引过去。夫妻间少了独立空间,没了交流,性生活质量下降。夫妻间变得淡漠甚至茫然。
3.婚姻关系中每多一个人,关系就更复杂一层,这时,不仅多了孩子,还可能双方父母参与进来,造成多重矛盾,婆媳矛盾最为典型。
4.孩子教育问题容易起争执,主要表现在教育理念上的强烈碰撞。
四、七年之痒
婚姻持续七年左右,会进入所谓的七年之痒。夫妻之间已经非常熟悉,没有了新鲜,也没了闲情逸致,两个人之间日积月累的矛盾反而可能积累了不少。双方满意度低,仅存的亲情似乎也难于维系,有烦恼不向对方倾诉,有快乐也懒得与对方分享,这个时段,出轨婚外情形成高峰。
五、更年期
妻子进入更年期,极易变得烦躁,性格甚至偏执,一方面惧怕年华老去,另一方面担心自已的魅力失去,同时丈夫精力也有所下降,精力不再充沛,事业也似乎到了顶点无法继续创新取得新的突破,这一切都在无形中影响中婚姻的质量,处理不好,婚姻也极可能在这个时候翻船,虽是老夫老妻也应特别注意。

因此,夫妻之间仅有恋爱或婚姻之初的吸引是不够的,很多夫妻总是信赖着一种错觉,因为彼此爱慕,所以所有的事情都将自动发生:如果你爱我应该满足我的需求....如果你爱我,我们的关系应该....事实上两个人组建一个家庭是很困难的事情,就像建立一个公司,能否成功取决于它的组织,努力。
你如何与一个人相处,期望从对方身上得到什么,以及你们之间如何互相交流。这都会是创造一个怎样婚姻的重要影响因素。
让我们做一个比喻,这好比一个工程师不会仅仅因为喜欢建桥而尝试建造一座桥,在一座桥成功建造起来之前,工程师必须具备相应的专业知识了解建桥过程的所有细节。这个类比也适用于夫妻关系建立上。夫妻需要知道建立关系的全部过程,在家庭建筑中需要爱和方法,缺一不可。如果过程中发现婚姻没有满足愿望,爱就会渐渐消耗,甚至消失。
因此,这个世界上没有不需要经营的婚姻,没有一成不变的爱情,相对合适的人➕合适的方法=幸福婚姻

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Solving non-linear problem Compute internal and external forces : Exact computation is necessary (software requirement) Non-linear behavior is evaluated at each Gauss point Complex behavior laws computation should be expensive Precision of computation of some behavior laws should depend on increment of displacement : Visco-plasticity Non-radial loading PETIT_REAC strain measure

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31 - Code_Aster and Salome-Meca course material GNU FDL Licence Solving non-linear problem Compute tangent matrix : Exact computation is NOT necessary Tangent matrix is evaluated at each Gauss point Tangent matrix computation should be expensive

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#has-images

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White has a substantial advantage in space. Black has failed to execute any of the freeing moves, such as ... b5 or ... d5, that he needs to survive in this Maroczy Bind pawn structure. White will eventually find a winning plan, such as with ♖ e3, ♘ g5, ♖ h3 and a breakthrough around h7

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And White's attack would likely have succeeded if Black played in the manner that served so well for much of the 20th century, with cautious moves such as ... ♘ f8 to protect h7 and to avert 2 e5? because of 2 ... ♗ xf3 3 gxf3 dxe5 and ... ♕ xd3.

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#has-images

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Why? Because we realize now that White's space advantage, in this and similar positions, is vastly overrated. And we see Black has a powerful plan of 2 ... ♖ fc8 and 3 ... ♖ xc4! 4 ♗ xc4 ♖ xc4. That trumps anything White is doing on the kingside.

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Yes, you can, we say today. Black would have one pawn for the Exchange and powerful pressure on the e4-pawn as compensation after 4 ... ♖ xc4.

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In fact, White retreated 2 ♕ h3 (!) to anticipate threats along the a8-g2 diagonal. He was no longer acting as an attacker. He was beginning to think like a defender. Black continued to think like a counter-aggressor, with 2 ... ♖ ec8 .

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In the next diagram, 3 ♘ g5 would try to take Black's attention away from ... ♖ xc4. It would offer good practical chances after 3 ... h6 4 ♘ xf7! ♔ xf7 5 e5, for example

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What should Black do after 3 ♘ g5? Here's where the solid 3 ... ♘ f8! makes sense and would put the pressure back on White.

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#política #wiki

Tratado de Vestfália, de 1648, entre Império Romano-Germânico e os demais príncipes alemães, França e Suécia, pôs fim ao conflito entre estas duas últimas potências e o Sacro Império.

Inaugurou o moderno sistema do Direito Internacional clássico, ao acatar consensualmente noções e princípios, como o de soberania estatal e o de estado-nação.

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Paz de Vestfália – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
heceram oficialmente as Províncias Unidas e a Confederação Suíça. O Tratado Hispano-Neerlandês, que pôs fim à Guerra dos Oitenta Anos, foi assinado no dia 30 de janeiro de 1648 (em Münster). Já <span>o tratado de Vestfália, assinado em 24 de outubro de 1648,[1] em Osnabruque, entre Fernando III, Imperador Romano-Germânico, os demais príncipes alemães, França e Suécia, pôs fim ao conflito entre estas duas últimas potências e o Sacro Império. O Tratado dos Pirenéus (1659), que encerrou a guerra entre França e Espanha, também costuma ser considerado parte da Paz de Vestfália. Este conjunto de diplomas inaugurou o moderno sistema Internacional, ao acatar consensualmente noções e princípios, como o de soberania estatal e o de estado-nação. Embora o imperativo da paz tenha surgido em decorrência de uma longa série de conflitos generalizados, surgiu com eles a noção embrionária de que uma paz duradoura derivava de um equilíbrio de poder, noção essa que se aprofundou com o Congresso de Viena (1815) e com o Tratado de Versalhes (1919). Por essa razão, a Paz de Vestefália costuma ser o marco inicial do Direito Internacional clássico e uma das bases de estudo das Relações Internacionais.[2] A Paz de Westphalia estabeleceu os princípios que caracterizam o estado moderno, destacando-se a soberania, a igualdade jurídica entre os estados, a territorialidade e a não intervenção




Flashcard 3272911752460

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Question

Tratado de [...], de 1648, entre Império [...] e os demais príncipes [...] , pôs fim ao conflito entre estas duas últimas potências e o Sacro Império.

Inaugurou o moderno sistema do Direito Internacional clássico, ao acatar consensualmente noções e princípios, como o de soberania estatal e o de estado-nação.

Answer
Vestfália
Romano-Germânico
alemães, França e Suécia


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Tratado de Vestfália, de 1648 , entre Império Romano-Germânico e os demais príncipes alemães, França e Suécia , pôs fim ao conflito entre estas duas últimas potências e o Sacro Império. Inaugurou o moderno

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Paz de Vestfália – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
heceram oficialmente as Províncias Unidas e a Confederação Suíça. O Tratado Hispano-Neerlandês, que pôs fim à Guerra dos Oitenta Anos, foi assinado no dia 30 de janeiro de 1648 (em Münster). Já <span>o tratado de Vestfália, assinado em 24 de outubro de 1648,[1] em Osnabruque, entre Fernando III, Imperador Romano-Germânico, os demais príncipes alemães, França e Suécia, pôs fim ao conflito entre estas duas últimas potências e o Sacro Império. O Tratado dos Pirenéus (1659), que encerrou a guerra entre França e Espanha, também costuma ser considerado parte da Paz de Vestfália. Este conjunto de diplomas inaugurou o moderno sistema Internacional, ao acatar consensualmente noções e princípios, como o de soberania estatal e o de estado-nação. Embora o imperativo da paz tenha surgido em decorrência de uma longa série de conflitos generalizados, surgiu com eles a noção embrionária de que uma paz duradoura derivava de um equilíbrio de poder, noção essa que se aprofundou com o Congresso de Viena (1815) e com o Tratado de Versalhes (1919). Por essa razão, a Paz de Vestefália costuma ser o marco inicial do Direito Internacional clássico e uma das bases de estudo das Relações Internacionais.[2] A Paz de Westphalia estabeleceu os princípios que caracterizam o estado moderno, destacando-se a soberania, a igualdade jurídica entre os estados, a territorialidade e a não intervenção