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on 05-Nov-2018 (Mon)

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#asset-swap #finance #gale-using-and-tradning-asset-swaps
The MVA swap does reduce the problems with collateralisation in one important respect. The off-market swap must be worth the same as the present value of the difference between the bond’s price and par paid at the maturity of the bond. As a consequence, the ‘loan’ will be for a smaller amount and the s wap spread will be smaller (if the bond trades above par).

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How can we perform efficient inference and learning in directed probabilistic models, in the presence of continuous latent variables with intractable posterior distributions, and large datasets? We introduce a stochastic variational inference and learning algorithm that scales to large datasets and, under some mild differentiability conditions, even works in the intractable case. Our contributions is two-fold. First, we show that a reparameterization of the variational lower bound yields a lower bound estimator that can be straightforwardly optimized using standard stochastic gradient methods. Second, we show that for i.i.d. datasets with continuous latent variables per datapoint, posterior inference can be made especially efficient by fitting an approximate inference model (also called a recognition model) to the intractable posterior using the proposed lower bound estimator. Theoretical advantages are reflected in experimental results.

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[1312.6114] Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes
tistics > Machine Learning Title:Auto-Encoding Variational Bayes Authors:Diederik P Kingma, Max Welling (Submitted on 20 Dec 2013 (v1), last revised 1 May 2014 (this version, v10)) Abstract: <span>How can we perform efficient inference and learning in directed probabilistic models, in the presence of continuous latent variables with intractable posterior distributions, and large datasets? We introduce a stochastic variational inference and learning algorithm that scales to large datasets and, under some mild differentiability conditions, even works in the intractable case. Our contributions is two-fold. First, we show that a reparameterization of the variational lower bound yields a lower bound estimator that can be straightforwardly optimized using standard stochastic gradient methods. Second, we show that for i.i.d. datasets with continuous latent variables per datapoint, posterior inference can be made especially efficient by fitting an approximate inference model (also called a recognition model) to the intractable posterior using the proposed lower bound estimator. Theoretical advantages are reflected in experimental results. Subjects: Machine Learning (stat.ML); Machine Learning (cs.LG) Cite as: arXiv:1312.6114 [stat.ML] (or arXiv:1312.6114v10 [stat.ML] for this version) Submission history From: Diederik P




Flashcard 3573341359372

Question
Das normale Blutvolumen beträgt
Answer
ca. 70 ml/kg


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Flashcard 3573859355916

Question
tress test types in CHD diagnosis. Name and briefly describe them. - Stress electrocardiogram: Patient is connected to the ECG and then works out on a treadmill. The ECG measures the heart’s impulses before, during and after the exercise. Based on the heart’s reaction a diagnosis can be made. - Stress echocardiography: The echocardiography is performed both before and after the exercise so that structural differences can be compared. A resting echocardiogram is obtained prior to stress. The patient is subjected to stress by working out on a treadmill. After the target heart rate is achieved, 'stress' echocardiogram images are obtained. The two echocardiogram images are then compared to assess for any abnormalities in wall motion of the heart. This is used to detect obstructive coronary artery disease. - Nuclear stress test: The best known example of a nuclear stress test is myocardial perfusion imaging. Typically, a radiotracer may be injected during the test. After a suitable waiting period to ensure proper distribution of the radiotracer, scans are acquired with a gamma camera to capture images of the blood flow. Scans acquired before and after exercise are examined to assess the state of the coronary arteries of the patient. Showing the relative amounts of radioisotope within the heart muscle, the nuclear stress tests more accurately identify regional areas of reduced blood flow.
Answer
[default - edit me]


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When a stress test information is problematic? When one of the following symptoms appear during the stress test, the test must be terminated: - Moderate to severe chest pain - Severe shortness of breath - Abnormally high or low blood pressure - An abnormal heart rhyth

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Flashcard 3573863288076

Tags
#asset-swap #finance #gale-using-and-tradning-asset-swaps
Question
side is the present value of the f
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3577569742092

Question
Componentes desarrollo test: plan gral.
En términos generales, ¿qué se requiere para desarrollar efectivamente el "plan general" de un proceso de desarrollo de test?
Answer
Considerar:
  1. Propósito del test
  2. Las afirmaciones que se harán sobre el desempeño del examinado
  3. Los puntajes que se necesitan
  4. La evidencia para fundamentar la validez de las interpretaciones y usos de los puntajes del test


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Flashcard 3577724144908

Question
"Cada uno de los 12 componentes puede ser usado como un marco para [____] para fundamentar la calidad psicométrica del test y la validez de las interpretaciones y usos de los ptjes del test."
Answer
"Recolectar y organizar evidencia"


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Flashcard 3580384644364

Question
¿Cuáles son los 12 componentes del proceso de desarrollo de test?
Answer
  1. Plan general
  2. Definición de dominio y declaraciones (claim statements)
  3. Especificaciones de contenido
  4. Desarrollo de ítem
  5. Diseño de test y ensamblaje
  6. Producción de test
  7. Administración de test
  8. Punteo (Scoring)
  9. Puntajes de corte
  10. Reporte de puntajes del test
  11. Seguridad del test
  12. Documentación del test


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Flashcard 3583932239116

Question
¿Cuál es el objetivo ppal del componente de plan gral?
Answer
Desarrollar un plan detallado para todo el proyecto de desarrollo de test, incluyendo:
  1. Información sobre todos los componentes del test
  2. Una justificación para:
    • cada componente
    • de los métodos específicos a usar para evaluar la validez de las interpretaciones y usos de los ptjes de test y la calidad psicométrica del test.
[Develop a detailed plan for the entire test development project, including information on all test components, a rationale for each component and the specific methods to be used to evaluate the validity of all intended test score interpretations and uses and the psychometric quality of the test.]


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Flashcard 3583934074124

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de Definición de Dominio y declaraciones (claims statements)?
Answer
  1. Nombrar y definir el dominio a medir.
  2. Entregar una declaración clara de las afirmaciones a hacer sobre los KSAs del examinado.

[Name and define the domain to be measured. Provide a clear statement of the claims to be made about examinee knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs).]


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Flashcard 3583935909132

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de Especificaciones de Contenido?
Answer
Desarrollar especificaciones de contenido para guiar el desarrollo de ítem, el ensamblaje de formas, el reporte de puntajes y otras actividades.

[Develop content specifications to guide item development, form assembly, score reporting and other activities.]


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Flashcard 3583937744140

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de Desarrollo de Ítem?
Answer
Identificar formato de ítems y materiales adecuados. Desarrollar ítems y obtener evidencia de validez para fundamentar su uso.

[Identify suitable item formats and materials. Develop items and obtain validity evidence to support item use.]


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Flashcard 3583940365580

Question
En términos generales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de Diseño y ensamblaje de test?
Answer
  1. Diseñar y crear formas de test basándose en las especificaciones de test
  2. Atender asuntos relacionados al contenido del test, formato, reglas de puntuación, escalamiento y equating

[Design and create test forms based on test specifications; attend to issues related to test content, format, scoring rules, scaling and equating.]


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Flashcard 3583942200588

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de Producción de Test?
Answer
Producir una forma clara, precisa y accesible.

[Produce a clear, accurate and accessible test form.]


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Flashcard 3583944035596

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de Administración de Test?
Answer
Administrar el test de una manera estandarizada. Evitar amenazas a la validez que puedan surgir durante la administración.

[Administer the test in a standardized way. Avoid threats to validity that may arise during administration.]


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Flashcard 3583945870604

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué habría que hacer en el componente de "Scoring"?
Answer
  1. Establecer una política de control de calidad y procedimiento para puntuar y tabular las respuesta a los ítems.
  2. En los casos en los que se requiere juicio, asegurar punteo preciso y consistente.

[Establish a quality control policy and procedures for scoring and tabulating item responses. Ensure accurate and consistent scoring where judgment is required.]


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Flashcard 3583947705612

Question
En términos grales., ¿qué hay que hacer en el componente de Puntajes de Corte?
Answer
Establecer puntos de corte defensibles y consistentes con el propósito del test.

[Establish defensible cut scores consistent with the purpose of the test.]


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Flashcard 3583949540620

Question
En términos grales. ¿qué hay que hacer en el componente de Reportes de Puntajes del test?
Answer
Desarrollar reportes de puntajes accesibles y comprensibles.

[Develop accessible and understandable test score reports.]


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Flashcard 3583951375628

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué hay que hacer en el componente de Seguridad del Test?
Answer
Establecer políticas y procedimientos para asegurar la seguridad del test durante el desarrollo y administración.

[Establish policies and procedures for ensuring test security during test development and administration.]


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Flashcard 3583953210636

Question
En términos grales, ¿qué hay que hacer en el componente de Documentación del Test?
Answer
Preparar reportes técnicos y otra documentación que fundamente la validez, equidad y adecuación técnica del test.

[Prepare technical reports and other documentation supporting validity, fairness and the technical adequacy of the test.]


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