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Flashcard 3714715356428

Question
Stage of surgical anaesthesia
Answer
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Flashcard 3714716667148

Question
[default - edit me]
Answer
Plane I - from onset of automatic respiration to cessation of eyeball movements. Eyelid reflex is lost, swallowing reflex disappears, marked eyeball movement may occur but conjunctival reflex is lost at the bottom of the plane. » Plane II - from cessation of eyeball movements to beginning of paralysis of intercostal muscles. Laryngeal reflex is lost although inflammation of the upper respiratory tract increases reflex irritability, corneal reflex disappears, secretion of tears increases (a useful sign of light anesthesia), respiration is automatic and regular, movement and deep breathing as a response to skin stimulation disappears. » Plane III - from beginning to completion of intercostal muscle paralysis. Diaphragmatic respiration persists but there is progressive intercostal paralysis, pupils dilated and light reflex is abolished. The laryngeal reflex lost in plane II can still be initiated by painful stimuli arising from the dilatation of anus or cervix. This was the desired plane for surgery when muscle relaxants were not used. » Plane IV - from complete intercostal paralysis to diaphragmatic paralysis (apnea)


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9 Drugs used as General Anesthesia (Classification)

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Flashcard 3714719550732

Question
9 Drugs used as General Anesthesia (Classification)
Answer
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Flashcard 3714720599308

Question
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Answer
9 Drugs used as General Anesthesia (Classification) Inhalation ◼ Gase: Nitrous Oxide ◼ Volatile liquids: » Ether » Halothane » Enflurane » Isoflurane » Desflurane » Sevoflurane Intravenous ◼ Inducing agents: » Barbiturates (Thiopental, Methohexital sodium), » Non-barbiturates (propofol and etomidate) ◼ Benzodiazepines (slower acting): Diazepam, Lorazepam, Midazolam ◼ Dissociative anaesthesia: » Non-barbiturates (Ketamine) ◼ Neuroleptanalgesia: Fentanyl+droperidol


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Flashcard 3714721647884

Question
e x t rac t i on Indic a t ions of gene ra l
Answer
10 ◼ Situations in which it would be impossible to achieve adequate local anaesthesia and so complete treatment without pain ◼ Patients who, because of problems related to age (children who are too young to cooperate) or physical health problems, mental retardation, are unlikely to allow safe completion of treatment; ◼ Patients in whom long-term dental phobia will be induced or prolonged. Very nervous patient, who need a tooth extraction Indications of general anaesthesia


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Flashcard 3714765163788

Question
Thyroid pathology
Answer
Thyroid pathology Inflammations and immune pathologies: Graves disease Hashimoto thyreoiditis Subacute thyreoiditis s. de Quervain thyroiditis Acute thyreoiditis – very rare! Colloid goiter Tumours: Benign Malignant Inflammations of the thyroid: Most of these inflammation are chronic autoimmune, and develops over decades.


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Since resources are scarce, it is important to avoid waste in how they are used. If resources are not used effectively and are wasted, they will end up producing less; or they may end up producing goods and services that people do not really want or need. Economics must try to fi nd how best to use scarce resources so that waste can be avoided.

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Scarcity forces every economy in the world, regardless of its form of organisation, to answer three basic questions:
  • What to produce. All economies must choose what particular goods and services and what quantities of these they wish to produce.
  • How to produce. All economies must make choices on how to use their resources in order to produce goods and services. Goods and services can be produced by use of different combinations of factors of production (for example, relatively more human labour with fewer machines, or relatively more machines with less labour), by using different skill levels of labour, and by using different technologies.
  • For whom to produce. All economies must make choices about how the goods and services produced are to be distributed among the population. Should everyone get an equal amount of these? Should some people get more than others? Should some goods and services (such as education and health care services) be distributed more equally?

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An important part of economics is the study of how to allocate scarce resources, in other words how to assign resources to answer the what to produce and how to produce questions, in order to meet human needs and wants in the best possible way.

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A market originally was a place where people gathered to buy and sell goods. Such markets still exist today, for example cattle markets, fi sh markets, fruit and vegetable markets, and fl ea markets, involving a physical meeting place where buyers and sellers meet face to face. The term market has since evolved to include any kind of arrangement where buyers and sellers of goods, services or resources are linked together to carry out an exchange.

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Competition is generally understood to be a process in which rivals compete in order to achieve some objective. For example, fi rms may compete with each other over who will sell the most output, consumers may compete over who will buy a scarce product, workers compete over who will get the best jobs with the highest salaries, countries compete over which will capture the biggest export markets, and so on.

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Demand is concerned with the behaviour of buyers. Consumers (or households) are buyers of goods and services in product markets, whereas fi rms (or businesses) are buyers of factors of production in resource markets.

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The demand of an individual consumer indicates the various quantities of a good (or service) the consumer is willing and able to buy at different possible prices during a particular time period, ceteris paribus.

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According to the law of demand, there is a negative causal relationship between the price of a good and its quantity demanded over a particular time period, ceteris paribus: as the price of the good increases, quantity demanded falls; as the price falls, quantity demanded increases, ceteris paribus.

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An explanation for the shape of the demand curve can be found in the principle of decreasing marginal benefi t: since marginal benefi t falls as quantity consumed increases, the consumer will be induced to buy each extra unit only if its price falls.

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Market demand is the sum of all individual demands for a good. The market demand curve illustrates the law of demand, shown by the negative relationship between price and quantity demanded. The market demand curve is also the sum of consumers’ marginal benefi ts.

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The non-price determinants of demand are the variables other than price that can infl uence demand. They are the variables assumed to be unchanging by use of the ceteris paribus assumption when the relationship between price and quantity demanded was being examined (see ‘Quantitative techniques’ chapter on the CD-ROM, page 11, for a full explanation).

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A rightward shift of the demand curve indicates that more is demanded for a given price; a leftward shift of the demand curve indicates that less is demanded for a given price. A rightward shift of the curve is called an increase in demand; a leftward shift is called a decrease in demand.

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Any change in price produces a change in quantity demanded, shown as a movement on the demand curve. Any change in a non-price determinant of demand leads to a change in demand, represented by a shift of the entire demand curve.

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The non-price determinants of market demand include:
  • Income in the case of normal goods • . A good is a normal good when demand for it increases in response to an increase in consumer income (demand for the good varies directly with income). Most goods are normal goods. Therefore, an increase in income leads to a rightward shift in the demand curve, and a decrease in income leads to a leftward shift.
  • Income in the case of inferior goods. • While most goods are normal, there are some goods where the demand falls as consumer income increases; the good is then an inferior good (the demand for the good varies inversely with income). Examples of inferior goods are second-hand clothes, used cars and bus tickets. As income increases, consumers switch to more expensive alternatives (new clothes, new cars and cars or aeroplanes rather than travelling by bus), and so the demand for the inferior goods falls. Thus an increase in income leads to a leftward shift in the demand curve and a decrease in income produces a rightward shift.
  • Preferences and tastes. • If preferences and tastes change in favour of a product (the good becomes more popular), demand increases and the demand curve shifts to the right; if tastes change against the product (it becomes less popular), demand decreases and the demand curve shifts to the left.
  • Prices of substitute goods • . Two goods are substitutes (substitute goods) if they satisfy a similar need. An example of substitute goods is Coca-Cola ® and Pepsi ® . A fall in the price of one (say, Coca-Cola) results in a fall in the demand for the other (Pepsi). The reason is that as the price of Coca-Cola falls, some consumers switch from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, and the demand for Pepsi falls. On the other hand, if there is an increase in the price of Coca-Cola, this will result in an increase in the demand for Pepsi as some consumers switch from Coca-Cola to Pepsi. Therefore, for any two substitute goods X and Y, a decrease in the price of X produces a leftward shift in the demand for Y, while an increase in the price of X produces a rightward shift in the demand for Y. In brief, in the case of substitute goods, the price of X and demand for Y change in the same direction (they both increase or they both decrease). Other examples of substitute goods are oranges and apples, Cadbury’s and Nestlé chocolate, and milk and yoghurt.
  • Prices of complementary goods. • Two goods are complements (complementary goods) if they tend to be used together. An example of complementary goods is DVDs and DVD players. In this case, a fall in the price of one (say, DVD players) leads to an increase in the demand for the other (DVDs). This is because the fall in the price of DVD players results in a bigger quantity of DVD players being purchased, and the demand for DVDs increases. Therefore, for any two complementary goods X and Y, a fall in the price of X leads to a rightward shift in the demand for Y, and an increase in the price of X leads to a leftward shift in the demand for Y. In the case of complementary goods, the price of X and the demand for Y change in opposite directions (as one increases, the other decreases). More examples of complementary goods are computers and computer software, tennis shoes and tennis rackets, and table-tennis balls and table-tennis rackets. Note that most goods are not related to each other; these are called independent goods. For example, pencils and apples, cars and ice cream, telephones and books are unrelated to one another, and the change in the price of one will have little or no effect on the demand for the other.
  • Demographic (population) changes, i.e. • changes in the number of buyers. If there is an increase in the number of buyers (demanders), demand increases and therefore the market demand curve shifts to the right; if the number of buyers decreases, demand decreases and the curve shifts to the left. This follows simply from the fact that market demand is the sum of all individual demands.

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The supply of an individual fi rm indicates the various quantities of a good (or service) a fi rm is willing and able to produce and supply to the market for sale at different possible prices, during a particular time period, ceteris paribus.

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According to the law of supply, there is a positive causal relationship between the quantity of a good supplied over a particular time period and its price, ceteris paribus: as the price of the good increases, the quantity of the good supplied also increases; as the price falls, the quantity supplied also falls, ceteris paribus.

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Market supply is the sum of all individual fi rms’ supplies for a good. The market supply curve illustrates the law of supply, shown by a positive relationship between price and quantity supplied.

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A vertical supply curve tells us that even as price increases, the quantity supplied cannot increase; it remains constant. The quantity supplied is independent of price. There are two reasons why this may occur:
  • There is a fixed quantity of the good supplied • because there is no time to produce more of it.
  • There is a fixed quantity of the good because there • is no possibility of ever producing more of it.

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A rightward shift of the supply curve indicates that more is supplied for a given price; a leftward shift of the supply curve indicates that less is supplied for a given price. A rightward shift of the curve is called an increase in supply; a leftward shift is called a decrease in supply.

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We now turn to the non-price determinants of supply , or the factors other than price that can infl uence supply. Changes in the determinants of supply cause shifts in the supply curve.

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