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Flashcard 3209625472268

Question
In linux, get list of users and their info (such as home directories)
Answer
cat /etc/passwd


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Flashcard 3209628093708

Question
In linux, delete user "kaveh"
Answer
sudo deluser kaveh


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We want to place n balls at random into n cells. Find the probability that exactly one cell remains empty. Explain each count of the probability in detail.

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We want to place n balls at random into n cells. Find the probability that exactly one cell remains empty. Explain each count of the probability in detail.


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We want to place n balls at random into n cells. Find the probability that exactly one cell remains empty. Explain each count of the probability in detail.

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Suppose that 35, 50, and 30% of white, African American, other adults are overweight, respectively, and that 72, 13, and 15% are white, African American, and other adults, respectively. An adult is chosen at random and overweight. What is the probability that the person is African American?
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Question
In linux, while the home directory of most users is /home/<username>, the home directory of the root user is: [...]
Answer
/root


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
the machine as the root user, who is the system administrator and has complete access to every file on the system. The root is also called the superuser. The home directory of the root user is <span>/root . Note that there is an ambiguity here: the root directory is the topmost directory, known as the / directory. The root user's home directory is /root and is called the home directory o







#reading-37-measures-of-leverage
The greater a company's variability of EBIT, the higher its business risk. A higher debt-to-equity ratio indicate higher financial leverage. Variability in profitability (EPS) due to fixed interest expense is a financial risk and not a business risk.

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#reading-37-measures-of-leverage
When the economy is expected to see positive growth, a company can increase both its operating and financial leverage in order to make higher profits. An increase in sales will outweigh an increase in both fixed costs and financial costs. Operating leverage is the trade off between fixed and variable costs. Higher operating leverage typically is indicative of a company with higher levels of risk (greater income variance).

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Flashcard 3736591273228

Question
In linux, for security, while all user information (name, home dir, etc) is in the world-readable /etc/passwd file, the password related information (including password hash, expiry, etc.), is in the [...] file instead.
Answer
/etc/shadow


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
hat a common program will ever need--no regular user has permission to see the encrypted password field. The fields are colon separated just like the passwd file. Here is an example line from a <span>/etc/shadow file: jack:Q,Jpl.or6u2e7:10795:0:99999:7:-1:-1:134537220 jack The user's login name. Q,Jpl.or6u2e7 The user's encrypted password known as the hash of the password. This is the user's 8-







#reading-37-measures-of-leverage
Financial leverage results in increased variability in earnings per share (net income) due to the increase of fixed interest payment costs. Stable net income will result from low (not high) leverage. Higher financial leverage is likely to reduce taxes due to the tax deductibility of interest payments.

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#reading-37-measures-of-leverage
If a company has more of its costs as fixed, the operating leverage will be higher. With a higher operating leverage, the company's ability to survive a downturn in the business cycle or a recession will be limited.

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#reading-37-measures-of-leverage
If Ceteris Paribus, a company with high operating leverage will have a large change in operating income for a small rise in sales. Therefore, during times of expansionary growth levels, a highly leveraged company will have higher earnings growth than a company with less leverage. The opposite will be the case during an economic contraction.

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Flashcard 3736600186124

Question
In linux, what is easiest way to get list of all groups user "k.khosravi" belongs to?
Answer
groups k.khosravi
^^ note looking at /etc/group can also tell you which groups k.khosravi belongs too but it is tedious to look at whole file!


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
belongs to, [That is, not ``which users does a group consist of?'' which is easy to see at a glance.] but when there are a lot of groups, it can be tedious to scan through the entire file. The <span>groups command prints out this information. 11.5 Manually Creating a User Account The following steps are required to create a user account: /etc/passwd entry To create an entry in this file,







Flashcard 3736608050444

Question
In linux, what is the difference between useradd/userdel/groupadd/groupdel group of commands vs adduser/deluser/addgroup/delgroup group of commands
Answer
useradd/userdel/groupadd/groupdel are the native commands while adduser/deluser/addgroup/delgroup are the more modern, advanced and therefore preferred commands.


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
name> to set the user's password. 11.6 Automatically Creating a User Account: useradd and groupadd The above process is tedious. The commands that perform all these updates automatically are <span>useradd , userdel , and usermod . The man pages explain the use of these commands in detail. Note that different flavors of UNIX have different commands to do this. Some may even have graphical programs or web interfaces to assist in creating users. In addition, the commands groupadd , groupdel , and groupmod do the same with respect to groups. 11.7 User Logins It is possible to switch from one user to another, as well as view your login status and the status of other users. L







Flashcard 3736611196172

Question
In linux, if you are logged in as user "kevin" and you want to switch to user "john" such that it mimicks an exact login for "john" (i.e. you are logged into john's home dir by default), what command do you use?
Answer
su - john
^^^ NOTE the user of the "-"


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
vironment variables will be set to jack , but all other environment variables will be inherited. su is, therefore, not the same as a normal login. To get the equivalent of a login with su , run <span>su - jack This will cause all initialization scripts (that are normally run when the user logs in) to be executed. [What actually happens is that the subsequent shell is started with a - in







Flashcard 3736614341900

Question
In linux, if you are logged in as user "kevin" and you want to switch to user "john", what is the difference between "su john" vs "su - john"?
Answer
"su john" just gives you all the permissions of john and changes a few env vars to match john's env vars (e.g. HOME) but "su - john" does an exact login mimick for john and actually runs all the initialization scripts that run when "john" logs in (and sets all the env vars for "john").


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
e set to jack , but all other environment variables will be inherited. su is, therefore, not the same as a normal login. To get the equivalent of a login with su , run su - jack This will cause <span>all initialization scripts (that are normally run when the user logs in) to be executed. [What actually happens is that the subsequent shell is started with a - in front of the zero'th argument. This makes the sh







Flashcard 3736617487628

Question
In linux, when user logs in the [...] command runs silently and does authentication check against /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and also makes sure user is using right tty (teletypewriter/terminal) to login, etc.
Answer
login


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
ost often gains access to the system through the login program. This program looks up the UID and GID from the passwd and group file and authenticates the user. The following is quoted from the <span>login man page, and explains this procedure in detail: login is used when signing onto a system. It can also be used to switch from one user to another at any time (most modern shells have su







Flashcard 3736620633356

Question
In linux, what command do you use to get detailed information about the users currently logged in (including how long logged in, from where logged in, etc)?
Answer
who


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
rofile. The login command also does this.] Hence, after running su with the - option, you logged in as if with the login command. 11.7.3 The who , w , and users commands to see who is logged in <span>who and w print a list of users logged in to the system, as well as their CPU consumption and other statistics. who --help gives: 5 10 15 Usage: who [OPTION]... [ FILE | ARG1 ARG2 ] -H, --h







Flashcard 3736623779084

Question
In linux, what command do you use to just get list of all users currently logged in (to use in a for loop of a shell script, for example)?
Answer
users


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11. User Accounts and Ownerships
lude past background jobs, but does include currently running background jobs. The PCPU time is the time used by the current process, named in the "what" field. Finally, from a shell script the <span>users command is useful for just seeing who is logged in. You can use in a shell script, for example: for user in `users` ; do <etc> done 11.7.4 The id command and effective UID id prin







Flashcard 3736628235532

Question
In linux, in the old days, remote login from one machine to another was done through rlogin and [...] , but these have now been replaced by the much more secure ssh.
Answer
telnet


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12. Using Internet Services
uuencode and uudecode 12.6.2 MIME encapsulation 12. Using Internet Services This chapter summarizes remote access and the various methods of transferring files and data over the Internet. 12.1 <span>ssh , not telnet or rlogin telnet is a program for talking to a UNIX network service. It is most often used to do a remote login. Try telnet <remote_machine> telnet localhost to log in to your remote machin







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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Lower inventory on hand need not always indicate better management, for it could lead to stock outages and lose customers. At the same time, a higher inventory days on hand could indicate poor sales and an accumulation of obsolete items.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Current assets includes cash, account receivables, inventories, prepaid expenses and short-term marketable securities. Inventories are less liquid than any other current assets and accordingly will have an effect on the company's ability to remain solvent in the short term.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Secondary sources of liquidity include negotiating debt contracts, liquidating assets, and filing for bankruptcy protection and reorganization. Primary sources of liquidity include ready cash balances, short-term funds (e.g. trade credit and bank lines of credit), and cash flow management.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
A high portion of inventories in current assets could indicate that the quick ratio is less than peers. This will mean that the company will have to depend heavily on sales to meet its short-term obligations.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Receivables turnover indicates the average number of times a company creates receivables and realizes them back. This will help the company to estimate when it can receive enough cash from debtors to maintain sufficient liquidity for operations.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
An investment policy statement is a high-level document that consists of:
1. The purpose and objective of the portfolio
2. General guidelines about the strategy
3. The types of securities that will be used
4. The people responsible for the portfolio's management
5. The corrective steps to be taken if any violations occur
6. The limitations of the portfolio. (Individual asset class limit may not be mentioned in the IPS.)

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Commercial papers are mostly issued by large, creditworthy companies as they can get the lowest cost of financing by issuing such paper. Small companies with poor credit quality usually raise money by selling receivables. Receivables securitization is a higher cost of funds used by companies with poor credit quality. Commercial papers are usually used by non-banking corporates.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
If the receivables turnover is significantly higher than the industry average, the number of days it takes the receivables to convert cash should be very low. This is an indication that the company's credit policy may be too strict and that sales are being lost to peers because of this. The average days of receivables are only one component of the cash conversion cycle that is related to the credit terms of the company.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
BEY uses the 365-days convention and should be used to evaluate the performance of the security. It allows fixed-income securities whose payments are not annual to be compared with securities with annual yields. MMY uses the 360-dasy convention to annualize the HPY.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Companies with working capital requirements that fluctuate due to seasonal demand are likely to experience short-term shortages of cash and must forecast them to manage their net daily cash positions. They could arrange for a bank credit lines or a capital borrowing program that allows them to raise debt and, once peak season is passed, the company can repay the borrowings using the cash generated from high sales during the peak season.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Discount yield is based on the discount calculated using the face value in the denominator. Money market yield and bond equivalent yield are calculated using the holding period yield, which has price (lower value) in the denominator. So the discount yield is lower than all yields when the security is trading at a discount. The money market yield is the holding period yield times 360 / days to maturity and the bond equivalent yield is holding period yield times 365 / days to maturity. So BEY will be higher than the MMY.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Cash conversion cycle = operating cycle – average days payables outstanding. If the cash conversion cycle has decreased, the company's average days of payables must have increased; this could mean that the company is relying more heavily on credit from its suppliers. This could mean that the payables have increased and ultimately leading to lower payables turnover ratio (purchases/average payable).

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Publicly-listed securities should be invested for long periods to make a meaningful return. For short-term investment purposes, bank certificates of deposit and time deposits and other money market instruments can be used.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
A revolving line of credit is typically for a longer period and involves an agreement to lend funds in the future up to some maximum amount. Accordingly it is one of the strongest and larger forms of credit for companies. Non-banking finance companies are considered as smaller and of weak credit.

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#reading-38-working-capital-management
Given the seasonal requirement for cash, it's better for the company to invest in short-term securities that mature in August. Highly safe and highly liquid investments may not generate any return for the company and will not be an effective working capital management strategy.

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