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on 31-Jan-2019 (Thu)

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Flashcard 3811013168396

Question
In linux, a [...] link includes two inodes (and therefore two different blocks of disk space), one contains the actual data of the file, the other serves as just a pointer to the first file.
Answer
Soft/Symbolic


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15. Symbolic and Hard Links
mare. Also consider a document that must be present in many directories, but which would be easier to update at one point. The way two (or more) files can have the same data is with links. 15.1 <span>Soft Links To demonstrate a soft link, try the following: 5 10 touch myfile ln -s myfile myfile2 ls -al cat > myfile a few lines of text ^D cat myfile cat myfile2 Notice that the ls -al listing







Flashcard 3811022867724

Question
In linux, all programs (executables), including the preinstalled ones are installed (unpacked) via single files called [...] (for example .rpm or .deb).
Answer
packages


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
of operations. On LINUX, many small, self-contained packages interoperate to give greater functionality than would large, aggregated pieces of software. There is also no clear distinction betwe<span>en what is part of the operating system and what is an application--every function is just a package. A software package on a RedHat type system is distributed in a single RedHat Package Manager (RPM) file that has a .rpm extension. On a Debian distribution, the equivalent is a .deb pa







Flashcard 3811026537740

Question
In linux, each package (.deb/.rpm) will unpack as many files, which are placed all over the system into [...] directories.
Answer

existing/well-known/major

^^ for example /opt, or /usr/bin, etc


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
e RedHat Package Manager (RPM) file that has a .rpm extension. On a Debian distribution, the equivalent is a .deb package file, and on the Slackware distribution there are Slackware .tgz files. <span>Each package will unpack as many files, which are placed all over the system. Packages generally do not create major directories but unpack files into existing, well-known, major directories. Note that on a newly installed system there are no files anywhere that do not belong to some package. 17.2 UNIX Directory Superstructure The root directory on a UNIX system typically lo







Flashcard 3811029683468

Question
In linux, all system created directories (e.g. bin, etc, lib) contain a similar set of subdirectories (again, e.g. bin, etc, lib, and so on), this is called a directory [...]
Answer
superstructure


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
oot 1024 Aug 2 1998 man drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 1024 Feb 6 1996 sbin drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 1024 Sep 7 09:08 share and the /usr/X11R6 directory also looks similar. What is apparent here is that <span>all these directories contain a similar set of subdirectories. This set of subdirectories is called a directory superstructure or superstructure. [To my knowledge this is a new term not previously used by UNIX administrators.] The superstructure always contains a bin and lib subdirectory, but almost all others







Flashcard 3811032829196

Question
In linux, while packages are mostly installed by convention under / or /usr, some very large applications may install under / [...] /<package-name>
Answer
opt


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
erstructure. A RedHat package would always install under the /usr or / superstructure, unless it is a graphical X Window System application, which installs under the /usr/X11R6/ superstructure. <span>Some very large applications may install under a /opt/<package-name> superstructure, and homemade packages usually install under the /usr/local/ superstructure ( local means specific to this very machine). The directory superstructure under which a packa







Flashcard 3811035974924

Question
In linux, homemade packages usually install under the [...] directory
Answer

/usr/local

^^note "local", by convention, means "specific to this very machine"


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
t is a graphical X Window System application, which installs under the /usr/X11R6/ superstructure. Some very large applications may install under a /opt/<package-name> superstructure, and <span>homemade packages usually install under the /usr/local/ superstructure ( local means specific to this very machine). The directory superstructure under which a package installs is often called the installation prefix. Packages almost never install files ac







Flashcard 3811039907084

Question
In Linux, Binary executables, reside in the [...] superstructure subdirectory.
Answer

bin

^^Usually all bin directories are in the PATH environment variable so that the shell will search all these directories for binaries (e.g. /bin, /usr/bin, etc)


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
administration functions. These are commands needed to bring up or repair the system in the absence of /usr . The list of superstructure subdirectories and their descriptions is as follows: bin <span>Binary executables. Usually all bin directories are in the PATH environment variable so that the shell will search all these directories for binaries. sbin Superuser binary executables. These are programs for system administration only. Only the root will have these executables in their PATH . lib Libraries. All other data needed by p







Flashcard 3811043052812

Question
In linux, what is the difference between the bin vs sbin subdirectory superstructure?
Answer

bin is where executables are placed for all normal users, sbin (superuser bin), is where executables for the root user are placed.

^^ also note that all the bin directories will be in the PATH for all normal users (e.g. /bin, /usr) while the sbin directories will be in the PATH for the root user

^^^ s in sbin stands for superuser


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
and their descriptions is as follows: bin Binary executables. Usually all bin directories are in the PATH environment variable so that the shell will search all these directories for binaries. <span>sbin Superuser binary executables. These are programs for system administration only. Only the root will have these executables in their PATH . lib Libraries. All other data needed by progra







Flashcard 3811046198540

Question
In linux, all library files (common libraries shared by multiple programs) go in the [...] directory superstructure.
Answer
lib


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
l will search all these directories for binaries. sbin Superuser binary executables. These are programs for system administration only. Only the root will have these executables in their PATH . <span>lib Libraries. All other data needed by programs goes in here. Most packages have their own subdirectory under lib to store data files into. Dynamically Linked Libraries (DLLs or .so files.







Flashcard 3811049344268

Question
In linux, what are Dynamically Linked Libraries (DLLs or .so files.) that are stored in the lib directory superstructure used for?
Answer
they have executable program code shared commenly by more than one program (in the bin directory)


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
the root will have these executables in their PATH . lib Libraries. All other data needed by programs goes in here. Most packages have their own subdirectory under lib to store data files into. <span>Dynamically Linked Libraries (DLLs or .so files.) [Executable program code shared by more than one program in the bin directory to save disk space and memory.] are stored directly in lib . etc Et cetera. Configuration files. var Variable data. Data files that are continually being re-created or updated. doc Documentation. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. man M







Flashcard 3811052489996

Question
In linux, what is stored in the etc directory superstucture?
Answer
configuration files


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
nto. Dynamically Linked Libraries (DLLs or .so files.) [Executable program code shared by more than one program in the bin directory to save disk space and memory.] are stored directly in lib . <span>etc Et cetera. Configuration files. var Variable data. Data files that are continually being re-created or updated. doc Documentation. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. man Manual







Flashcard 3811055635724

Question
In linux, what is stored in the var directory superstructure?
Answer

Data files that are continually being re-created or updated (think /var/spool/mail/<username>)

^^ var stands for Variable data.


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
or .so files.) [Executable program code shared by more than one program in the bin directory to save disk space and memory.] are stored directly in lib . etc Et cetera. Configuration files. var <span>Variable data. Data files that are continually being re-created or updated. doc Documentation. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. man Manual pages. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. info Info pages. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. sh







Flashcard 3811058781452

Question
In linux, architecture-independent files that are independent of the hardware platform go in the [...] directory superstructure.
Answer
share


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
mentation. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. man Manual pages. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. info Info pages. This directory is discussed in Chapter 16. share Shared data. <span>Architecture-independent files. Files that are independent of the hardware platform go here. This allows them to be shared across different machines, even though those machines may have a different kind of processor altogether. include C header files. These are for development.







Flashcard 3811061927180

Question
In linux, if a program creates a temporary file for any reason it should go under the [...] directory superstucture.
Answer
tmp


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17. Overview of the UNIX Directory Layout
ose machines may have a different kind of processor altogether. include C header files. These are for development. src C source files. These are sources to the kernel or locally built packages. <span>tmp Temporary files. A convenient place for a running program to create a file for temporary use. 17.3 LINUX on a Single 1.44 Megabyte Floppy Disk You can get LINUX to run on a 1.44 megabyt







Translation Notes aarde

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Flashcard 3811857796364

Question
Translation Notes aarde
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3811859631372

Question
Translation Notes aarde
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3811874835724

Question
1. Être en mesure de reconnaître de quelle classe un antibiotique fait partie
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3812008529164

Question
[default - edit me]
Answer
Voir le prochain tableau (colonnes 1 et 2).


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Flashcard 3812009577740

Question
Pénicilline
Answer
INF ECT IO - PHA2 121, PHA2 131, PH A3 180, PH A319 0 1. Être en me sure de reconnaît r e de que lle clas s e un an tibiot i que fait par ti e . Voir le prochain t a bleau (colonnes 1 et 2). 2. Connaître les effets secondaires à surveiller des pénicillines, des céph alo sp or


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Flashcard 3812011150604

Question
éracilline Carboxypénicillines - Ticarcilline Pénicillines combinées - Amoxicilline + Acide clavu - Ticarcilline + Acide clavu - Pipéracilline + Tazobactam Pénicilline V - Candidose orale, infection à levure - N/V/D Amoxicilline - N/V/D - Allergie de type rash Clavulin - Diarrhée +++ - N/V, inconfort abdominal - Éruption cutanée, urticaire Tazocin - Douleur au site d’injection - N/V/D - Céphalées - Éruptions cutanées Carbapénème Doripénème Ertapénème Imipénème Meropénè
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3812012199180

Question
3. Connaître les caractéristiques pk/pd des antibiotiques (CMI, Temps- dépendant vs concentration-dépendant, bactéricide vs bactériostatique)
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Flashcard 3812025306380

Question
In linux, devices (hard disk, mouse, etc) are treated similar to files, that programs can read and write to (in bulk) and via the C ioctl function, and are stored in the [...] directory
Answer
/dev


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18. UNIX Devices
mmand has previously configured the serial port in some odd way. In that case, also try: cu -s 1200 -l /dev/mouse At a lower level, programs that access device files do so in two basic ways: The<span>y read and write to the device to send and retrieve bulk data (much like less and cat above). They use the C ioctl (IO Control) function to configure the device. (In the case of the sound card, this mig







Flashcard 3812028976396

Question
In linux, there are two major types of devices (that appear under /dev directory, where type is the first bit of file permission): Block and [...]
Answer

Character

^^ e.g. /dev/tty0 which has permission like: crw--w----


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18. UNIX Devices
can think of (except for network cards) can be twisted to fit these two modes of operation, UNIX's scheme has endured since its inception and is the universal method of accessing hardware. 18.2 <span>Block and Character Devices Hardware devices can generally be categorized into random access devices like disk and tape drives, and serial devices like mouse devices, sound cards, and terminals. Random access devi







Flashcard 3812032122124

Question
In linux, there are two major types of devices (that appear under /dev directory, where type is the first bit of file permission): [...] and Character
Answer

Block

^^ e.g. sda1, which has permission like: brw-rw----


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18. UNIX Devices
ess devices are usually accessed in large contiguous blocks of data that are stored persistently. They are read from in discrete units (for most disks, 1024 bytes at a time). These are known as <span>block devices. Running an ls -l /dev/hda shows a b on the far left of the listing, which means that your hard disk is a block device: brw-r----- 1 root disk 3, 64 Apr 27 1995 /dev/hdb Serial







Flashcard 3812036054284

Question
In linux, block devices are accessed [...] in large contiguous blocks of data, while character devices, are accessed sequencially one byte at a time.
Answer
randomly


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18. UNIX Devices
ls -l /dev/hda shows a b on the far left of the listing, which means that your hard disk is a block device: brw-r----- 1 root disk 3, 64 Apr 27 1995 /dev/hdb Serial devices, on the other hand, <span>are accessed one byte at a time. Data can be read or written only once. For example, after a byte has been read from your mouse, the same byte cannot be read by some other program. Serial devices are called character d







Flashcard 3812039200012

Question
In linux, block devices, such as hard disks, are accessed randomly, blocks at a time, while character devices, such as [...] , are accessed sequentially one character at a time
Answer
terminals/mouse/etc


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18. UNIX Devices
one byte at a time. Data can be read or written only once. For example, after a byte has been read from your mouse, the same byte cannot be read by some other program. Serial devices are called <span>character devices and are indicated by a c on the far left of the listing. Your /dev/dsp (Digital Signal Processor--that is, your sound card) device looks like: crw-r--r-- 1 root sys 14, 3 Jul 18







Flashcard 3812042345740

Question
In linux, the kernel identifies devices, not by the name (which is just there for user help) but by [...] and [...] numbers of the device. <-- looking for two different words for each occulsion
Answer

Major and Minor

^^ note Major is for the device category/set, such as disks, where as minor is for the exact device id in that set, e.g. /dev/sda1 will have unique combination of major and minor number.


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18. UNIX Devices
vided into sets called major device numbers. For instance, all SCSI disks are major number 8. Further, each individual device has a minor device number like /dev/sda , which is minor device 0. M<span>ajor and minor device numbers identify the device to the kernel. The file name of the device is arbitrary and is chosen for convenience and consistency. You can see the major and minor device number ( 8, 0 ) in the ls listing for /dev/sda : brw-rw--







Flashcard 3812045491468

Question

In linux, if you want to suppress any program outout, just append [...] to the command.

Silly example (but valid): ls -l [...] (to supress the output)

Answer

> /dev/null

^^sending output to the null device


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18. UNIX Devices
make the entire archive unrecoverable. The mt command stands for m agnetic t ape and controls generic SCSI tape devices. See also mt (1). 18.5.7 Hiding program output, creating blocks of zeros <span>If you don't want to see any program output, just append > /dev/null to the command. For example, we aren't often interested in the output of make . [ make is discussed later.] Here we absorb everything save for error messages. make > /dev/null Then, of course, we c







Flashcard 3812047850764

Question
In linux, the null device (/dev/null) can be used to suppress the output of a command, to feed a command empty input, or similarly used when [...] .
Answer
a file is required for some feature in a configuration script (e.g. to specifying the user's shell to /dev/null, to disable shell access, in /etc/passwd)


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18. UNIX Devices
verything save for error messages. make > /dev/null Then, of course, we can absorb all output including error messages with either make >& /dev/null or make > /dev/null 2>&1 <span>The device /dev/null finds innumerable uses in shell scripting to suppress the output of a command or to feed a command dummy (empty) input. /dev/null is a safe file from a security point of view. It is often used when a file is required for some feature in a configuration script, and you would like the particular feature disabled. For instance, specifying the users shell to /dev/null inside the password file will certainly prevent insecure use of a shell, and is an explicit way of saying that that account does not allow shell logins. You can also use /dev/null to create a file containing nothing: cat /dev/null > myfile or alternatively, to create a file containing only zeros. Try dd if=/dev/zero bs=1024 count=&lt