# on 05-Feb-2019 (Tue)

#### Annotation 3808902647052

 #Branding Value proposition: the thing that makes them unique and better qualified than the competition.

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 #story-brand All great stories are about survival—either physical, emotional, relational, or spiritual. The key is to make your company’s message about something that helps the customer survive and to do so in such a way that they can understand it without burning too many calories.

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" data-bubo-id="temp-selection">All great stories are about survival—either physical, emotional, relational, or spiritual. The key is to make your company’s message about something that helps the customer survive and to do so in such a way that they can understand it without burning too many calories. <span><span>

#### Annotation 3814599298316

 #Seo yoast suggests that you don’t even try to rank your home page and to not bother targeting a keyword

#### Annotation 3814603230476

 #cfa #corporate-finance #reading-37-measures-of-leverage The valuation of a company and its equity is affected by the degree of leverage: The greater a company’s leverage, the greater its risk and, hence, the greater the discount rate that should be applied in its valuation.

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" data-bubo-id="temp-selection">the valuation of a company and its equity is affected by the degree of leverage: The greater a company’s leverage, the greater its risk and, hence, the greater the discount rate that should be applied in its valuation.<span> Further, highly leveraged (levered) companies have a greater chance of incurring significant losses during downturns, thus accelerating conditions that lead to financial distress and ba

#### Annotation 3814605589772

 #reading-37-measures-of-leverage Leverage increases the volatility of a company’s earnings and cash flows and increases the risk of lending to or owning a company.

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data-bubo-id="temp-selection">Leverage increases the volatility of a company’s earnings and cash flows and increases the risk of lending to or owning a company.<span> Additionally, the valuation of a company and its equity is affected by the degree of leverage: The greater a company’s leverage, the greater its risk and, hence, the greater the discoun

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 #reading-37-measures-of-leverage Highly leveraged (levered) companies have a greater chance of incurring significant losses during downturns, thus accelerating conditions that lead to financial distress and bankruptcy.

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equity is affected by the degree of leverage: The greater a company’s leverage, the greater its risk and, hence, the greater the discount rate that should be applied in its valuation. Further, <span>highly leveraged (levered) companies have a greater chance of incurring significant losses during downturns, thus accelerating conditions that lead to financial distress and bankruptcy. <span>

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 #reading-37-measures-of-leverage The difference between a company that reorganizes and emerges from bankruptcy and one that is liquidated is often the difference between operating and financial leverage.

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The difference between a company that reorganizes and emerges from bankruptcy and one that is liquidated is often the difference between operating and financial leverage. Companies with high operating leverage have less flexibility in making changes, and bankruptcy protection does little to help reduce operating costs. Companies with high financial lever

#### Annotation 3814613978380

 #reading-37-measures-of-leverage Companies with high operating leverage have less flexibility in making changes, and bankruptcy protection does little to help reduce operating costs. Companies with high financial leverage use bankruptcy laws and protection to change their capital structure and, once the restructuring is complete, can emerge as ongoing concerns.

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The difference between a company that reorganizes and emerges from bankruptcy and one that is liquidated is often the difference between operating and financial leverage. Companies with high operating leverage have less flexibility in making changes, and bankruptcy protection does little to help reduce operating costs. Companies with high financial leverage use bankruptcy laws and protection to change their capital structure and, once the restructuring is complete, can emerge as ongoing concerns.

#### Flashcard 3814620531980

Question

In linux, when running two or more commands together, what is the difference between && vs ||, i.e. the following two line:

command1 && command2
command1 || command2

When using &&, it means run command2 only if command1 returns with success exit code (i.e. 0)
When using ||, it means run command2 only if command1 returns error exit code (i.e. non 0)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
sh shell scripting begun in Chapter 7 and expanded on in Chapter 9. These three chapters represent almost everything you can do with the bash shell. 20.1 Lists of Commands The special operator <span>&& and || can be used to execute functions in sequence. For instance: grep '^harry:' /etc/passwd || useradd harry The || means to only execute the second command if the first command returns an e

#### Flashcard 3814624988428

Question

In linux, write one-line script to create new directory ktest (in current directory) ONLY if ktest does not already exist. Do it by finishing following code snippet:

ls ktest >& /dev/null [...]

|| mkdir ktest

^^ note use of || to denote only if command 1 (i.e. ls ktest >& /dev/null) fails, command 2 (i.e. mkdir ktest) runs

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
do with the bash shell. 20.1 Lists of Commands The special operator && and || can be used to execute functions in sequence. For instance: grep '^harry:' /etc/passwd || useradd harry The <span>|| means to only execute the second command if the first command returns an error. In the above case, grep will return an exit code of 1 if harry is not in the /etc/passwd file, causing us

#### Flashcard 3814628134156

Question

In linux, write one-line script to spit out content of file kevin.txt to stdout ONLY if kevin.txt file exists. Do it by finishing following code snippet:

ls kevin.txt > /dev/null [...]

&& cat kevin.txt

^^ note use of && to indicate only if command 1 (i.e. ls kevin.txt > /dev/null) succeeds, then run command 2 (i.e. cat kevin.txt)

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
tc/passwd file, causing useradd to be executed. An alternate representation is grep -v '^harry:' /etc/passwd && useradd harry where the -v option inverts the sense of matching of grep . <span>&& has the opposite meaning to || , that is, to execute the second command only if the first succeeds. Adept script writers often string together many commands to create the most succinct

#### Flashcard 3814632066316

Question
In linux, assume you are within a shell script, print out the number of command-line arguments fed to the script.

echo $# ^^ note that$ denotes variable expansion, and # is special variable to represent number of command-line arguments to current script

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
2" ... When there are no positional parameters, "$@" and$@ expand to nothing (i.e., they are removed). [Hint: this is very useful for writing wrapper shell scripts that just add one argument.] <span>$# Expands to the number of positional parameters in decimal (i.e. the number of command-line arguments).$? Expands to the status of the most recently executed foreground pipeline. [I.e.,

#### Flashcard 3814635998476

Question
In linux, how do you print out the exit/error code of the last command that was executed?

echo $? ^^ note that$ denotes variable expansion, and ? is special variable to represent exit code of last command/program executed in foreground.

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0

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Question
In linux, print out the PID of the last background process that was executed (for example, via the & syntax).

echo $! ^^ note that$ denotes variable expansion, and ! is special variable to represent PID of last background process executed

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
mand, or those set by the shell itself (such as the -i option).  Expands to the process ID of the shell. In a () subshell, it expands to the process ID of the current shell, not the subshell. <span>$! Expands to the process ID of the most recently executed background (asynchronous) command. [I.e., after executing a background command with command &, the variable$! will give its

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Question
In linux, [...] [...] is used to generate stings at the command line or in a shell script using either a sequence specification or a comma separated list of items inside curly braces.

Brace expansion

^^ syntax is simple: {}

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
0.3 Expansion Expansion refers to the way bash modifies the command-line before executing it. bash performs several textual modifications to the command-line, proceeding in the following order: <span>Brace expansion We have already shown how you can use, for example, the shorthand touch file_{one,two,three}.txt to create multiple files file_one.txt , file_two.txt , and file_three.txt . This is know

#### Flashcard 3814650940684

Question
In linux, create files kevintest1.txt to kevintest10.txt in quickhand way (i.e. without having to specify all filesnames in full, one by one).

touch kevintest{1..10}.txt

^^ note the use of {}, called brace expansion

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
ecuting it. bash performs several textual modifications to the command-line, proceeding in the following order: Brace expansion We have already shown how you can use, for example, the shorthand <span>touch file_{one,two,three}.txt to create multiple files file_one.txt , file_two.txt , and file_three.txt . This is known as brace expansion and occurs before any other kind of modification to the command-line. Tilde

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Question
In linux, create files kevinone.txt, kevintwo.txt, kevinthree.txt, kevinfour.txt in short hand way (i.e. without having to specify all file names in full, one by one)

touch kevin{one,two,three,four}.txt

^^ note the use of {}, called brace expansion

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
ion We have already shown how you can use, for example, the shorthand touch file_{one,two,three}.txt to create multiple files file_one.txt , file_two.txt , and file_three.txt . This is known as <span>brace expansion and occurs before any other kind of modification to the command-line. Tilde expansion The special character ~ is replaced with the full path contained in the HOME environment variable o

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Question
In linux, if you have variable NAME, print out "hello NAME", and if NAME is not defined/set, print out: "hello there". Do this in one line of code (i.e. NO if statements/etc).

echo "hello ${NAME:-there}" ^^ note the special use of parameter expansion above status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 20. Advanced Shell Scripting everal parameter expansion tricks that you can use to do string manipulation. Most shell programmers never bother with these, probably because they are not well supported by other UNIX systems. <span>${ VAR :- default } This will result in $VAR unless VAR is unset or null, in which case it will result in default.${ VAR := default } Same as previous except that default is also assigned to VAR if it is

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Question
In linux, you have parameter TEXT with value "hithere", print out just the substring "the" from TEXT.

echo ${TEXT:2:3} ^^ note the special use of parameter expansion above ^^^ note that the first number, 2, is the starting index of string to start the substring from, and the second number, 3, is the length of substring. THIS IS DIFFERENT THAN PYTHON. ^^^^ To go to the end of substing, if you don't know length, just choose a very large length value, e.g. echo${TEXT:2:20000}

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behavior of ${ VAR :- default } .${ VAR :? message } This will result in $VAR unless VAR is unset or null, in which case an error message containing message is displayed.${ VAR : offset } or <span>${ VAR : n : l } This produces the nth character of$ VAR and then the following l characters. If l is not present, then all characters to the right of the nth character are produced. This is useful for

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Question
In linux, you have variable TEXT with value "hithere", print out the length of TEXT.

echo ${#TEXT} ^^ note the special use of parameter expansion above status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0 20. Advanced Shell Scripting If l is not present, then all characters to the right of the nth character are produced. This is useful for splitting up strings. Try: TEXT=scripting_for_phun echo${TEXT:10:3} echo ${TEXT:10} <span>${# VAR } Gives the length of $VAR.${! PRE *} Gives a list of all variables whose names begin with PRE. ${ VAR # pattern }$ VAR is returned with the glob expression pattern removed from the le

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Question

In linux, in shell scripting, what is the equivalant to python's "pass" statement, i.e. syntax to do nothing, for example:

if <command> ; then
[...OCULSION...]
else
echo "<command> was unsuccessful"
fi

:

^^ the colon syntax

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nterpreted. These do not invoke an executable off the file system. Some of these were described in Chapter 7, and a few more are discussed here. For an exhaustive description, consult bash (1). <span>: A single colon by itself does nothing. It is useful for a no operation'' line such as: 5 if <command> ; then : else echo "<command> was unsuccessful" fi . filename args ..

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Question
In linux, what does the built-in command source do?

It executes a shell script IN THE CURRENT SHELL, therefore preseving the variables/environment variables set by that script in the current/originating shell.

e.g. if you do "source test.sh" and test.sh sets variable X=2, then in the originating/current shell, X is now set, even after test.sh finishes running.

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rking directory. set Prints the value of all environment variables. See also Section 20.6 on the set command. source filename args ... Reads filename into the current current shell environment. <span>This is useful for executing a shell script when environment variables set by that script must be preserved. times Prints the accumulated user and system times for the shell and for processes run from the shell. type command Tells whether command is an alias, a built-in or a system executable.

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Question

In linux, if you have shell script called test.sh and you want it executed IN THE CURRENT SHELL, such that the variables/environment variables set by that script are preserved in the current/originating shell, you can either do:

source test.sh

or, alternatively

[...] test.sh

.

^^ single dot, followed by space

^^^ the use of this is e.g. if you do ". test.sh" and test.sh sets variable X=2, then in the originating/current shell, X is now set, even after test.sh finishes running.

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
ption, consult bash (1). : A single colon by itself does nothing. It is useful for a no operation'' line such as: 5 if <command> ; then : else echo "<command> was unsuccessful" fi <span>. filename args ... A single dot is the same as the source command. See below. alias command = value Creates a pseudonym for a command. Try: alias necho="echo -n" necho "hello" Some distributions alias the

#### Flashcard 3814678465804

Question
In linux, create custom command lsl that does what "ls -l" does.

alias lsl="ls -l"

^^ note this only creates lsl alias in the current shell, i.e. once shell is exited (or new child shell created) alias no longer exists

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
for a no operation'' line such as: 5 if <command> ; then : else echo "<command> was unsuccessful" fi . filename args ... A single dot is the same as the source command. See below. <span>alias command = value Creates a pseudonym for a command. Try: alias necho="echo -n" necho "hello" Some distributions alias the mv , cp , and rm commands to the same pseudonym with the -i ( i nteractive) opti

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Question
In linux, if you create alias command lsl (by: alias lsl="ls -l"), how do you remove this alias?
unalias lsl

status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
( i nteractive) option set. This prevents files from being deleted without prompting, but can be irritating for the administrator. See your ~/.bashrc file for these settings. See also unalias . <span>unalias command Removes an alias created with alias . alias -p Prints list of aliases. eval arg ... Executes args as a line of shell script. exec command arg ... Begins executing command under the same

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Question
In linux, how to you see all the alias commands you have created?