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Flashcard 4419933310220

Question
what is Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Answer
is an enzyme found in cells throughout the body but mostly in the heart and liver and, to a lesser extent, in the kidneys and muscles. In healthy individuals, levels of AST in the blood are low. When liver or muscle cells are injured, they release AST into the blood. This makes AST a useful test for detecting or monitoring liver damage.


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Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
as part of a comprehensive metabolic panel when you have a routine health exam Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a vein in your arm Test Preparation Needed? None What is being tested? <span>Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme found in cells throughout the body but mostly in the heart and liver and, to a lesser extent, in the kidneys and muscles. In healthy individuals, levels of AST in the blood are low. When liver or muscle cells are injured, they release AST into the blood. This makes AST a useful test for detecting or monitoring liver damage. The liver is a vital organ located in the upper right-hand... Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme found in cells throughout the body but mostly in the heart and liver and, to







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Septic shock is a [...] .

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Septic shock - Wikipedia
es soon. Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win! Learn more Septic shock From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Septic shock Specialty Infectious disease <span>Septic shock is a potentially fatal medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defines septic shock as a subset of sepsis in which particularly profound circulatory, cellular, and




Septic shock is a [...] .

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Septic shock is a [...] .

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Septic shock - Wikipedia
es soon. Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win! Learn more Septic shock From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Septic shock Specialty Infectious disease <span>Septic shock is a potentially fatal medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defines septic shock as a subset of sepsis in which particularly profound circulatory, cellular, and




Flashcard 4421511679244

Question
[...]
Answer
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Septic shock is a [...] .

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Septic shock - Wikipedia
es soon. Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win! Learn more Septic shock From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Septic shock Specialty Infectious disease <span>Septic shock is a potentially fatal medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism. The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defines septic shock as a subset of sepsis in which particularly profound circulatory, cellular, and







Flashcard 4421513252108

Question
Hyperbilirubinemia
Answer
a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in the blood


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Hyperbilirubinemia is a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in the blood

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Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice | Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
isit Make a Gift Search Hyperbilirubinemia and Jaundice (link sends e-mail) Contact Us Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Contact Us (1-800-TRY-CHOP) 1-800-879-2467 What is hyperbilirubinemia? <span>Hyperbilirubinemia is a condition in which there is too much bilirubin in the blood. When red blood cells break down, a substance called bilirubin is formed. Babies are not easily able to get rid of the bilirubin and it can build up in the blood and other tissues and f







Flashcard 4421519281420

Question
Atrial fibrillation (also called AFib or AF) is a quivering or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications. At least 2.7 million Americans are living with AFib.
Answer
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What is Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF)? | American Heart Association
on West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Search Warning Signs Volunteer Donate Now Home Health Topics Atrial Fibrillation What is Atrial Fibrillation? Search What is Atrial Fibrillation (AFib or AF)? <span>Atrial fibrillation (also called AFib or AF) is a quivering or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications. At least 2.7 million Americans are living with AFib. Here’s how patients have described their experience: “My heart flip-flops, skips beats, and feels like it’s banging against my chest wall, especially if I’m carrying stuff up my stairs







Flashcard 4421522689292

Question
Pneumonitis (noo-moe-NIE-tis) is a general term that refers to inflammation of lung tissue. Technically, pneumonia is a type of pneumonitis because the infection causes inflammation. Pneumonitis, however, is usually used by doctors to refer to noninfectious causes of lung inflammation
Answer
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Unknown title
book Pinterest YouTube Request an Appointment Patient Care & Health Information Diseases & Conditions Pneumonitis Sections Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Print Overview <span>Pneumonitis (noo-moe-NIE-tis) is a general term that refers to inflammation of lung tissue. Technically, pneumonia is a type of pneumonitis because the infection causes inflammation. Pneumonitis, however, is usually used by doctors to refer to noninfectious causes of lung inflammation. Common causes of pneumonitis include airborne irritants at your job or from your hobbies. In addition, some types of cancer treatments and dozens of drugs can cause pneumonitis. Diffic







Flashcard 4421525572876

Question

Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.[1] In general, a resting heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia in adults.[1] Heart rates above the resting rate may be normal (such as with exercise) or abnormal (such as with electrical problems within the heart).

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Flashcard 4421528456460

Question
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Answer
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Somnolence - Wikipedia
nument, help Wikipedia and win! Learn more Somnolence From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Somnolence Other names Sleepiness, drowsiness. Specialty Psychiatry <span>Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia). It has distinct meanings and causes. It can refer to the usual state preceding falling asleep,[1] the condition of being in a drowsy state due to circadian rhythm disorders, or a sympto







Flashcard 4421531340044

Question
Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile duct system. The bile duct system carries bile from your liver and gallbladder into the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum).
Answer
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Cholangitis | Johns Hopkins Medicine
ts and Therapies Wellness and Prevention Caregiving Health Home Conditions and Diseases Cholangitis Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print Liver Gallbladder and Pancreas What is cholangitis? <span>Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile duct system. The bile duct system carries bile from your liver and gallbladder into the first part of your small intestine (the duodenum). In most cases cholangitis is caused by a bacterial infection, and often happens suddenly. But in some cases it may be long-term (chronic). Some people develop inflammation and cholangit







Flashcard 4421534223628

Question
Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.[1] Mucositis can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but oral mucositis refers to the particular inflammation and ulceration that occurs in the mouth. Oral mucositis is a common and often debilitating complication of cancer treatment
Answer
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Mucositis - Wikipedia
ion closes soon. Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win! Learn more Mucositis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Mucositis Specialty Gastroenterology <span>Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.[1] Mucositis can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, but oral mucositis refers to the particular inflammation and ulceration that occurs in the mouth. Oral mucositis is a common and often debilitating complication of cancer treatment.[2] Oral and gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis affects almost all patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 80% of patients with malig







Flashcard 4421537107212

Question
Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets.
Answer
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Pancytopenia - Wikipedia
ion closes soon. Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win! Learn more Pancytopenia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Pancytopenia Specialty Hematology <span>Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets. If only two parameters from the complete blood count are low, the term bicytopenia can be used. The diagnostic approach is the same as for pancytopenia. Contents 1 Causes 2 Mechanism 3







Flashcard 4421539990796

Question
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs. In other words, it is the airway bleeding. This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions.
Answer
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Hemoptysis - Wikipedia
otnotes is available. (June 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Hemoptysis Other names Haemoptysis, coughing up of blood Pronunciation /hɪˈmɒptɪsɪs/ Specialty Pulmonology <span>Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs. In other words, it is the airway bleeding. This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions. Hemoptysis is considered massive at 300 mL (11 imp fl oz; 10 US fl oz). In such cases, there are always severe injuries. The primary danger comes from choking, rather than blood loss.[1







Flashcard 4421542874380

Question
Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disorder in which there is a low level of phosphate in the blood.[1] Symptoms may include weakness, trouble breathing, and loss of appetite.[1] Complications may include seizures, coma, rhabdomyolysis, or softening of the bones.[1]
Answer
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Hypophosphatemia - Wikipedia
is, burns, certain medications[1] Diagnostic method Blood phosphate < 0.81 mmol/L (2.5 mg/dL)[1] Treatment Based on the underlying cause, phosphate[1][2] Frequency 2% (people in hospital)[1] <span>Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disorder in which there is a low level of phosphate in the blood.[1] Symptoms may include weakness, trouble breathing, and loss of appetite.[1] Complications may include seizures, coma, rhabdomyolysis, or softening of the bones.[1] Causes include alcoholism, refeeding in those with malnutrition, diabetic ketoacidosis, burns, hyperventilation, and certain medications.[1] It may also occur in the setting of hyperpar







Tecnica escritura al revés

Julio Soria dice que tiene un método muy bueno y que allá donde va se lo copian que es el de escribir el artículo al reves.

Es decir tu primero haces un esquema y luego vas a campo, haces los análisis y al final lo escribes.

El dice que lo mejor es escribirlo, tal cual son tus ideas, con tus hipótesis, tal cual tu piensas qeu va a ser sin tener datos y sin nada. Buscando tus citas etc. Porque luego haces la investigación ya "cerrando huecos" y no pierdes el tiempo con cuestioens que luego no van a estar en el artículo final sino que TODO lo que trabajas luego se ve reflejado perfectamente en el artículo.

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Flashcard 4421547855116

Question
In a nutshell, how does Search on the Replay Buffer allow navigation to distant goal states?
Answer
graph search over previously visited states in the replay buffer.


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Search on the Replay Buffer: Bridging Planning and Reinforcement Learning – arXiv Vanity
rt RL methods show that SoRB is substantially more successful in reaching distant goals. We also observe that the learned policy generalizes well to navigate in unseen environments. In summary, <span>graph search over previously visited states is a simple tool for boosting the performance of a goal-conditioned RL algorithm. 2 Bridging Planning and Reinforcement Learning Planning algorithms must be able to (1) sample valid sta







Flashcard 4421550738700

Question
After learning a goal-conditioned policy, precisely how does the Search On the Replay Buffer allow navigation to a distance goal?
Answer
After learning a goal-conditioned Q-function, we perform graph search to find a set of waypoints and use the goal-conditioned policy to reach each. We view the combination of graph search and the underlying goal-conditioned policy as a new SearchPolicy , shown in Algorithm 1 . The algorithm starts by using graph search to obtain the shortest path s w 1 , s w 2 , ⋯ from the current state s to the goal state s g , planning over the states in our replay buffer B . We then estimate the distance from the current state to the first waypoint, as well as the distance from the current state to the goal. In most cases, we then condition the policy on the first waypoint, s w 1 . However, if the goal state is closer than the next waypoint and the goal state is not too far away, then we directly condition the policy on the final goal. If the replay buffer is empty or there is not a path in G to the goal, then Algorithm 1 resorts to standard goal-conditioned RL.


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Search on the Replay Buffer: Bridging Planning and Reinforcement Learning – arXiv Vanity
fsys@color@rgb@fill001sg) return a Algorithm 1 Inputs are the current state s, the goal state sg, a buffer of observations B, the learned policy π and its value function V. Returns an action a. <span>After learning a goal-conditioned Q-function, we perform graph search to find a set of waypoints and use the goal-conditioned policy to reach each. We view the combination of graph search and the underlying goal-conditioned policy as a new SearchPolicy, shown in Algorithm 1. The algorithm starts by using graph search to obtain the shortest path sw1,sw2,⋯ from the current state s to the goal state sg, planning over the states in our replay buffer B. We then estimate the distance from the current state to the first waypoint, as well as the distance from the current state to the goal. In most cases, we then condition the policy on the first waypoint, sw1. However, if the goal state is closer than the next waypoint and the goal state is not too far away, then we directly condition the policy on the final goal. If the replay buffer is empty or there is not a path in G to the goal, then Algorithm 1 resorts to standard goal-conditioned RL. 3 Better Distance Estimates The success of our SearchPolicy depends heavily on the accuracy of our distance estimates. This section proposes two techniques to learn better distances wit







Flashcard 4421553097996

Question
What type of reinforcement learning approach does Search on the Replay Buffer use to ensure that the Q-function can represent infinite distances (which correspond to unreachable goals)?
Answer
We adopt distributional Q-learning ( Bellemare et al. , 2017 ) , noting that is has a convenient form when used with the − 1 reward function.


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Search on the Replay Buffer: Bridging Planning and Reinforcement Learning – arXiv Vanity
forward Q-network. Simply clipping the Q-value estimates to be within some range avoids the problem of ill-defined Q-values, but empirically we found it challenging to train clipped Q-networks. <span>We adopt distributional Q-learning (Bellemare et al., 2017), noting that is has a convenient form when used with the −1 reward function. Distributional RL discretizes the possible value estimates into a set of bins B=(B1,B2,⋯,BN). For learning distances, bins correspond to distances, so Bi indicates the event that the cu







Flashcard 4421555457292

Question
How does Search on the Replay Buffer encourage a robust distance estimation?
Answer
we implement an approximation to the bootstrap. We train an ensemble of Q-networks, each with independent weights, but trained on the same data using the same loss (Eq. 1 ).


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Search on the Replay Buffer: Bridging Planning and Reinforcement Learning – arXiv Vanity
nother. We seek to use a bootstrap (Bickel et al., 1981) as a principled way to estimate uncertainty for our Q-values. Following prior work (Osband et al., 2016; Lakshminarayanan et al., 2017), <span>we implement an approximation to the bootstrap. We train an ensemble of Q-networks, each with independent weights, but trained on the same data using the same loss (Eq. 1). When performing graph search, we aggregate predictions from each Q-network in our ensemble. Empirically, we found that ensembles were crucial for getting graph search to work on image-b







Flashcard 4421656382732

Question
NaCl
Answer
[default - edit me]


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pdf

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Sidewalk Walkability Index (Artículo de Passo Fundo Brasil)

3.3. Phase III: Sidewalk Quality Index (SQI)
The Sidewalk Quality Index (SQI) is obtained through equation (1)
SQI = psS + pmM + pewEw + pseSe + pvaVa + ppP + paA
(3)


Where:
S, M, Ew, Se, Va, P, A represent, respectively, the score obtained in the technical evaluation for the aspects of safety, maintenance, effective width, security, visual attractiveness, permeability and accessibility. (Lo obtiene de fichas de chequeo que hace en las aceras dandoles notas de 0 a 7)
ps, pm, pew, pse, pva, pp, pa a represent, respectively, the weighting factors of safety, maintenance, effective width, security, visual attractiveness, permeability and accessibility. (Estos los obtiene de las encuestas con la gente)

Luego agrega los resultados de todas las aceras para dar el del barrio y el global de la ciudad (resultados de 0 a 7).

NOTA: Este artículo tiene una revisión actaulizada (2018) de índices de walkability

Cita:

Quality of sidewalks in a Brazilian city: A broad vision

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Flashcard 4421660314892

Question
Hypoesthesia is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli. In everyday speech this is generally referred to as numbness.
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Hypoesthesia - Wikipedia
Hypoesthesia - Wikipedia Hypoesthesia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Hypoesthesia Other names Hypesthesia Specialty Psychiatry, Neurology Hypoesthesia is a common side effect of various medical conditions which manifests as a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli. In everyday speech this is generally referred to as numbness.[1] Hypoesthesia primarily results from damage to nerves, and from blockages in blood vessels, resulting in ischemic damage to tissues supplied by the blocked blood vessels. This damage







Flashcard 4421663198476

Question
Ileus is the medical term for this lack of movement somewhere in the intestines that leads to a buildup and potential blockage of food material.
Answer
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Ileus: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
contractions move forward your digested food. However, if something such as muscle or nerve problems, slows down or blocks this motion, the result can be a major traffic jam in your intestines. <span>Ileus is the medical term for this lack of movement somewhere in the intestines that leads to a buildup and potential blockage of food material. An ileus can lead to an intestinal obstruction. This means no food material, gas, or liquids can get through. It can occur as a side effect after surgery. However, there are other cause







Flashcard 4421666082060

Question
Paraparesis is the partial paralysis of both legs due to disrupted nerve signals from the brain to the muscles.
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Paraparesis: Causes, symptoms, and management
Wed 2 August 2017 Last reviewed Wed 2 Aug 2017 By Kanna Ingleson Reviewed by Carissa Stephens, RN, CCRN, CPN Table of contents What is paraparesis? Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Management Outlook <span>Paraparesis is the partial paralysis of both legs due to disrupted nerve signals from the brain to the muscles. Paraparesis can be caused by genetic factors and viral infections. In this article, we take a closer look at the causes and how to manage the condition. What is paraparesis? Paraparesis







Flashcard 4421668965644

Question
Postherpetic neuralgia is a painful condition that affects the nerve fibers and skin. It is a complication of shingles, and shingles is a complication of chicken pox.
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Postherpetic neuralgia: Treatment, symptoms, and causes
018 Last updated Thu 11 Jan 2018 By Brandon May Reviewed by University of Illinois-Chicago, School of Medicine Table of contents Treatment Symptoms Causes Natural treatment Diagnosis Prevention <span>Postherpetic neuralgia is a painful condition that affects the nerve fibers and skin. It is a complication of shingles, and shingles is a complication of chicken pox. If the pain caused by shingles continues after the bout of shingles is over, it is known as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). It is estimated that about 1 in 5 patients with shingles will







Flashcard 4421671849228

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Question
Hypovolemic shock To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript.

Hypovolemic shock is an emergency condition in which severe blood or fluid loss makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of shock can cause many organs to stop working.

Causes Expand Section

Losing about one fifth or more of the normal amount of blood in your body causes hypovolemic shock.

Answer
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Hypovolemic shock: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
upport Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hypovolemic shock URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000167.htm <span>Hypovolemic shock <span class="js-disabled-message">To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript.</span> Hypovolemic shock is an emergency condition in which severe blood or fluid loss makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body. This type of shock can cause many organs to stop working. Causes Expand Section Losing about one fifth or more of the normal amount of blood in your body causes hypovolemic shock. Blood loss can be due to: Bleeding from cuts Bleeding from other injuries Internal bleeding, such as in the gastrointestinal tract The amount of circulating blood in your body also may