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Flashcard 4896553831692

Tags
#machine-learning #management #software-engineering #unfinished
Question

But we feel that publications are by no means the only mechanism for knowledge dissemina- tion: Googlers have also:

  • led the creation of over 1,000 open source projects,
  • contributed to various standards (for example, as editor of HTML5),
  • [...].
Answer
pro- duced hundreds of public APIs for ac- cessing our services


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ns the only mechanism for knowledge dissemina- tion: Googlers have also: led the creation of over 1,000 open source projects, contributed to various standards (for example, as editor of HTML5), <span>pro- duced hundreds of public APIs for ac- cessing our services. In some cases, we have used these different channels in symbiotic ways, following up an initial publication describing the high-level ideas (MapReduce, GFS, BigTable) with open source

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Flashcard 4896590793996

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning #unfinished
Question
Fonduer uses a [...] with attention to represent textual features of relation candidates from the documents.
Answer
bidirectional LSTM


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Fonduer uses a bidirectional LSTM with attention to represent textual features of relation candidates from the documents.

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Flashcard 4962522631436

Question
Training data and machine learning models usually come in [...] than the size of the software code.
Answer
come in volumes that are orders of magnitude higher


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Training data and machine learning models usually come in volumes that are orders of magnitude higher than the size of the software code.

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Sato,Wider,Windheuser_2019_Continuous-delivery_thoughtworks
rough different stages until they’re deployed to production. It’s harder to achieve versioning, quality control, reliability, repeatability and audibility in that process. Size and portability: <span>Training data and machine learning models usually come in volumes that are orders of magnitude higher than the size of the software code. As such they require different tools that are able to handle them efficiently. These tools impede the use of a single unified format to share those artifacts along the path to production, which can lead to a “throw over the wall” attitude between different teams. Different skills and working processes in the workforce: To develop machine learning applications, experts with complementary skills are necessary, and they sometimes have contradicting







#bert

The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens.

  • The first token of every input sequence in BERT is the special classification token – [CLS].
  • BERT: The [CLS] token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation.
  • BERT: The [CLS] token is ignored in non-classification tasks.
  • BERT: For single text sentence tasks, the [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP].
  • BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token. This i
  • For both single and pair sentence inputs in BERT, the sequence ends with the [SEP] token.

Sentence Pair Input

  • BERT: For sentence pair input, a token's sentence embedding indicates Sentence A or Sentence B.
  • BERT: Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2.
  • BERT: positional embeddings indicate each token's position in the sequence.

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BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque




Flashcard 5001569242380

Question
I argue that we have to recognize that platforms can have the power to not only [...] content but also to [...] language itself .
Answer
moderate


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I argue that we have to recognize that platforms can have the power to not only moderate content but also to moderate language itself .

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How Automated Tools Discriminate Against Black Language – MIT Center for Civic Media
vists while doing little about the accounts of white supremacists. There are well-documented problems of content moderation on social media platforms , but as we work to address these problems, <span>I argue that we have to recognize that platforms can have the power to not only moderate content but also to moderate language itself. Implicit in Perspective’s bias against AAVE is the notion that the language used by many Black Americans is less acceptable, less intellectual, and less respectable than the language us







AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM E cosystems consisting of water as the main habitat are known as aquatic ecosystems. Aquatic ecosys- tems are classified based on their salt content. i) Fresh water ecosystems- The salt content of fresh bodies is very low, always less than 5 ppt (parts per thousand). E.g lakes, ponds, pools, springs, streams, and rivers ii) Marine ecosystems - the water bodies containing salt concentration equal to or above that of sea water (i.e., 35 ppt or above). E.g shallow seas and open ocean iii) Brackish water ecosystems – these water bodies have salt content in between 5 to 35 ppt. e.g. estuaries, salt marshes, mangrove swamps and forests.

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The UN-REDD Programme is the United Nations collaborative initiative on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The UN-REDD Programme supports nationally-led REDD+ processes and promotes the informed and meaningful involvement of all stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples and other forest-dependent communities, in national and international REDD+ implementation.

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UN-REDD Programme - Climate Initiatives Platform
Geographical coverage Global Name of lead organisation UN-REDD Type of lead organisation International organisation Location/Nationality of lead organisation Switzerland Description Description <span>The UN-REDD Programme is the United Nations collaborative initiative on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries. The UN-REDD Programme supports nationally-led REDD+ processes and promotes the informed and meaningful involvement of all stakeholders, including Indigenous Peoples and other forest-dependent communities, in national and international REDD+ implementation. Objectives While continuing its support for initial REDD+ readiness at the country level, the UN-REDD Programme’s strategy for 2011-2015 makes a strategic shift to focus on providing ca




Winterkill Snow cover of ice on water body can effectively cut off light, plunging the waters into darkness. Hence pho- tosynthesis stops but respiration continues. Thus in shallow lakes, the oxygen get depleted. Fish die, but we won’t know it until the ice melts and we find float- ing fish. This condition is known as winterkill.

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Civil Matters In civil cases, an appe-al lies to the Supreme Court from any judgement of a high court if the high court certifies— (i) that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance; and (ii) that the question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court. Originally, only those civil cases that involved a sum of 20,000 could be appealed before the Supreme Court. But this monetary limit was removed by the 30th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1972.

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Criminal Matters The Supreme Court hears appeals against the judgement in a criminal proceeding of a high court if the high court— (i) has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death; or (ii) has taken before itself any case from any subordinate court and convicted the accused person and sentenced him to death; or (iii) certifies that the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court. In the first two cases, an appeal lies to the Supreme Court as a matter of right (ie, without any certificate of the high court).

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Appeal by Special Leave The Supreme Court is authorised to grant in its discretion special leave to appeal from any judgement in any matter passed by any court or tribunal in the country (except military tribunal and court martial).

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Advisory Jurisdiction The Constitution (Article 143) authorises the president to seek the opinion of the Supreme Court in the two categories of matters: (a) On any question of law or fact of public importance which has arisen or which is likely to arise. (b) On any dispute arising out of any pre-constitution treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement, sanador other similar instruments. 11 In the first case, the Supreme Court may tender or may refuse to tender its opinion to the president. But, in the second case, the Supreme Court ‘must’ tender its opinion to the president. In both the cases, the opinion expressed by the Supreme Court is only advisory and not a judicial pronouncement. Hence, it is not binding on the president; he may follow or may not follow the

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As a Court of Record, the Supreme Court has two powers: (a) The judgements, proceedings and acts of the Supreme Court are recorded for perpetual memory and testimony. These records are admitted to be of evidentiary value and cannot be questioned when produced before any court. They are recognised as legal precedents and legal references. (b) It has power to punish for contempt of court, either with simple imprisonment for a term up to six months or with fine up to 2,000 or with both. In 1991

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Criminal contempt means the publication of any matter or doing an act which—(i) scandalises or lowers the authority of a court; or (ii) prejudices or interferes with the due course of a judicial proceeding; or (iii) interferes or obstructs the administration of justice in any other manner. However, innocent publication and distribution of some matter, fair and accurate report of judicial proceedings, fair and reasonable criticism of judicial acts and comment on the administrative side of the judiciary do not amount to contempt of court.

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Power of Judicial Review Judicial review is the power of the Supreme Court to examine the constitutionality of legislative enactments and executive orders of both the Central and state governments. On examination, if they are found to be violative of the Constitution (ultra-vires), they can be declared as illegal, unconstitutional and invalid (null and void) by the Supreme Court. Consequently, they cannot be enforced by the Government

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Supreme Court has numerous other powers: (a) It decides the disputes regarding the election of the president and the vice- president. In this regard, it has the original, exclusive and final authority. (b) It enquires into the conduct and behaviour of the chairman and members of the Union Public Service Commission on a reference made by the president. If it finds them guilty of misbehaviour, it can recommend to the president for their removal. The advice tendered by the Supreme Court in this regard is binding on the President.

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National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR).

  1. The NCPOR has established a high-altitude research station named ‘Himansh’ in Himalaya.
  2. NCPOR functions under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 10 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
ng people are larger in number than speakers of Manipuri and Sanskrit, which have the Eighth Schedule status. Source Question 5 of 5 5. Question 1 points Consider the following statements about <span>National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR). The NCPOR has established a high-altitude research station named ‘Himansh’ in Himalaya. NCPOR functions under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES). NCPOR does not have the permission to do research in the Arctic region and the Antarctica continent. Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1. a) 1 only 2. b) 1, 3 3. c) 1, 2 4.




Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a farming system that can prevent losses of arable land while regenerating degraded lands. It promotes maintenance of a permanent soil cover, minimum soil disturbance, and diversification of plant species. It enhances biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface, which contribute to increased water and nutrient use efficiency and to improved and sustained crop production.

CA principles are universally applicable to all agricultural landscapes and land uses with locally adapted practices. Soil interventions such as mechanical soil disturbance are reduced to an absolute minimum or avoided, and external inputs such as agrochemicals and plant nutrients of mineral or organic origin are applied optimally and in ways and quantities that do not interfere with, or disrupt, the biological processes.

Complemented by other known good practices, including the use of quality seeds, and integrated pest, nutrient, weed and water management, etc., CA is a base for sustainable agricultural production intensification. It opens increased options for integration of production sectors, such as crop-livestock integration and the integration of trees and pastures into agricultural landscapes.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 10 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
increased options for integration of production sectors, such as crop-livestock integration and the integration of trees and pastures into agricultural landscapes. Source Incorrect Solution: b) <span>Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a farming system that can prevent losses of arable land while regenerating degraded lands. It promotes maintenance of a permanent soil cover, minimum soil disturbance, and diversification of plant species. It enhances biodiversity and natural biological processes above and below the ground surface, which contribute to increased water and nutrient use efficiency and to improved and sustained crop production. CA principles are universally applicable to all agricultural landscapes and land uses with locally adapted practices. Soil interventions such as mechanical soil disturbance are reduced to an absolute minimum or avoided, and external inputs such as agrochemicals and plant nutrients of mineral or organic origin are applied optimally and in ways and quantities that do not interfere with, or disrupt, the biological processes. Complemented by other known good practices, including the use of quality seeds, and integrated pest, nutrient, weed and water management, etc., CA is a base for sustainable agricultural production intensification. It opens increased options for integration of production sectors, such as crop-livestock integration and the integration of trees and pastures into agricultural landscapes. Source Question 4 of 5 4. Question 1 points Consider the following statements. Article 29 of the Constitution provides that a section of citizens having a distinct language, script or c




Most of the world is now divided into regional FTAs, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for North America, the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR for its Spanish initials) for South America, the EU, the Eurasian Economic Union (Russia and neighbours), the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) FTA in West Asia, and now the biggest of them all, RCEP.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 10 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
and neighbours), the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) FTA in West Asia, and now the biggest of them all, RCEP. Source Incorrect Solution: c) <span>Most of the world is now divided into regional FTAs, including the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for North America, the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR for its Spanish initials) for South America, the EU, the Eurasian Economic Union (Russia and neighbours), the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) FTA in West Asia, and now the biggest of them all, RCEP. Source Question 3 of 5 3. Question 1 points Consider the following statements regarding Conservation Agriculture (CA). Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a farming system that can prevent




Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA), LESA is a pyramid-like structure whose purpose is to rescue an astronaut should he or she suffer an injury on the lunar surface.

LESA can be operated by a single astronaut to rescue a fallen colleague. It enables an astronaut to lift their crewmate onto a mobile stretcher in less than 10 minutes, before carrying them to the safety of a nearby pressurised lander.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 01 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
elated to 1. a) Commercial lunar lander of NASA 2. b) Rescue an injured astronaut on the lunar surface 3. c) Polar rover to scout for water 4. d) Successor to Chandrayaan-2 Correct Solution: b) <span>Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA), LESA is a pyramid-like structure whose purpose is to rescue an astronaut should he or she suffer an injury on the lunar surface. LESA can be operated by a single astronaut to rescue a fallen colleague. It enables an astronaut to lift their crewmate onto a mobile stretcher in less than 10 minutes, before carrying them to the safety of a nearby pressurised lander. Incorrect Solution: b) Developed by the European Space Agency (ESA), LESA is a pyramid-like structure whose purpose is to rescue an astronaut should he or she suffer an injury on the lu




Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) is released by

  • 1. a) Niti Aayog

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 01 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
hrough the Mediterranean Sea, scholars suggest that these sealings could have been used as an official royal permission issued from the capital city. Source Question 4 of 5 4. Question 1 points <span>Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) is released by 1. a) Niti Aayog 2. b) Central Water Commission 3. c) Jal Shakti Ministry 4. d) Both a) and c) Correct Solution: a) In 2020, according to the Niti Aayog, 21 Indian cities, including Delhi, Chennai and B




The Enforcement and Monitoring Guidelines for Sand Mining 2020 released by the Ministry include directions to states to carry out river audits, put detailed survey reports of all mining areas online and in the public domain, conduct replenishment studies of river beds, constantly monitor mining with drones, aerial surveys, ground surveys and set up dedicated task forces at district levels.

The guidelines also push for online sales and purchase of sand and other riverbed materials to make the process transparent. They propose night surveillance of mining activity through night-vision drones.

While the MoEF has already put in place the Sustainable Sand Management Guidelines 2016, which focus on the management of sand mining in India, officials say that there is an urgent need to have guidelines for effective enforcement of regulatory provisions and their monitoring.

The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 has empowered state governments to make rules to prevent illegal mining, transportation and storage of minerals. “But in the recent past, it has been observed that there was a large number of illegal mining cases in the country.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 01 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
the National Green Tribunal in 2018, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change has for the first time released guidelines to monitor and check illegal sand mining in the country. <span>The Enforcement and Monitoring Guidelines for Sand Mining 2020 released by the Ministry include directions to states to carry out river audits, put detailed survey reports of all mining areas online and in the public domain, conduct replenishment studies of river beds, constantly monitor mining with drones, aerial surveys, ground surveys and set up dedicated task forces at district levels. The guidelines also push for online sales and purchase of sand and other riverbed materials to make the process transparent. They propose night surveillance of mining activity through night-vision drones. While the MoEF has already put in place the Sustainable Sand Management Guidelines 2016, which focus on the management of sand mining in India, officials say that there is an urgent need to have guidelines for effective enforcement of regulatory provisions and their monitoring. The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 has empowered state governments to make rules to prevent illegal mining, transportation and storage of minerals. “But in the recent past, it has been observed that there was a large number of illegal mining cases in the country. The 2020 guidelines are to be enforced simultaneously with the Sustainable Sand Management Guidelines, 2016, but in instances where the two sets of guidelines may seem to be in conflict




The International Court of Justice is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. These organs vote simultaneously but separately. In order to be elected, a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies. In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years. Judges are eligible for re-election.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 03 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
submitted by States in accordance with established international laws, and to act as an advisory board on issues submitted to it by authorized international organizations. Members of the Court: <span>The International Court of Justice is composed of 15 judges elected to nine-year terms of office by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. These organs vote simultaneously but separately. In order to be elected, a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies. In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years. Judges are eligible for re-election. current affairs quiz current event quiz Share: Next story INSIGHTS CURRENT AFFAIRS (31 January 2020) REVISION THROUGH MCQS Previous story [Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answe




Who is a star campaigner?

A recognised political party can have 40 star campaigners and an unrecognised (but registered) political party can have 20. The list of star campaigners has to be communicated to the Chief Electoral Officer and Election Commission within a week from the date of notification of an election.

The expenditure incurred on campaigning by such notified star campaigners is exempt from being added to the election expenditure of a candidate. However, this only applies when a star campaigner limits herself to a general campaign for the political party she represents.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 03 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
or the political party she represents. Source Incorrect Solution: b) The Election Commission removed BJP leaders Anurag Thakur and Parvesh Sahib Singh from the party’s list of star campaigners. <span>Who is a star campaigner? A recognised political party can have 40 star campaigners and an unrecognised (but registered) political party can have 20. The list of star campaigners has to be communicated to the Chief Electoral Officer and Election Commission within a week from the date of notification of an election. The expenditure incurred on campaigning by such notified star campaigners is exempt from being added to the election expenditure of a candidate. However, this only applies when a star campaigner limits herself to a general campaign for the political party she represents. Source Question 3 of 5 3. Question 1 points Consider the following statements regarding “crowding out” effect. Crowding out effect refers to how increased government spending, for which




The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS), from Sultanganj to Kahalganj on the Ganga in Bihar is the only dolphin sanctuary in the country.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 07 February 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
country. The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal and is the official animal of the city of Guwahati. Source Incorrect Solution: b) <span>The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS), from Sultanganj to Kahalganj on the Ganga in Bihar is the only dolphin sanctuary in the country. The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal and is the official animal of the city of Guwahati. Source current affairs quiz cu




The State of World Population 2019 report is released by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 31 January 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
points Consider the following statements. Madrid International Plan of Action provides a roadmap for addressing challenges of an ageing society and realisation of human rights of older persons. <span>The State of World Population 2019 report is released by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). India’s life expectancy at birth is 72 years in 2019. The National Council of Senior Citizens is the highest advisory body for policymaking on the entire gamut of issues related to elde




The NIA Act was enacted in the aftermath of the Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008. A decade later, the Act was amended with the objective of speedy investigation and prosecution of certain offences, including those committed outside India.

The 2019 amendment in the law focussed on three main areas.

OFFENCES OUTSIDE INDIA: The original Act allowed NIA to investigate and prosecute offences within India. The amended Act empowered the agency to investigate offences committed outside India, subject to international treaties and domestic laws of other countries.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 31 January 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
ons Courts as Special Courts for the trial of scheduled offences under the Act. Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1. a) 1, 2 2. b) 1, 3 3. c) 2, 3 4. d) 1, 2, 3 Correct Solution: d) <span>The NIA Act was enacted in the aftermath of the Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008. A decade later, the Act was amended with the objective of speedy investigation and prosecution of certain offences, including those committed outside India. The 2019 amendment in the law focussed on three main areas. OFFENCES OUTSIDE INDIA: The original Act allowed NIA to investigate and prosecute offences within India. The amended Act empowered the agency to investigate offences committed outside India, subject to international treaties and domestic laws of other countries. The amended section reads: “Where the Central Government is of the opinion that a Scheduled Offence has been committed at any place outside India to which this Act extends, it may direc




The National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA) has been constituted under Section 171 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017.

The Authority’s main function is to ensure that traders are not realizing unfair profit by charging high price from consumers in the name of GST.

The Authority’s core function is to ensure that the benefits of the reduction is GST rates on goods and services made by GST Council and proportional change in the Input tax credit passed on to the ultimate consumers and recipient respectively by way of reduction in the prices by the suppliers.

The National Anti-Profiteering Authority shall be headed by a senior officer of the level of a Secretary to the Government of India and shall have four technical members from the Centre and/or the States.

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QUIZ – 2020: Insights Current Affairs Quiz, 28 January 2020 - INSIGHTSIAS
ases the National Anti-profiteering Authority can impose a penalty on the defaulting business entity and even order the cancellation of its registration under GST. Source Incorrect Solution: c) <span>The National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA) has been constituted under Section 171 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017. The Authority’s main function is to ensure that traders are not realizing unfair profit by charging high price from consumers in the name of GST. The Authority’s core function is to ensure that the benefits of the reduction is GST rates on goods and services made by GST Council and proportional change in the Input tax credit passed on to the ultimate consumers and recipient respectively by way of reduction in the prices by the suppliers. The National Anti-Profiteering Authority shall be headed by a senior officer of the level of a Secretary to the Government of India and shall have four technical members from the Centre and/or the States. In the event the National Anti-profiteering Authority confirms the necessity of applying anti-profiteering measures, it has the power to order the business concerned to reduce its price




Establishment Of SEBI

The Securities and Exchange Board of India was established on April 12, 1992 in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

Preamble

The Preamble of the Securities and Exchange Board of India describes the basic functions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India as "...to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto"

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SEBI | About SEBI
of Awareness Programs for Commodities Derivatives ::: With effect from April 1, 2019, transfer of shares has to essentially be in dematerialized mode. Home » About SEBI About SEBI        <span>Establishment Of SEBI The Securities and Exchange Board of India was established on April 12, 1992 in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992. Preamble The Preamble of the Securities and Exchange Board of India describes the basic functions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India as "...to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto" The Board Organisation Structure Code on Conflict of Interests for Members of Board Functions of Departments / Divisions Board Meetings Addresses of Offices of SEBI Powers and Functions




Pakistan has urged the U.S. to support its bid to exit from the grey list of the FATF ahead of a key meeting of the international terror financing watchdog in Beijing, in which it will scrutinise Islamabad’s efforts to adopt stricter laws against terror financing and money laundering.

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T Share Article 0 PRINT A A A PTI Islamabad, January 20, 2020 22:51 IST Updated: January 20, 2020 22:51 IST more-in Beijng meeting to scrutinise Islamabad’s efforts in fighting terror financing <span>Pakistan has urged the U.S. to support its bid to exit from the grey list of the FATF ahead of a key meeting of the international terror financing watchdog in Beijing, in which it will scrutinise Islamabad’s efforts to adopt stricter laws against terror financing and money laundering. A Pakistani delegation arrived in Beijing on Sunday for the three-day face-to-face talks with the Financial Action Task Force Working Group that would start on January 21. The briefing




The FATF in October decided to keep Pakistan on its ‘Grey’ list for failure to curb funnelling of funds to terror groups LeT, JeM and others. If not removed off the list by April, Pakistan may move to a blacklist of countries that face severe economic sanctions, such as Iran.

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is led by Minister for Economic Affairs Division Hammad Azhar, comprises representatives of National Counter Terrorism Authority (Nacta), the Foreign Ministry, the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). <span>The FATF in October decided to keep Pakistan on its ‘Grey’ list for failure to curb funnelling of funds to terror groups LeT, JeM and others. If not removed off the list by April, Pakistan may move to a blacklist of countries that face severe economic sanctions, such as Iran. Pakistan has submitted a 650-page review report to the FATF on January 8. The report was in response to 150 questions raised by the FATF over new Pakistani policies on money laundering.




Strait of Hormuz, also called Strait of Ormuz, channel linking the Persian Gulf (west) with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea (southeast). The strait is 35 to 60 miles (55 to 95 km) wide and separates Iran (north) from the Arabian Peninsula (south). It contains the islands of Qeshm (Qishm), Hormuz, and Hengām (Henjām) and is of great strategic and economic importance, especially as oil tankers collecting from various ports on the Persian Gulf must pass through the strait.

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Strait of Hormuz | Map, Importance, Oil, &amp; Facts | Britannica
ty of experts to gain a global audience for your work! Share SHARE Facebook Twitter Strait of Hormuz strait, Persian Gulf Written By: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica See Article History <span>Strait of Hormuz, also called Strait of Ormuz, channel linking the Persian Gulf (west) with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea (southeast). The strait is 35 to 60 miles (55 to 95 km) wide and separates Iran (north) from the Arabian Peninsula (south). It contains the islands of Qeshm (Qishm), Hormuz, and Hengām (Henjām) and is of great strategic and economic importance, especially as oil tankers collecting from various ports on the Persian Gulf must pass through the strait. In the mid-2010s one-fifth of the world’s oil supply passed through the strait, including about one-third of all seaborne trade. The strait also became important for the supply of lique




The Supreme Court’s jurisdiction and powers with respect to matters in the Union list can be enlarged by the Parliament. Further, its jurisdiction and powers with respect to other matters can be enlarged by a special agreement of the Centre and the states.

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Constitution itself confers the power of judicial review on the judiciary (both the Supreme Court as well as High Courts). Further, the Supreme Court has declared the power of judicial review as a basic feature of the Constitution or an element of the basic structure of the Constitution. Hence, the power of judicial review cannot be curtailed or excluded even by a constitutional amendment.

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Judicial review is the power of the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of legislative enactments and executive orders of both the Central and State governments.

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“The founding fathers very wisely, therefore, incorporated in the Constitution itself the provisions of judicial review so as to maintain the balance of federalism, to protect the Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Freedoms guaranteed to the citizens and to afford a useful weapon for availability, availment and enjoyment of equality, liberty and Fundamental Freedoms and to help to create a healthy nationalism. The function of judicial review is a part of the constitutional interpretation itself. It adjusts the Constitution to meet new conditions and needs of the time”.

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Article 13 declares that all laws that are inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights shall be null and void. 2. Article 32 guarantees the right to move the Supreme Court for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights and empowers the Supreme Court to issue directions or orders or writs for that purpose. 3. Article 131 provides for the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in centre–state and inter-state disputes.

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SCOPE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW The constitutional validity of a legislative enactment or an executive order can be challenged in the Supreme Court or in the High Courts on the following three grounds. (a) it infringes the Fundamental Rights (Part III), (b) it is outside the competence of the authority which has framed it, and (c) it is repugnant to the constitutional provisions.

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Flashcard 5004330667276

Question
MEANING OF JUDICIAL ACTIVISM Judicial activism denotes the proactive role played by the judiciary in the protection of the rights of citizens and in the promotion of justice in the society. In other words, it implies the assertive role played by the judiciary to force the other two organs of the government (legislature and executive) to discharge their constitutional duties. Judicial activism is also known as “judicial dynamism”.
Answer
[default - edit me]


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Judicial activism is a way of exercising judicial power that motivates judges to depart from normally practised strict adherence to judicial precedent in favour of progressive and new social policies

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We introduce a neural reading comprehension model that integrates external commonsense knowledge, encoded as a key-value memory, in a cloze-style setting. Instead of relying only on document-to-question interaction or discrete features as in prior work, our model attends to relevant external knowledge and combines this knowledge with the context representation before inferring the answer. This allows the model to attract and imply knowledge from an external knowledge source that is not explicitly stated in the text, but that is relevant for inferring the answer. Our model improves results over a very strong baseline on a hard Common Nouns dataset, making it a strong competitor of much more complex models. By including knowledge explicitly, our model can also provide evidence about the background knowledge used in the RC process.

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Knowledgeable Reader: Enhancing Cloze-Style Reading Comprehension with External Commonsense Knowledge - ACL Anthology
Q(current) Corrections(current) Submissions(current) Knowledgeable Reader: Enhancing Cloze-Style Reading Comprehension with External Commonsense Knowledge Todor Mihaylov , Anette Frank Abstract <span>We introduce a neural reading comprehension model that integrates external commonsense knowledge, encoded as a key-value memory, in a cloze-style setting. Instead of relying only on document-to-question interaction or discrete features as in prior work, our model attends to relevant external knowledge and combines this knowledge with the context representation before inferring the answer. This allows the model to attract and imply knowledge from an external knowledge source that is not explicitly stated in the text, but that is relevant for inferring the answer. Our model improves results over a very strong baseline on a hard Common Nouns dataset, making it a strong competitor of much more complex models. By including knowledge explicitly, our model can also provide evidence about the background knowledge used in the RC process. Anthology ID: P18-1076 Volume: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers) Month: July Year: 2018 Address: Melbourne,




TransE, or Translating Embeddings for Modeling Multi-relational Data , lets us embed the contents of a knowledge graph by assigning vectors to nodes and edge types (a.k.a. predicates) and, for each subject-predicate-object triple, minimizing the distance between the object vector and the translation of the subject vector along the predicate vector. It’s an appealing algorithm for embedding multi-relational data due to its simplicity, efficiency, and quality. However, it can sometimes behave in mysterious and counter-intuitive ways.

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How to use TransE effectively - CCRi
TS CAPABILITIES BLOG CAREERS ABOUT CONTACT Search for: Home / BLOG / Visualization / How to use TransE effectively How to use TransE effectively by Vivek Dhand on June 27, 2018 with No Comments <span>TransE, or Translating Embeddings for Modeling Multi-relational Data , lets us embed the contents of a knowledge graph by assigning vectors to nodes and edge types (a.k.a. predicates) and, for each subject-predicate-object triple, minimizing the distance between the object vector and the translation of the subject vector along the predicate vector. It’s an appealing algorithm for embedding multi-relational data due to its simplicity, efficiency, and quality. However, it can sometimes behave in mysterious and counter-intuitive ways. To try to isolate and unravel some of these issues, I ran TransE in two dimensions for several small graphs. The advantage of this approach is that we can visualize and animate the whol




To try to isolate and unravel some of these issues, I ran TransE in two dimensions for several small graphs. The advantage of this approach is that we can visualize and animate the whole graph during training to gain intuition for how TransE works. I also plotted the predicate vectors separately to give us a good view of how they change over time.

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How to use TransE effectively - CCRi
ector. It’s an appealing algorithm for embedding multi-relational data due to its simplicity, efficiency, and quality. However, it can sometimes behave in mysterious and counter-intuitive ways. <span>To try to isolate and unravel some of these issues, I ran TransE in two dimensions for several small graphs. The advantage of this approach is that we can visualize and animate the whole graph during training to gain intuition for how TransE works. I also plotted the predicate vectors separately to give us a good view of how they change over time. In the examples below, the entity embeddings along with the graph edges appear on the left plot and the predicate vectors appear on the right plot. Path graph Paths are probably the sim




Article 5004439457036

Herron-2019-Prinicipled_Machine_Learning_Collaboration-dev,to
#has-images #machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished

Skip to content WRITE A POST Principled Machine Learning: Practices and Tools for Efficient Collaboration David Herron Jun 20 '19 ・12 min read #machinelearning #opensource #ai #python Machine learning projects are often harder than they should be. We’re dealing with data and software, and it should be a simple matter of running the code, iterating through some algorithm tweaks, and after a while we have a perfectly trained AI model. But fast forward three months later, the training data might have been changed or deleted, and the understanding of training scripts might be a vague memory of which does what. Have you created a disconnect between the trained model and the process to create the model? How do you share work with colleagues for collaboration or replicating your results? As is true for software projects in general, what’s needed is better management of code versions and project assets. One might need to revisit the state of the project as it was



Article 5004440767756

Kreiling-2019-Frameworks_Machine_Learning_Management-inovex,de
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TwitterLinkedinXingYouTubeInstagramFacebook Strategies Applications Infrastructure Analytics Methods Zeige grösseres Bild Frameworks for Machine Learning Model Management Gepostet am: 03. April 2019 Nico Kreiling tweet share share share share In my previous blog post „how to manage machine learning models“ I explained the difficulties within the process of developing a good machine learning model and motivated using a tool to support data scientists with this challenge. This blog post will follow up by comparing three different tools developed to support reproducible machine learning model development: MLFlow developed by DataBricks (the company behind Apache Spark) DVC, an open-source project that gets its main support by the San Francisco-/ London based startup iterative.ai Sacred, an academical project developed by different researchers First there will be one paragraph per framework that describes the proj



Flashcard 5004635802892

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#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning #unfinished
Question
Fonduer uses a bidirectional LSTM with [...] to represent textual features of relation candidates from the documents.
Answer
attention


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Fonduer uses a bidirectional LSTM with attention to represent textual features of relation candidates from the documents.

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Flashcard 5004688231692

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#bert
Question
[...]: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token.
Answer
BERT


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BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token.

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BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque







Flashcard 5004712873228

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#bert
Question
BERT: For [...] tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token.
Answer
sentence pair


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BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token.

Original toplevel document

BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque







Flashcard 5004925734156

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#bert
Question
BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of [...] are separated by a [SEP] token.
Answer
the two sentences


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BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token.

Original toplevel document

BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque







Flashcard 5004927307020

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#bert
Question
BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by [...]
Answer
a [SEP] token.


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BERT: For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token.

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BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque







Flashcard 5004928879884

Tags
#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished
Question
[...], Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •
Answer
In theory


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In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •

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Flashcard 5004930714892

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#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished
Question
In theory, [...]#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •
Answer
Compu ter#programs


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In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •

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Flashcard 5004933860620

Tags
#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished
Question
In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#[...], so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •
Answer
mathematic al#proo fs


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In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •

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Το ατοπικό (αλλεργικό) άσθμα, 2. Το επαγγελματικό άσθμα (πολλές μορφές) και 3. Η αλλεργική βρογχοπνευμονική ασπεργίλλωση (βρογχικός αποικισμός από μικροοργανισμούς Aspergilli που ακολουθείται από την ανάπτυξη αντισωμάτων ανοσοσφαιρίνης E [IgE])

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Flashcard 5004937006348

Tags
#machine-learning #software-engineering #unfinished
Question
In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we [...]. •
Answer
Desi gn #wi th#contracts


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In theory, Compu ter#programs#are#similar#to#mathematic al#proo fs, so we Desi gn #wi th#contracts. •

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#software-engineering

Design by contract is also known as contract programming.

Design by contract is an approach for designing software.

Design by contract prescribes that software designers should define formal, precise and verifiable interface specifications for software components.

Design by contract specifications extend the ordinary definition of abstract data types with preconditions, postconditions and invariants.

The DbC approach assumes all client components that invoke an operation on a server component will meet the preconditions specified as required for that operation: Offensive Programming

Where this assumption is considered too risky (as in multi-channel or distributed computing) the inverse approach is taken, meaning that the server component tests that all relevant preconditions hold true (before, or while, processing the client component's request) and replies with a suitable error message if not: Defensive Programming

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Design by contract - Wikipedia
Design by contract - Wikipedia Design by contract From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search [imagelink] [emptylink] A design by contract scheme Design by contract (DbC), also known as contract programming, programming by contract and design-by-contract programming, is an approach for designing software . It prescribes that software designers should define formal , precise and verifiable interface specifications for software components , which extend the ordinary definition of abstract data types with preconditions , postconditions and invariants . These specifications are referred to as "contracts", in accordance with a conceptual metaphor with the conditions and obligations of business contracts. The DbC approach assumes all client components that invoke an operation on a server component will meet the preconditions specified as required for that operation. Where this assumption is considered too risky (as in multi-channel or distributed computing) the inverse approach is taken, meaning that the server component tests that all relevant preconditions hold true (before, or while, processing the client component's request) and replies with a suitable error message if not. Contents 1 History 2 Description 3 Performance implications 4 Relationship to software testing 5 Language support 5.1 Languages with native support 5.2 Languages with third-party suppor




Αναγνωρίζονται τρείς τύποι εξωγενούς άσθματος: 1. Το [...] άσθμα, 2. Το ε [...] (πολλές μορφές) και 3. Η [...] (βρογχικός αποικισμός από μικροοργανισμούς Aspergilli που ακολουθείται από την ανάπτυξη αντισωμάτων ανοσοσφαιρίνης E [IgE]).

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#bert
BERT: For sentence pair input, a token's sentence embedding indicates Sentence A or Sentence B.

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s, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by a [SEP] token. This i For both single and pair sentence inputs in BERT, the sequence ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input <span>BERT: For sentence pair input, a token's sentence embedding indicates Sentence A or Sentence B. BERT: Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. BERT: positional embeddings indicate each token's position in the sequence. <span>

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BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque




#bert
BERT: Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2.

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gle and pair sentence inputs in BERT, the sequence ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input BERT: For sentence pair input, a token's sentence embedding indicates Sentence A or Sentence B. <span>BERT: Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. BERT: positional embeddings indicate each token's position in the sequence. <span>

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BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque




#bert
BERT: positional embeddings indicate each token's position in the sequence.

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Pair Input BERT: For sentence pair input, a token's sentence embedding indicates Sentence A or Sentence B. BERT: Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. <span>BERT: positional embeddings indicate each token's position in the sequence. <span>

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BERT Explained – A list of Frequently Asked Questions – Let the Machines Learn
ctives allow it to be used on any single sequence and sequence-pair tasks without substantial task-specific architecture modifications. How is the input text represented before feeding to BERT? <span>The input representation used by BERT is able to represent a single text sentence as well as a pair of sentences (eg., [Question, Answer]) in a single sequence of tokens. The first token of every input sequence is the special classification token – [CLS]. This token is used in classification tasks as an aggregate of the entire sequence representation. It is ignored in non-classification tasks. For single text sentence tasks, this [CLS] token is followed by the WordPiece tokens and the separator token – [SEP]. Single Sentence Input For sentence pair tasks, the WordPiece tokens of the two sentences are separated by another [SEP] token. This input sequence also ends with the [SEP] token. Sentence Pair Input A sentence embedding indicating Sentence A or Sentence B is added to each token. Sentence embeddings are similar to token/word embeddings with a vocabulary of 2. A positional embedding is also added to each token to indicate its position in the sequence. Which Tokenization strategy is used by BERT? BERT uses WordPiece tokenization. The vocabulary is initialized with all the individual characters in the language, and then the most freque




Flashcard 5004952210700

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning
Question
For [...](task) in AKBCs, low-level techniques and big-data frameworks, e.g.Hadoop and Condor., have been used.
Answer
feature extraction


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For feature extraction in AKBCs, low-level techniques and big-data frameworks, e.g.Hadoop and Condor., have been used.

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Flashcard 5004953783564

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning
Question
For feature extraction in AKBCs, [...] and big-data frameworks, e.g.Hadoop and Condor., have been used.
Answer
low-level techniques


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Flashcard 5004955356428

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning
Question
For feature extraction in AKBCs, low-level techniques and [...], e.g.Hadoop and Condor., have been used.
Answer
big-data frameworks


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Flashcard 5004956929292

Tags
#knowledge-base-construction #machine-learning
Question
For feature extraction in AKBCs, low-level techniques and big-data frameworks, e.g.[...]., have been used.
Answer
Hadoop and Condor


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Ο κοινός παρονομαστής που υπογραμμίζεται σε όλες τις μορφές του άσθματος είναι η [...] σε διάφορα ερεθίσματα

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Flashcard 5004960075020

Question
Changes in [...] may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.
Answer
the external world


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Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.

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Flashcard 5004961647884

Question
Changes in the external world may make [...] or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.
Answer
models


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Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.

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Flashcard 5004963220748

Question
Changes in the external world may make models or [...] change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.
Answer
input signals


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Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.

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Flashcard 5004964793612

Question
Changes in the external world may make models or input signals [...], ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.
Answer
change behavior in unintended ways


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Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.

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Flashcard 5004966366476

Question
Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up [...] and the burden of any debt.
Answer
maintenance cost


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Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the burden of any debt.

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Flashcard 5004967939340

Question
Changes in the external world may make models or input signals change behavior in unintended ways, ratcheting up maintenance cost and the [...].
Answer
burden of any debt


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#theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Statics deals with the analysis of stationary systems—that is, those in which time is not a factor—and dynamics deals with systems that change with time.

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Wireframes help to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages

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Wireframes help to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Wireframes help to: Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface Wireframes help to: Determine intended functionality in the interface Wi

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Wireframing | Usability.gov
d intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics. Wireframes also help establish relationships between a website’s various templates. <span>The Value of Wireframes Wireframes serve multiple purposes by helping to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface Determine intended functionality in the interface Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and where that item is located Creating Wireframes It’s important to keep in mind that wireframes are guides to where the major navigation and content elements of your site are going to appear on the page. Since the




Wireframes help to: Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface

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Wireframes help to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Wireframes help to: Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface Wireframes help to: Determine intended functionality in the interface Wireframes help to: Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and

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Wireframing | Usability.gov
d intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics. Wireframes also help establish relationships between a website’s various templates. <span>The Value of Wireframes Wireframes serve multiple purposes by helping to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface Determine intended functionality in the interface Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and where that item is located Creating Wireframes It’s important to keep in mind that wireframes are guides to where the major navigation and content elements of your site are going to appear on the page. Since the




Wireframes help to: Determine intended functionality in the interface

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e’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Wireframes help to: Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface <span>Wireframes help to: Determine intended functionality in the interface Wireframes help to: Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and where that item is located <span>

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Wireframing | Usability.gov
d intended behaviors. For these reasons, wireframes typically do not include any styling, color, or graphics. Wireframes also help establish relationships between a website’s various templates. <span>The Value of Wireframes Wireframes serve multiple purposes by helping to: Connect the site’s information architecture to its visual design by showing paths between pages Clarify consistent ways for displaying particular types of information on the user interface Determine intended functionality in the interface Prioritize content through the determination of how much space to allocate to a given item and where that item is located Creating Wireframes It’s important to keep in mind that wireframes are guides to where the major navigation and content elements of your site are going to appear on the page. Since the




Flashcard 5004979473676

Tags
#theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Differentiate statics from dynamics.
Answer
Statics deals with the analysis of stationary systems—that is, those in which time is not a factor—and dynamics deals with systems that change with time.


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Statics deals with the analysis of stationary systems—that is, those in which time is not a factor—and dynamics deals with systems that change with time.







Ο κοινός παρονομαστής που υπογραμμίζεται σε όλες τις μορφές του άσθματος είναι η βρογχική υπεραντιδραστικότητα σε διάφορα ερεθίσματα.

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Flashcard 5004983930124

Question
Ο κοινός παρονομαστής που υπογραμμίζεται σε όλες τις μορφές του άσθματος είναι η [...] σε διάφορα ερεθίσματα.
Answer
βρογχική υπεραντιδραστικότητα


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Ο κοινός παρονομαστής που υπογραμμίζεται σε όλες τις μορφές του άσθματος είναι η βρογχική υπεραντιδραστικότητα σε διάφορα ερεθίσματα.

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#Euler #dynamics #kinematics #kinetics #rigid-body #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms

As shown in Fig. 1.1, dynamics is also made up of two major disciplines, first recognized as separate entities by Euler in 1765 [2]:

The investigation of the motion of a rigid body may be conveniently separated into two parts, the one, geometrical, and the other mechanical. In the first part, the transference of the body from a given position to any other position must be investigated without respect to the causes of the motion, and must be represented by analytical formulae, which will define the position of each point of the body. This investigation will therefore be referable solely to geometry, or rather to stereotomy [the art of stonecutting, now referred to as descriptive geometry]. It is clear that by the separation of this part of the question from the other, which belongs properly to Mechanics, the determination of the motion from dynamical principles will be made much easier than if the two parts were undertaken conjointly.

(...)

It should be carefully noted in the previous quotation that Euler based his separation of dynamics into kinematics and kinetics on the assumption that they deal with rigid bodies. It is this very important assumption that allows the two to be treated separately. For flexible bodies, the shapes of the bodies themselves, and therefore their motions, depend on the forces exerted on them. In this situation, the study of force and motion must take place simultaneously, thus significantly increasing the complexity of the analysis.

Fortunately, although all real machine parts are flexible to some degree, machines are usually designed from relatively rigid materials, keeping part deflections to a minimum. Therefore, it is common practice to assume that deflections are negligible and parts are rigid while analyzing a machine’s kinematic performance and then, during dynamic analysis when loads are sought, to design the parts so that the assumption is justified.

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[unknown IMAGE 5004994940172]
#dynamics #has-images #kinematics #kinetics #machine #mechanism #statics #structure #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms

Reuleaux defines a machine as a “combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motions.” He also defines a mechanism as an “assemblage of resistant bodies, connected by movable joints, to form a closed kinematic chain with one link fixed and having the purpose of transforming motion.”

Some light can be shed on these definitions by contrasting them with the term structure. A structure is also a combination of resistant (rigid) bodies connected by joints, but the purpose of a structure (such as a truss) is not to do work or to transform motion, but to be rigid. A truss can perhaps be moved from place to place and is movable in this sense of the word; however, it has no internal mobility. A structure has no relative motions between its various links, whereas both machines and mechanisms do. Indeed, the whole purpose of a machine or mechanism is to utilize these relative internal motions in transmitting power or transforming motion.

A machine is an arrangement of parts for doing work, a device for applying power or changing the direction of motion. It differs from a mechanism in its purpose. In a machine, terms such as force, torque, work, and power describe the predominant concepts. In a mechanism, though it may transmit power or force, the predominant idea in the mind of the designer is one of achieving a desired motion. There is a direct analogy between the terms structure, mechanism, and machine and the branches of mechanics illustrated in Fig. 1.1. The term “structure” is to statics as the term “mechanism” is to kinematics and as the term “machine” is to kinetics.

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Flashcard 5004998085900

[unknown IMAGE 5004994940172]
Tags
#dynamics #has-images #kinematics #kinetics #machine #mechanism #statics #structure #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Differentiate machine from mechanism and compare them to the concept of structure.
Answer

Reuleaux defines a machine as a “combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motions.” He also defines a mechanism as an “assemblage of resistant bodies, connected by movable joints, to form a closed kinematic chain with one link fixed and having the purpose of transforming motion.”

Some light can be shed on these definitions by contrasting them with the term structure. A structure is also a combination of resistant (rigid) bodies connected by joints, but the purpose of a structure (such as a truss) is not to do work or to transform motion, but to be rigid. A truss can perhaps be moved from place to place and is movable in this sense of the word; however, it has no internal mobility. A structure has no relative motions between its various links, whereas both machines and mechanisms do. Indeed, the whole purpose of a machine or mechanism is to utilize these relative internal motions in transmitting power or transforming motion.

A machine is an arrangement of parts for doing work, a device for applying power or changing the direction of motion. It differs from a mechanism in its purpose. In a machine, terms such as force, torque, work, and power describe the predominant concepts. In a mechanism, though it may transmit power or force, the predominant idea in the mind of the designer is one of achieving a desired motion. There is a direct analogy between the terms structure, mechanism, and machine and the branches of mechanics illustrated in Fig. 1.1. The term “structure” is to statics as the term “mechanism” is to kinematics and as the term “machine” is to kinetics.


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Reuleaux defines a machine as a “combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motions.” He also defines a mechanism as an “assemblage of resistant bodies, connected by movable joints, to form a closed kinematic chain with one link fixed and having the purpose of transforming motion.” Some light can be shed on these definitions by contrasting them with the term structure. A structure is also a combination of resistant (rigid) bodies connected by joints, but the purpose of a structure (such as a truss) is not to do work or to transform motion, but to be rigid. A truss can perhaps be moved from place to place and is movable in this sense of the word; however, it has no internal mobility. A structure has no relative motions between its various links, whereas both machines and mechanisms do. Indeed, the whole purpose of a machine or mechanism is to utilize these relative internal motions in transmitting power or transforming motion. A machine is an arrangement of parts for doing work, a device for applying power or changing the direction of motion. It differs from a mechanism in its purpose. In a machine, terms such as force, torque, work, and power describe the predominant concepts. In a mechanism, though it may transmit power or force, the predominant idea in the mind of the designer is one of achieving a desired motion. There is a direct analogy between the terms structure, mechanism, and machine and the branches of mechanics illustrated in Fig. 1.1. The term “structure” is to statics as the term “mechanism” is to kinematics and as the term “machine” is to kinetics.







#link #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
We use the word link to designate a machine part or a component of a mechanism. As discussed in the previous section, a link is assumed to be completely rigid. Machine components that do not fit this assumption of rigidity, such as springs, usually have no effect on the kinematics of a device but do play a role in supplying forces. Such parts or components are not called links; they are usually ignored during kinematic analysis, and their force effects are introduced during force analysis (see the analysis of buckling in Secs. 11.14–11.18). Sometimes, as with a belt or chain, a machine part may possess one-way rigidity; such a body can be considered a link when in tension but not under compression.

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Flashcard 5005002542348

Tags
#link #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Define link.
Answer
We use the word link to designate a machine part or a component of a mechanism. As discussed in the previous section, a link is assumed to be completely rigid. Machine components that do not fit this assumption of rigidity, such as springs, usually have no effect on the kinematics of a device but do play a role in supplying forces. Such parts or components are not called links; they are usually ignored during kinematic analysis, and their force effects are introduced during force analysis (see the analysis of buckling in Secs. 11.14–11.18). Sometimes, as with a belt or chain, a machine part may possess one-way rigidity; such a body can be considered a link when in tension but not under compression.


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We use the word link to designate a machine part or a component of a mechanism. As discussed in the previous section, a link is assumed to be completely rigid. Machine components that do not fit this assumption of rigidity, such as springs, usually have no effect on the kinematics of a device but do play a role in supplying forces. Such parts or components are not called links; they are usually ignored during kinematic analysis, and their force effects are introduced during force analysis (see the analysis of buckling in Secs. 11.14–11.18). Sometimes, as with a belt or chain, a machine part may possess one-way rigidity; such a body can be considered a link when in tension but not under compression.







#joint #kinetic-pairs #links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
The connections, the joints between the links, are called kinematic pairs (or simply pairs), because each joint consists of a pair of mating surfaces, two elements, one mating surface or element being a part of each of the joined links. Thus, we can also define a link as the rigid connection between two or more joint elements.

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Flashcard 5005006998796

Tags
#joint #kinetic-pairs #links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
The connections, the joints between the links, are called kinematic pairs (or simply pairs), because each joint consists of [...], two elements, one mating surface or element being a part of each of the joined links. Thus, we can also define a link as the rigid connection between two or more joint elements.
Answer
a pair of mating surfaces


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The connections, the joints between the links, are called kinematic pairs (or simply pairs), because each joint consists of a pair of mating surfaces, two elements, one mating surface or element being a part of each of the joined links. Thus, we can also define a link as the rigid connection between two or more joint elements.







#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Le processus vaginal est une évagination du péritoine présente chez tous les fœtus et s'oblitérant habituellement en fin de grossesse.

Il porte le nom de canal de Nück chez la fille et de canal péritonéovaginal chez le garçon

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Hernie inguinale

On peut la réduire sans forcer, sinon on peut la laisser en place en attendant la chirurgie

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Hernie inguinale

Prise en charge

Le traitement est toujours chirurgical, dans un court délai après le diagnostic, surtout en présence d'une hernie de l'ovaire.
L'objectif principal est de prévenir un étranglement, source d'ischémie intestinale et gonadique chez l'enfant

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IFC—a sister organization of the World Bank and member of the World Bank Group—is the largest global development institution focused exclusively on the private sector in developing countries. The Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030: end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity in every country.

The IFC is owned and governed by its member countries, but has its own executive leadership and staff that conduct its normal business operations.

It is a corporation whose shareholders are member governments that provide paid-in capital and which have the right to vote on its matters.

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QUIZ – 2020: INSIGHTS STATIC QUIZ, 07 February 2020 - Economy - INSIGHTSIAS
crease sustainable agriculture opportunities, improve healthcare and education. Which of the above statements is/are correct? 1. a) 1, 2 2. b) 1, 3 3. c) 2, 3 4. d) 1, 2, 3 Correct Solution: c) <span>IFC—a sister organization of the World Bank and member of the World Bank Group—is the largest global development institution focused exclusively on the private sector in developing countries. The Bank Group has set two goals for the world to achieve by 2030: end extreme poverty and promote shared prosperity in every country. The IFC is owned and governed by its member countries, but has its own executive leadership and staff that conduct its normal business operations. It is a corporation whose shareholders are member governments that provide paid-in capital and which have the right to vote on its matters. Functions: It offers an array of debt and equity financing services and helps companies face their risk exposures, while refraining from participating in a management capacity. The corp




#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Hydrocèle, kyste du cordon

Diagnostic

Le canal péritonéovaginal est fin, ne permettant que le passage de liquide péritonéal.

Le diagnostic est porté devant une tuméfaction scrotale englobant le testicule, ou au-dessus et indépendante du testicule (kyste du cordon), lisse, parfois bleutée, molle, indolore, plus ou moins réductible.
La transillumination positive signe le caractère liquidien et donc le diagnostic.
Leur volume est variable le plus souvent, signant le caractère communicant avec le péritoine

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Hydrocèle

La régression spontanée est fréquente avant l'âge de 3 ans.
Une intervention chirurgicale est programmée si l'anomalie persiste au-delà de l'âge de 3 ans

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Testicule non descendu

C'est la plus fréquente des malformations congénitales de l'appareil génital du garçon

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Après la naissance, un testicule qui n'est pas descendu :

  • Peut migrer spontanément dans le scrotum jusqu'à 4–6 mois
  • Ne peut plus migrer ensuite : ainsi 1 à 2 % des garçons ont un testicule non descendu congénital, plus souvent unilatéral (70 %) que bilatéral

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Un piège : le testicule oscillant.

C'est un testicule qui, sous l'effet de la contraction du crémaster, remonte dans la région inguinale mais s'abaisse lorsque l'enfant est bien détendu.
Ce phénomène est surtout observé après l'âge de 6 mois ; il peut parfois durer jusqu'à la puberté.
Aucun traitement n'est justifié

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Testicule non descendu

En l'absence de correction spontanée avant l'âge de 6 mois, le patient sera adressé à un chirurgien pédiatre pour une intervention précoce (dans l'idéal entre 6 et 12 mois).
La position des testicules doit être surveillée tout au long de la croissance pour ne pas méconnaître l'apparition d'une forme acquise

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Pour bien comprendre

Le prépuce des nouveau-nés n'est pas rétractable pour deux raisons souvent associées :

  • Des adhérences entre la surface du gland et la face interne du prépuce
  • Un phimosis ou sténose de l'orifice préputial

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Les infections préputiales (posthite ou balanoposthite si le gland est également concerné) sont très fréquentes.

Elles correspondent cliniquement à une inflammation soudaine du prépuce qui devient rouge, œdématié, douloureux.

Le traitement est simple : bains pluriquotidiens d'eau tiède additionnée d'antiseptique

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie

Le paraphimosis est une urgence.

  • C'est un accident souvent secondaire à un décallotage forcé à la suite duquel le prépuce n'a pu être remis en place.
  • L'aspect est caractéristique avec un prépuce œdémateux rétracté en arrière du gland.
  • Le traitement est urgent et consiste à repositionner le prépuce sur le gland par compression manuelle

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Inguinoscrotale #Médecine #Pathologie #Pédiatrie
Le phimosis acquis, ou lichen scléro-atrophique, est une transformation scléreuse du prépuce. Le prépuce était rétractable et ne l'est plus. Il existe un anneau blanchâtre sur l'orifice du prépuce

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Prise en charge du phimosis

  • En cas de phimosis congénital bien toléré, l'évolution naturelle du prépuce permettra dans la grande majorité des cas une évolution favorable.
    Un traitement pourra être envisagé si l'anomalie persiste à partir de 7–8 ans :
    • En première intention : corticothérapie locale par application uni- ou biquotidienne d'un dermocorticoïde sur l'anneau de rétrécissement durant 6 à 8 semaines (70 % de succès)
    • En cas d'échec : chirurgie par plastie du prépuce ou circoncision.

  • En cas de phimosis compliqué (infections préputiales répétées, lichen scléro-atrophique, ou après réduction d'un paraphimosis), le traitement est indiqué quel que soit l'âge.

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[unknown IMAGE 5005033737484]
#has-images #simplified-schematic-diagrams #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
As a result of the assumption of rigidity, many of the intricate details of the actual part shapes are unimportant when studying the kinematics of a machine or mechanism. For this reason, it is common practice to draw highly simplified schematic diagrams that contain important features of the shape of each link, such as the relative locations of joint elements, but that completely subdue the real geometry of the manufactured part. The slider-crank linkage of the internal combustion engine, for example, can be simplified for purposes of analysis to the schematic diagram illustrated later in Fig. 1.3b. Such simplified schematics are a great help since they eliminate confusing factors that do not affect the analysis; such diagrams are used extensively throughout this text. However, these schematics also have the drawback of bearing little resemblance to physical hardware. As a result they may give the impression that they represent only academic constructs rather than real machinery. We should continually bear in mind that these simplified diagrams are intended to carry only the minimum necessary information so as not to confuse the issue with unimportant detail (for kinematic purposes) or complexity of the true machine parts.

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#binary-links #closed-kinematic-chain #compound-closed-chain #kinematic-chain #open-kinematic-chain #quaternary-links #simple-closed-chain #ternary-links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop.

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles
Entre les âges de 6 et 8 ans, 10 à 15 % des enfants présentent des fuites urinaires diurnes ou nocturnes.

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles
L'acquisition du contrôle mictionnel par l'enfant est un phénomène physiologique de maturation progressive de la vessie et des commandes nerveuses du bas appareil urinaire.
Comme l'acquisition de la marche, celle-ci a une chronologie variable et se fait généralement entre les âges de 18 mois et 3 ans

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

Le diagnostic d'un trouble mictionnel est clinique et repose essentiellement sur l'interrogatoire et l'examen physique.

Dans l'immense majorité des cas, ces troubles sont fonctionnels en relation avec une perturbation de l'acquisition du contrôle mictionnel et les mauvaises habitudes mictionnelles liées aux conditions d'accès aux toilettes scolaires

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

  • Examen neurologique complet (motricité des membres inférieurs et sensibilité périnéale) et recherche de stigmate cutané au niveau de la région dorsolombaire (lipome, angiome, « touffe » de poils) hautement suspect d'une maladie médullaire congénitale sous-jacente
  • Examen neuro-orthopédique (pied creux, inégalité de longueur des membres inférieurs, scoliose, troubles trophiques).

Au terme cette enquête clinique, une bandelette urinaire est réalisée pour exclure une infection

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

  • Aucun examen complémentaire n'est nécessaire pour des fuites d'urines isolées sans dysurie objective.
  • L'échographie rénale et vésicale avec étude du résidu post-mictionnel est réservée aux fuites non isolées, ou résistant au traitement d'épreuve
  • D'autres examens pourront être proposés après avis spécialisé

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Flashcard 5005069651212

Tags
#binary-links #closed-kinematic-chain #compound-closed-chain #kinematic-chain #open-kinematic-chain #quaternary-links #simple-closed-chain #ternary-links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a [...]. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop.
Answer
kinematic chain


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When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary lin







Flashcard 5005071224076

Tags
#binary-links #closed-kinematic-chain #compound-closed-chain #kinematic-chain #open-kinematic-chain #quaternary-links #simple-closed-chain #ternary-links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called [...] links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop.
Answer
binary


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When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at l







Flashcard 5005072796940

Tags
#binary-links #closed-kinematic-chain #compound-closed-chain #kinematic-chain #open-kinematic-chain #quaternary-links #simple-closed-chain #ternary-links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, [...]; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop.
Answer
the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain


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having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, <span>the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links an







#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

Dysfonction du bas appareil urinaire diurne de l'enfant

L'appellation « dysfonction du bas appareil urinaire diurne » (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms), ou troubles urinaires du bas appareil (TUBA), est le terme à utiliser pour les problèmes d'incontinence fonctionnelle chez l'enfant.

  • La dysfonction du bas appareil urinaire représente l'étiologie la plus fréquente et regroupe des situations variées.
  • Ce trouble peut être réparti en deux groupes, les anomalies de la phase de remplissage et celles de la phase mictionnelle

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Anomalies de la phase de remplissage

  • Une contraction désinhibée du détrusor primitive pendant le remplissage peut augmenter la pression vésicale au-delà de la pression de clôture sphinctérienne et provoquer la fuite urinaire.
  • La persistance d'une hyperactivité détrusorienne au-delà de l'âge de 5 ans (anciennement dénommée « vessie hyperactive » ou « instabilité vésicale ») est une cause fréquente de fuites urinaires diurnes et éventuellement nocturnes, d'urgenturie et de pollakiurie due à une immaturité vésicale

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Flashcard 5005116837132

Tags
#binary-links #closed-kinematic-chain #compound-closed-chain #kinematic-chain #open-kinematic-chain #quaternary-links #simple-closed-chain #ternary-links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a [...]. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop.
Answer
simple-closed chain


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two other links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a <span>simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop. <span>







Flashcard 5005119196428

Tags
#binary-links #closed-kinematic-chain #compound-closed-chain #kinematic-chain #open-kinematic-chain #quaternary-links #simple-closed-chain #ternary-links #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
When several links are connected together by joints, they are said to form a kinematic chain. Links containing only two joint elements are called binary links, those having three joint elements are called ternary links, those having four joint elements are called quaternary links, and so on. If every link in a chain is connected to at least two other links, the chain forms one or more closed loops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, [...].
Answer
include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop


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ops and is called a closed kinematic chain; if not, the chain is referred to as open. If a chain consists entirely of binary links, it is a simple-closed chain. Compound-closed chains, however, <span>include other than binary links and thus form more than a single closed loop. <span>







#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

TUBA - Anomalie de la phase de remplissage

  • Le traitement repose sur la régularisation des habitudes hydriques et mictionnelles (apports hydriques repartis sur l'ensemble de la journée, lutte contre la constipation, mictions régulières toutes les 3 heures)
  • Une amélioration des postures mictionnelles (bonne position sur les toilettes, vêtements baissés ne comprimant pas les organes génitaux et permettant l'écart des jambes)
  • Parfois l'utilisation des anticholinergiques per os

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TUBA - Anomalies de la phase de vidange

  • La dyssynergie vésicosphinctérienne est caractérisée par l'absence de relâchement sphinctérien au moment de la miction.
  • Cette hypertonie sphinctérienne est due à de mauvaises habitudes mictionnelles mais peut également apparaître dans l'évolution d'une immaturité vésicale (contraction excessive du sphincter pour éviter les fuites)

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TUBA - Dys-synergie vésico-sphinctérienne

  • Ce défaut de relâchement périnéal lors de la miction favorise l'apparition d'un résidu postmictionnel.
  • Sa persistance peut aboutir à une grande vessie rétentionniste à mictions rares par hypocontractilité détrusorienne. Le traitement repose sur des mesures de rééducation.
  • Un traitement anticholinergique est contre-indiqué car il aggraverait le résidu postmictionnel

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#kinematic-chain #mechanism #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Recalling Reuleaux’s definition of a mechanism, we see that it is necessary to have a closed kinematic chain with one link fixed. When we say that one link is fixed, we mean that it is chosen as the frame of reference for all other links; that is, the motions of all points on the links of the mechanism are measured with respect to the fixed link. This link, in a practical machine, usually takes the form of a stationary platform or base (or a housing rigidly attached to such a base) and is commonly referred to as the ground, frame, or base link. The question of whether this reference frame is truly stationary (in the sense of being an inertial reference frame) is immaterial in the study of kinematics, but becomes important in the investigation of kinetics, where forces are considered. In either case, once a frame link is designated (and other conditions are met), the kinematic chain becomes a mechanism and, as the driver is moved through various positions, all other links have well-defined motions with respect to the chosen frame of reference. We use the term kinematic chain to specify a particular arrangement of links and joints when it is not clear which link is to be treated as the frame. When the frame link is specified, the kinematic chain is called a mechanism.

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

TUBA

Complications

La dysfonction du bas appareil urinaire diurne est souvent associée à des troubles ano-rectaux (constipation, douleur défécatoire, encoprésie).

Elle peut être à l'origine de complications urologiques parfois sévères :

  • Vessie de lutte (trabéculations et/ou diverticules de vessie)
  • Reflux vésico-urétéral
  • Insuffisance rénale dans les formes les plus graves

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two candidate modelling approaches: (1) a parallel-region (PR) approach, splitting the pandemic into non-interacting epidemics occurring in spatially disjoint regions; and (2) a meta-region (MR) approach, treating the country as a single meta-population with long-range contact rates informed by census data on commuting

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Model discrimination is performed through posterior mean deviance statistics alongside more practical considerations

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the use of sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithms to carry out real-time analyses is investigated as an alternative to MCMC

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The PR approach provides a better and more timely fit to the epidemic data. Estimates of pandemic quantities of interest are consistent across approaches and, in the PR approach, across regions (e.g. R 0 is consistently estimated to be 1.76–1.80, dropping by 43–50% during an over-summer school holiday)

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Limitations: The PR model lacks the predictive power to forecast the spread of infection in the early stages of a pandemic, whereas the MR model may be limited by its dependence on commuting data to describe transmission routes. As demand for resources increases in a severe pandemic, data from general practices and on hospitalisations may become unreliable or biased. The SMC algorithm developed is semi-automated; therefore, some statistical literacy is required to achieve optimal performance.

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Flashcard 5006072614156

Tags
#kinematic-chain #mechanism #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Differentiate kinematic chain from mechanism.
Answer
Recalling Reuleaux’s definition of a mechanism, we see that it is necessary to have a closed kinematic chain with one link fixed. When we say that one link is fixed, we mean that it is chosen as the frame of reference for all other links; that is, the motions of all points on the links of the mechanism are measured with respect to the fixed link. This link, in a practical machine, usually takes the form of a stationary platform or base (or a housing rigidly attached to such a base) and is commonly referred to as the ground, frame, or base link. The question of whether this reference frame is truly stationary (in the sense of being an inertial reference frame) is immaterial in the study of kinematics, but becomes important in the investigation of kinetics, where forces are considered. In either case, once a frame link is designated (and other conditions are met), the kinematic chain becomes a mechanism and, as the driver is moved through various positions, all other links have well-defined motions with respect to the chosen frame of reference. We use the term kinematic chain to specify a particular arrangement of links and joints when it is not clear which link is to be treated as the frame. When the frame link is specified, the kinematic chain is called a mechanism.


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Recalling Reuleaux’s definition of a mechanism, we see that it is necessary to have a closed kinematic chain with one link fixed. When we say that one link is fixed, we mean that it is chosen as the frame of reference for all other links; that is, the motions of all points on the links of the mechanism are measured with respect to the fixed link. This link, in a practical machine, usually takes the form of a stationary platform or base (or a housing rigidly attached to such a base) and is commonly referred to as the ground, frame, or base link. The question of whether this reference frame is truly stationary (in the sense of being an inertial reference frame) is immaterial in the study of kinematics, but becomes important in the investigation of kinetics, where forces are considered. In either case, once a frame link is designated (and other conditions are met), the kinematic chain becomes a mechanism and, as the driver is moved through various positions, all other links have well-defined motions with respect to the chosen frame of reference. We use the term kinematic chain to specify a particular arrangement of links and joints when it is not clear which link is to be treated as the frame. When the frame link is specified, the kinematic chain is called a mechanism.







#theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
(...) in addition to the distances between successive joints, the nature of the joints themselves and the relative motions they permit are essential in determining the kinematics of a mechanism.

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After the 2009 experience, two main issues were left unresolved. The first is the development of a spatial characterisation of the epidemic. This would need to be carried out at a geographical level fine enough to ensure homogeneous epidemic activity within each geographical unit, yet coarse enough to guarantee enough available data to ensure that each unit has a sufficiently informative sample size. The second issue is the need to accommodate the greater wealth of epidemic surveillance data supposedly available in future pandemics

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

Implantation ectopique d'uretère chez la fille

  • Dans le cadre d'une duplication de la voie urinaire, l'uretère du pyélon supérieur peut s'implanter en dehors de la vessie et court-circuiter le système sphinctérien.
  • L'abouchement se fait soit dans la partie terminale de l'urètre, soit dans le vagin, soit dans la vulve.
  • Ceci est responsable de fuites d'urines permanentes, mais entrecoupées de mictions normales, et de vulvovaginites à répétition

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

Valves de l'urètre postérieur chez le garçon

  • Il s'agit d'une pathologie qui correspond à la persistance d'un (ou plusieurs) repli muqueux urétrogénital au-dessous du veru montanum.
  • Ces valves réalisent un obstacle urétral à l'écoulement de l'urine.
  • Suivant le degré d'obstruction, elles peuvent entraîner l'apparition d'une vessie de lutte et une dégradation de la fonction rénale

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Causes neurologiques

  • Le diagnostic de vessie neurologique doit systématiquement être évoqué lorsque la situation et l'évolution clinique ne correspondent pas à l'hypothèse étiologique proposée et que les troubles persistent malgré une prise en charge thérapeutique adaptée.
  • Ainsi, devant tout trouble mictionnel, il faut rechercher systématiquement une anomalie médullaire congénitale occulte

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Points clés sur l'énurésie

  • Il s'agit d'une fuite involontaire d'urine pendant le sommeil survenant chez un enfant âgé d'au moins 5 ans.
    L'énurésie est dite primaire si l'enfant n'a jamais eu de nuit sèche sur une période d'au moins 6 mois.

  • L'énurésie primaire est dite isolée ou monosymptomatique s'il n'existe aucun autre symptôme associé, en particulier diurne

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles
Environ 10 % des enfants énurétiques ont un trouble avec déficit d'attention et hyperactivité (TDAH)

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#49 #Cours #Facultaires #Mictionnels #Médecine #Pédiatrie #Troubles

Principes de prise en charge

On distingue trois formes principales d'énurésie :

  • Celles liées à un trouble de l'architecture du sommeil
    • Pouvant répondre favorablement aux thérapies de conditionnement par alarme

  • Celles liées à une immaturité des régulations hormonales centrales (inversion du cycle nycthémérale de la sécrétion d'hormone antidiurétique)
    • Sensibles à la réduction des apports hydriques et à la desmopressine

  • Celles qui s'intègrent dans un dysfonctionnement diurne et nocturne
    • Pouvant répondre favorablement à une régularisation des habitudes hydriques et mictionnelles (arrêt des boissons après 19 h, miction systématique avant le coucher, accès facile aux toilettes la nuit aidé par une lampe) et un traitement anticholinergique.

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We have advanced the state of the art by:

  1. Developing transmission models that account for spatial heterogeneity in the spread of infection.
  2. Improving the efficiency with which the estimation and prediction of an epidemic can be carried out, through the development of a SMC algorithm that will greatly reduce the computational burden for routine data analysis as part of a programme of pandemic surveillance.
  3. Facilitating the ability of the public health community to provide timely online inference to policymakers through the provision of software to implement both of the above. The software has been adapted for the anticipated suite of epidemic data, and key PHE scientists are engaged with ongoing training in its use. The computing code (and any related documentation) for the MCMC and SMC implementations of the real-time model are stored in open online repositories.

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The PR approach is found to be parsimonious, yet sufficiently flexible to capture the underlying dynamics. It is also ‘non-parametric’, in the sense that the parameters representing the epidemic growth and initial seeding of infectiousness in each region are estimated without being subject to any parametric assumption. The assumed lack of relation between these parameters means that the spread of infection between regions cannot be forecast, and significant epidemic activity has to be observed in all regions to enable estimation of the epidemic burden.

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The MR model incorporates spatial heterogeneity in transmission, arising from the interaction between regional populations, through commuting flows. This gives the MR model greater power to predict the spatial spread of influenza, enabling the prediction of which will be the next region to experience widespread infection. Early in a pandemic, therefore, the MR approach is more useful in a predictive modelling setting.

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One variant of the MR model investigated here involved the stratification of the population within each region into commuters and non-commuters. This has the effect of assuming that each region contains a fixed subpopulation of individuals who commute daily. This formulation yields no consistent improvement in model performance, while further increasing the computational cost. Factoring in the ‘random’ movements of casual and occasional travellers, who have been quoted to potentially increase the rate of transmission between regions by 25%, 58 would involve further computational burden, and is particularly difficult to implement in an inferential setting without appropriate auxiliary information (e.g. if the census data contained information on the purpose of travel).

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Flashcard 5006108527884

Tags
#theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
[...] are essential in determining the kinematics of a mechanism.
Answer
(...) in addition to the distances between successive joints, the nature of the joints themselves and the relative motions they permit


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Open it
(...) in addition to the distances between successive joints, the nature of the joints themselves and the relative motions they permit are essential in determining the kinematics of a mechanism.







[unknown IMAGE 5006110625036]
#has-images #joint-variables #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
When a kinematic problem is formulated, it is necessary to recognize the type of relative motion permitted in each of the joints and to assign to it some variable parameter(s) for measuring or calculating the motion. There will be as many of these parameters as there are degrees of freedom of the joint in question, and they are referred to as joint variables. Thus, the joint variable of a pinned joint will be a single angle measured between reference lines fixed in the adjacent links, while a spheric joint will have three joint variables (all angles) to specify its three-dimensional rotation.

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Flashcard 5006114032908

[unknown IMAGE 5006110625036]
Tags
#has-images #joint-variables #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Discuss about joint variables.
Answer
When a kinematic problem is formulated, it is necessary to recognize the type of relative motion permitted in each of the joints and to assign to it some variable parameter(s) for measuring or calculating the motion. There will be as many of these parameters as there are degrees of freedom of the joint in question, and they are referred to as joint variables. Thus, the joint variable of a pinned joint will be a single angle measured between reference lines fixed in the adjacent links, while a spheric joint will have three joint variables (all angles) to specify its three-dimensional rotation.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

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When a kinematic problem is formulated, it is necessary to recognize the type of relative motion permitted in each of the joints and to assign to it some variable parameter(s) for measuring or calculating the motion. There will be as many of these parameters as there are degrees of freedom of the joint in question, and they are referred to as joint variables. Thus, the joint variable of a pinned joint will be a single angle measured between reference lines fixed in the adjacent links, while a spheric joint will have three joint variables (all angles) to specify its three-dimensional rotation.







Differentiate higher and lower kinematic pairs.
#higher-pair #lower-pair #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Reuleaux separated kinematic pairs into two categories: namely, higher pairs and lower pairs, with the latter category consisting of the six prescribed types to be discussed next. He distinguished between the categories by noting that lower pairs, such as the pin joint, have surface contact between the joint elements, while higher pairs, such as the connection between a cam and its follower, have line or point contact between the elemental surfaces. This criterion, however, can be misleading (as noted in the case of a needle bearing). We should rather look for distinguishing features in the relative motion(s) that the joint allows between the connected links.

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the analyses carried out in this work have neglected the first 50 days of the epidemic, concentrating on a period when there is substantial transmission in the population and appropriate data are becoming available. As a result, a deterministic system can adequately describe the future evolution of the pandemic. Stochastic effects are significant and need to be incorporated into the model if monitoring is needed in the earlier stages.

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The role of serological data is shown in figure 10 of Birrell et al., 47 in which epidemic projections have been sequentially made using only noisy primary care consultation data in the absence of serology data. A reliable picture of the epidemic is not available until the epidemic is almost over. This poses some key questions: are serological samples going to be available in a timely manner, in sufficient quantity and quality, and in the right format?

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Flashcard 5006121635084

Tags
#higher-pair #lower-pair #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Differentiate higher from lower kinematic pairs.
Answer
Reuleaux separated kinematic pairs into two categories: namely, higher pairs and lower pairs, with the latter category consisting of the six prescribed types to be discussed next. He distinguished between the categories by noting that lower pairs, such as the pin joint, have surface contact between the joint elements, while higher pairs, such as the connection between a cam and its follower, have line or point contact between the elemental surfaces. This criterion, however, can be misleading (as noted in the case of a needle bearing). We should rather look for distinguishing features in the relative motion(s) that the joint allows between the connected links.


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Differentiate higher and lower kinematic pairs.
Reuleaux separated kinematic pairs into two categories: namely, higher pairs and lower pairs, with the latter category consisting of the six prescribed types to be discussed next. He distinguished between the categories by noting that lower pairs, such as the pin joint, have surface contact between the joint elements, while higher pairs, such as the connection between a cam and its follower, have line or point contact between the elemental surfaces. This criterion, however, can be misleading (as noted in the case of a needle bearing). We should rather look for distinguishing features in the relative motion(s) that the joint allows between the connected links.







[unknown IMAGE 5006110625036]
#has-images #lower-pairs #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Lower pairs consist of the six prescribed types shown in Fig. 1.2.

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Flashcard 5006128188684

[unknown IMAGE 5006110625036]
Tags
#has-images #lower-pairs #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
Question
Enumerate the lower kinematic pairs.
Answer
Lower pairs consist of the six prescribed types shown in Fig. 1.2.


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Lower pairs consist of the six prescribed types shown in Fig. 1.2.







the existing modelling approach only has utility once the epidemic is well established and the infection is widespread

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[unknown IMAGE 5006135004428]
#degree-of-freedom #has-images #joint-variables #lower-pairs #symbols #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
The names and the symbols (Hartenberg and Denavit [4]) that are commonly employed for the six lower pairs are presented in Table 1.1. The table also includes the number of degrees of freedom and the joint variables that are associated with each lower pair.

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Immunity is assumed to be present in all individuals with haemagglutination inhibition assay titre values above a given threshold, but in reality, things may not be quite so well defined. It would be ideal if the uncertainty in determining the presence of immunity could be propagated into the analysis of the real-time model.

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[unknown IMAGE 5006110625036]
#has-images #pint-joint #revolute #symbols #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms #turning-pair
The revolute or turning pair, R (Fig. 1.2a), permits only relative rotation and is often referred to as a pin joint. This joint has one degree of freedom.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie
La torsion du cordon spermatique survient préférentiellement au moment des pics d'activité hormonale (nourrisson et adolescent entre 12 et 18 ans). Elle est rare après 40 ans

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire :

  • Le cordon réalise alors un ou plusieurs tours de spire qui entraînent une ischémie artérielle du testicule, pouvant devenir irréversible au-delà de 6 heures.
  • Chez le jeune enfant et le nouveau- né, la torsion du cordon est plus rare et est extravaginale.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

  • Il s'agit d'une urgence chirurgicale.
  • Toute douleur testiculaire unilatérale brutale est une torsion du cordon spermatique jusqu'à preuve du contraire chez un enfant, adolescent ou adulte jeune.

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#higher-pairs #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
[After describing the lower pairs...] All other joint types are called higher pairs. Examples include mating gear teeth, a wheel rolling and/or sliding on a rail, a ball rolling on a flat surface, and a cam contacting its follower. Since an unlimited variety of higher pairs exist, a systematic accounting of them is not a realistic objective. We shall treat each separately as it arises.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

  • Le patient décrit une douleur :
    • Aiguë
    • Brutale (il peut souvent en donner l'heure du début)
    • Intense
    • Continue
    • Unilatérale
    • Irradiant vers la région inguinale
    • Sans position antalgique
    • Gênant la marche
    • Parfois accompagnée de nausées ou vomissements

Il peut exister des épisodes de torsion-détorsion dans les antécédents (épisodes douloureux scrotaux spontanément résolutifs)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

Les signes de la torsion sont unilatéraux mais le tableau est rarement complet :

  • Bourse douloureuse
  • Testicule ascensionné, rétracté à l'anneau inguinal, horizontalisé
  • Abolition du réflexe crémastérien
  • Parfois, palpation du tour de spire
  • Œdème scrotal unilatéral (très inconstant)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

Il n'existe pas de signe pouvant orienter vers un diagnostic différentiel :

  • Il n'y a pas de fièvre, la bandelette urinaire (BU) est négative, il n'y a pas d'écoulement urétral, pas de douleur prostatique au toucher rectal (TR), la douleur n'est pas soulagée par la suspension (signe de Prehn négatif)
  • Les orifices herniaires sont libres
  • L'abdomen est souple et non douloureux
  • Le testicule controlatéral est normal

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

  • La chirurgie ne doit être retardée par aucune exploration complémentaire dès lors qu'une torsion spermatique est suspectée.

  • En cas de doute, il faut effectuer une exploration chirurgicale.

  • L'échographie-Doppler testiculaire peut être faussement rassurante (faible sensibilité et spécificité).
    Elle est principalement prescrite pour éliminer les diagnostics différentiels en cas de douleur scrotale évoluant depuis plus de 24 heures

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

Il s'agit d'une urgence chirurgicale car la nécrose peut devenir irréversible après 6 heures

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

La chirurgie débute par une incision scrotale, puis les principaux temps opératoires sont :

  1. L'ouverture de la vaginale testiculaire
  2. Les prélèvements bactériologiques en cas d'hydrocèle réactionnelle
  3. L'extériorisation du testicule
  4. Le bilan lésionnel : recherche et quantification des tours de spire, appréciation des lésions ischémiques testiculaires
  5. La détorsion du cordon
  6. L'appréciation de la recoloration et de la viabilité du testicule :
    • Si le testicule est viable :
      • Orchidopexie (fixation du testicule à la vaginale à l'aide de trois points de suture non résorbables).
      • L'anomalie responsable de la torsion étant bilatérale, il est recommandé de fixer systématiquement le testicule controlatéral, dans le même temps ou lors d'une seconde intervention ultérieure
    • Si le testicule n'est pas viable :
      • Orchidectomie (envoi de la pièce en anatomopathologie)
      • Pas de pose de prothèse testiculaire dans le même temps en raison du risque infectieux : celle-ci pourra être proposée dans un second temps

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In the PR modelling approach, the spatially heterogeneous epidemic is assumed to be composed of a number of smaller epidemics occurring in parallel within each spatial unit, with no direct interaction (specifically, no transmission) between regions.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire

  • La détorsion par manœuvre externe ne doit pas être utilisée seule.
    Elle est tentée en salle d'examen afin de réduire le temps d'ischémie du testicule.

  • Même en cas de soulagement par manœuvre de détorsion externe, l'intervention urgente est obligatoire.

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The parallel epidemics are still jointly modelled; however, there is a sharing of information through a number of model parameters that either have a common value or a common temporal trend in each region. These parameters are typically those representing biological characteristics of the virus (mean infectious period, proportion symptomatic, etc.). Additionally, the mixing patterns are assumed to exhibit no regional variation.

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In the MR modelling approach, regions are assumed connected such that transmission is possible between individuals resident in different regions. Here, we look at the country as a whole and treat it as a metapopulation of R sub-regions.

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#mathematical-abstraction #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
The treatment of various joint types, whether lower or higher pairs, includes another important limiting assumption. Throughout the book, we assume that the actual joint, as manufactured, can be reasonably represented by a mathematical abstraction having perfect geometry. That is, when a real machine joint is assumed to be a spheric joint, for example, it is also assumed that there is no “play” or clearance between the joint elements and that any deviation from spheric geometry of the elements is negligible. When a pin joint is treated as a revolute, it is assumed that no axial motion takes place; if it is necessary to study the small axial motions resulting from clearances between real elements, the joint must be treated as cylindric, thus allowing the axial motion.

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In a single-region model, the POLYMOD-based contact matrices give the relative frequency of contact between pairs of individuals of the different age groups. When these matrices are inserted into the block diagonal of the MR contact matrix (see Figure 2), an assumption of frequency-dependent contact is made. This implies that individuals are equally likely to have contact with any other individual in the region irrespective of the region in which they live. Therefore, individuals who live in regions with a higher population will make proportionately more contacts. This may not seem to be a reasonable assumption, as the total population of a region does not necessarily indicate a high population density. The alternative considered here is density-dependent contacts. In this case, the likelihood of a contact is scaled down by the population size, either of the regional population or of the strata (region and age) population. Both types of density dependence are considered.

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In the single-region or PR model, for most reasonable choices of initial seeding, it takes only a short time for this seeding to be ‘forgotten’ by the transmission dynamics

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in the MR model, with its block-structured matrix. Infection spreads very slowly between the regions, and so the initial seeding is not quickly forgotten

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although the choice of the seeding in the PR model is not important, it is a significant modelling choice for the MR approach and a number of different seedings are considered: the single-region equilibrium distribution (i.e. the stable pattern of infection observed in the PR model) derived from the next generation matrix; the initial empirical age- and region-specific distribution of the initial confirmed cases; and a hybrid approach using a within-region equilibrium distribution scaled by the empirical distribution of the initial confirmed cases over regions

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only a subset of people are likely to commute on a regular basis, and a (larger) subset are likely to stay within their home region. To account for this, adult age groups in each region are further subdivided into commuters and non-commuters, so that the commuters are a fixed group of people who move each day. This results in the effects of commuting on transmission being more transient, as there is a smaller, more rapidly exhaustible supply of susceptible individuals available to transfer infection from one region to another. The downside to this further level of stratification is that it places an increased computational burden on the model, greatly slowing down the estimation process.

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divide the country into four spatial units: London, the West Midlands (the two regions that had significant first waves of infection), the North and the South. The North and South regions each comprise four SHAs; in the North these are North East, North West, Yorkshire and Humberside, and East Midlands, and in the South they are East of England, South Central, South East Coast and South West.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire - Diagnostics différentiels

  • Orchi-épididymite aiguë
    • Si les signes infectieux locaux, urinaires ou généraux et l'apparition moins brutale de la douleur sont évocateurs, l'orchi-épididymite est parfois difficile à écarter, notamment parce qu'une torsion du cordon vue tardivement a pu évoluer vers la nécrose puis la surinfection.
    • En cas de doute, il faut explorer chirurgicalement

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The age categorisation favoured by the HPA, now PHE, is to break up the population into the age groups < 1 year, 1–4 years, 5–14 years, 15–24 years, 25–44 years, 45–64 years and ≥ 65 years.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire - Diagnostics différentiels

Hernie inguinoscrotale étranglée

  • Des signes digestifs sont généralement associés (syndrome occlusif) et doivent faire évoquer ce diagnostic

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire - Diagnostics différentiels

  • Torsion de l'hydatide sessile de Morgagni
    • L'hydatide sessile est un reliquat embryonnaire situé au pôle supérieur du testicule.
    • Sa torsion provoque une douleur scrotale brutale, bien que généralement moins vive qu'en cas de torsion du cordon.
    • Un nodule douloureux au pôle supérieur du testicule peut être palpé, ou mis en évidence par transillumination scrotale.
      Le réflexe crémastérien est en général conservé.
    • Cliniquement le diagnostic différentiel entre torsion du cordon ou de l'hydatide sessile reste impossible.
    • La scrototomie exploratrice permettra de faire le diagnostic

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire - Diagnostics différentiels

  • Complication locale d'une tumeur testiculaire
    • Exceptionnellement, une tumeur testiculaire peut être révélée par une complication locale brutalement douloureuse, telle une nécrose ou une hémorragie intratumorale.
    • En cas de doute clinique sur une tumeur testiculaire à la palpation, une échographie-Doppler est demandée

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire - Diagnostics différentiels

  • Colique néphrétique
    • En cas de douleur irradiant vers le testicule, avec un examen testiculaire normal et une hématurie micro- ou macroscopique, il faut savoir évoquer un calcul du bas uretère pouvant se révéler par les seules irradiations douloureuses.
    • Cela reste cependant un diagnostic d'élimination

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Torsion testiculaire - Formes atypiques :

  • Torsion vue tardivement ou négligée
    • Une fois la nécrose installée, les douleurs testiculaires diminuent.
      Les signes inflammatoires locaux sont parfois au premier plan (grosse bourse inflammatoire douloureuse, hydrocèle réactionnelle), rendant difficile le diagnostic différentiel avec une orchi-épididymite simple.
      Une fébricule est possible.
    • L'évolution se fait ensuite soit vers la nécrose aseptique avec atrophie progressive du testicule, soit vers la fonte purulente du testicule.
    • L'échographie scrotale est indiquée

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Torsion testiculaire - Formes atypiques

  • Épisodes de sub-torsion
    • Il existe un risque de torsion vraie du cordon spermatique.
    • L'orchidopexie préventive est proposée.

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Torsion testiculaire - Formes atypiques

  • Torsion du cordon spermatique sur testicule cryptorchide
    • Véritable piège diagnostique, le tableau clinique est dominé par des douleurs inguinales ou abdominales, pouvant faire évoquer une appendicite aiguë.
    • La bourse homolatérale est vide

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#linkage #mechanism #theory-of-machines-and-mechanisms
The term “mechanism,” as defined earlier, can refer to a wide variety of devices, including both higher and lower pairs. A more limited term, however, refers to those mechanisms having only lower pairs; such a mechanism is commonly called a linkage. A linkage, then, is connected only by the lower pairs shown in Fig. 1.2.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Orchi-épididymite

  • L'orchi-épididymite est une inflammation du testicule et de l'épididyme, le plus souvent d'origine infectieuse.
    • La voie de contamination habituelle est rétrograde déférentielle et l'origine peut être :
      • Sexuelle (germes des infections sexuellement transmissibles, ou IST) : chez l'homme ayant des pratiques sexuelles à risque (souvent plutôt jeune)
      • Urinaire (bacilles Gram négatif) : chez l'homme ayant des symptômes du bas appareil urinaire (souvent plutôt âgé)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Orchi-épididymite

  • L'orchite isolée est rare, qu'il s'agisse d'une contamination par voie sanguine (orchite ourlienne, tuberculeuse) ou d'une orchite inflammatoire sur purpura rhumatoïde (à évoquer en présence d'un purpura cutané chez l'enfant)

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Les risques évolutifs de l'orchi-épididymite infectieuse sont :

  • L'abcédation
  • La fonte purulente du testicule
  • L'atrophie testiculaire
  • L'hypofertilité et les douleurs scrotales chroniques résiduelles

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Orchi-épididymite

Examen clinique

  • Il existe une grosse bourse douloureuse inflammatoire (œdémateuse, luisante, chaude), d'apparition rapide mais non brutale (en quelques heures ou dizaines d'heures).
  • Un épididyme inflammatoire et douloureux est perçu à la palpation.
  • Une infiltration douloureuse du cordon (funiculite) peut être palpée.
  • Épididyme et testicule peuvent se confondre en une masse volumineuse, faisant disparaître le sillon épididymo-testiculaire (signe de Chevassu négatif).
  • Une hydrocèle réactionnelle peut gêner l'examen clinique. T
  • Typiquement, soulever le testicule soulage la douleur (signe de Prehn positif)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie
Un testicule cryptorchide peut aussi s'infecter et être le siège d'une orchi-épididymite. L'examen des bourses chez un homme avec un tableau abdominal infectieux doit être systématique

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Orchi-épididymite - Prise en charge

  • Le traitement antibiotique, initialement probabiliste, est celui d'une IST ou d'une infection urinaire masculine.
  • Ce choix se base donc principalement sur l'anamnèse et le contexte.
    • En cas de suspicion d'IST, plusieurs schémas sont possibles :
      • Ceftriaxone 500 mg en 1 injection IM suivie par :
        • Doxycycline 200 mg/j pendant 10 jours
          OU
        • Azythromycine 1 g monodose
      • OU
      • Ofloxacine 200 mg × 2/j pendant 10 jours.

    • Dans les formes à point de départ urinaire, les fluoroquinolones sont volontiers de première intention.
      • Le relais se fait en fonction de l'antibiogramme et pour une durée suffisamment longue :
        • Au minimum 14 jours pour une épididymite simple
        • Jusqu'à 4 à 6 semaines pour une forme localement sévère, chronique ou avec prostatite associée)

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Orchi-épididymite

  • L'échographie-Doppler du testicule peut aider lorsque l'examen clinique est non contributif ou lorsque l'on pense à une complication (abcès).
  • En cas de doute avec une torsion du cordon, une exploration chirurgicale est réalisée

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Serological data are the only surveillance data source directly informing the transmission component of the real-time model

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Initially, the serological data used in the analysis of the 2009 data came from the HPA’s annual collection of residual blood serum samples submitted to microbiological laboratories for the purpose of carrying out cross-sectional antibody prevalence studies. 37 Later in the pandemic, it became clear that a more rapid, more representative approach to the collection of serum samples was required.

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It is further assumed that there is a 2-week delay between infection and seroconversion. Each sample was, therefore, treated as representative of the level of cumulative infection among the population 14 days prior to the sampling date.

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Cryptorchidie

La localisation la plus fréquente du testicule cryptorchide est à l'orifice inguinal superficiel.
Il existe toujours une dysgénésie gonadique associée

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Cryptorchidie

  • Une cryptorchidie est une anomalie de migration embryologique du testicule.
  • Elle correspond à un arrêt de migration sur le trajet normal, entre l'aire lombaire et le scrotum. Le plus souvent unilatérale, elle peut être bilatérale.
  • Elle est à distinguer de l'ectopie testiculaire (testicule en dehors du trajet physiologique de migration)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Cryptorchidie

Chez l'enfant le diagnostic différentiel est le testicule oscillant, c'est-à-dire pouvant remonter en dehors de la bourse mais être réintégré dans la bourse sans tension

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Cryptorchidie

  • Complications
    • Les deux grandes complications sont celles de la dysgénésie gonadique associée à la cryptorchidie, et persistent donc même après abaissement chirurgical :
      • Cancer du testicule (risque relatif de 30 à 40) : l'abaissement permet cependant le dépistage par autopalpation
      • Hypofertilité : le risque n'est réel qu'en cas de cryptorchidie bilatérale et d'autant plus élevé que les testicules sont abaissés tardivement

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Cryptorchidie

Si besoin, l'échographie et la TDM abdominopelviennes sont les plus utilisées.
En cas de négativité, une laparoscopie abdominale exploratrice est parfois préconisée

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Commuting data were extracted from the UK 2001 census.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Cryptorchidie

  • Prise en charge
    • Le traitement chirurgical de la cryptorchidie ne s'envisage pas avant 1 an.
    • En cas de cryptorchidie non traitée pendant l'enfance, l'indication d'abaissement testiculaire reste de mise.
      • Le traitement de référence est chirurgical et plusieurs situations sont possibles :
        • Soit le testicule cryptorchide est palpable et on réalise alors un abaissement testiculaire par voie inguinale avec fixation par voie scrotale
        • Soit le testicule cryptorchide n'est pas palpable, et on débute alors l'intervention par une laparoscopie exploratrice à la recherche du testicule.
          • S'il s'avère que le testicule est retrouvé très atrophique, on peut discuter une orchidectomie.
          • Si le testicule est de taille satisfaisante et bas situé, il est abaissé en un temps.
          • Si le testicule est très haut situé, l'abaissement se déroule en deux temps : ligature première des vaisseaux spermatiques puis abaissement secondaire par voie inguinale

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General practice consultation data, virological confirmations and hospital admissions are all examples of count data that the real-time modelling framework has been designed to accommodate. We assume that these are realisations of either Poisson or Negative Binomial distributions.

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three additional considerations to make: 1. The non-pandemic consultations need to be added. These consultations are denoted by B a (t k ), the expected values of these at time t k . 2. The within-week pattern of consultations has to be accounted for. Typically, no data are reported at weekends and on bank holidays. This leads to a strong artefactual peak in the number of consultations each week on Mondays. 3. Although the population coverage of PHE’s combined surveillance schemes in England is very high, it is still incomplete, and this needs to be accounted for. The expected number of consultations needs to be scaled to allow for this incomplete coverage. Surveillance schemes will report daily coverage figures as a proportion of the total population in each stratum, which we denote as D a (t k )

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Hydrocèle vaginale

  • Chez l'enfant, l'hydrocèle est due à la persistance d'un canal péritonéo-vaginal et on parle alors d'hydrocèle communicante.
  • Chez l'adulte ce canal est obturé et l'hydrocèle, non communicante, est le plus souvent idiopathique, par sécrétion liquidienne par la vaginale.
    • Elle peut également être réactionnelle à d'autres pathologies comme :
      • Une orchi-épididymite
      • Une torsion du cordon spermatique
      • Un traumatisme testiculaire
      • Un cancer du testicule.

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[unknown IMAGE 5006256901388]
#has-images

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Hydrocèle vaginale

  • Examen clinique
    • Elle correspond à une augmentation indolore, unilatérale et permanente du volume de la bourse, mais avec une gêne à type de pesanteur et qui est transilluminable.
    • L'hydrocèle peut être très abondante, et c'est généralement la gêne esthétique ou la pesanteur qui amène le patient à consulter.
    • À l'examen, le testicule est souvent impalpable en raison du volume de liquide qui l'entoure.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie
En cas de transillumination négative, il faut évoquer un diagnostic différentiel (tumeur testiculaire, hernie inguinoscrotale, varicocèle, hématocèle…)

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Hydrocèle vaginale - Examens complémentaires

  • L'échographie scrotale est l'examen de référence en cas de doute diagnostique.
    Elle met en évidence une collection liquidienne anéchogène autour du testicule.
    Elle confirme que les testicules sont normaux et recherche une pathologie sous-jacente en cas d'hydrocèle réactionnelle

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Both the virological and serological data represent a number of positive readings in a sample of fixed size

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Hydrocèle vaginale - Traitement

  • L'hydrocèle est bénigne. Son traitement est chirurgical. Une hydrocèle ne doit pas être ponctionnée.
    • Chez l'enfant : l'hydrocèle est due à la persistance du canal péritonéo-vaginal. Elle est physiologique à la naissance, et le canal peut se fermer spontanément jusqu'à l'âge de 12–18 mois.
      • L'intervention s'envisage qu'après cet âge, par voie inguinale pour ligaturer le canal péritonéo-vaginal et traiter une éventuelle hernie associée.
      • Les parents sont prévenus du risque de lésion du conduit déférent.

    • Chez l'adulte : en cas d'hydrocèle idiopathique, l'indication est fonctionnelle (douleur, gêne esthétique ou à l'habillage).
      • Les temps sont :
        1. Incision scrotale
        2. Ouverture de la vaginale
        3. Évacuation de l'hydrocèle
        4. Puis résection ou plicature de la vaginale.
      • En cas d'hydrocèle réactionnelle, il est important d'envisager le traitement de la cause

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test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).

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test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate)

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Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).




test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate)

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Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).




Flashcard 5006275775756

Question
test [...] is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate)
Answer
sensitivity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate)

Original toplevel document

Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).







Flashcard 5006276824332

Question
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to [...]
Answer
correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate)

Original toplevel document

Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).







Flashcard 5006278921484

Question
test [...] is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate)
Answer
specificity


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate)

Original toplevel document

Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).







Flashcard 5006279970060

Question
test specificity is the ability of the test to [...]
Answer
correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate)


statusnot learnedmeasured difficulty37% [default]last interval [days]               
repetition number in this series0memorised on               scheduled repetition               
scheduled repetition interval               last repetition or drill

Parent (intermediate) annotation

Open it
test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate)

Original toplevel document

Open it
test sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those with the disease (true positive rate), whereas test specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify those without the disease (true negative rate).







virological testing procedure is assumed to be perfect

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Varicocèle

  • Une varicocèle est une dilatation variqueuse des veines spermatiques (plexus pampiniforme).
  • Elle survient à gauche dans 90 % des cas, par une insuffisance valvulaire à l'abouchement de la veine spermatique gauche dans la veine rénale gauche, générant un reflux veineux, vers ou après la puberté.
  • À droite la veine se draine dans la veine cave inférieure.
  • La varicocèle a une incidence de 20 à 40 % dans la population hypofertile (hyperthermie testiculaire par stase veineuse)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Varicocèle

  • Examen clinique
    • L'interrogatoire recherche des douleurs à type de pesanteur, surtout vespérale, une hypotrophie testiculaire, une infertilité, une gêne esthétique.
    • L'examen physique est effectué en position debout puis couchée.
      • Cet examen peut mettre en évidence une dilatation variqueuse du cordon parfois visible sous la peau.
      • Il retrouve une tuméfaction molle située au-dessus et en arrière du testicule. Cette tuméfaction s'atténue en position couchée et augmente après à l'épreuve de Valsalva (expiration forcée à glotte fermée augmentant la pression intra-abdominale)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie
Attention, toute varicocèle d'apparition rapide doit faire éliminer un obstacle sur la veine spermatique (adénopathie, thrombus), notamment, à gauche, un cancer du rein gauche avec thrombus veineux.

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Varicocèle- Examens complémentaires

  • L'échographie-Doppler testiculaire permet d'affirmer le diagnostic.
  • Elle met en évidence une dilatation variqueuse et le reflux veineux en Doppler lors de la manœuvre de Valsalva

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Varicocèle - Traitement

  • Le traitement est d'une part symptomatique par antalgiques simples.
  • Il peut d'autre part être interventionnel en cas de :
    • Douleur ou gêne esthétique importante
    • Hypotrophie testiculaire
    • Hypofertilité (seulement après en avoir éliminé les autres causes).

Il s'agit alors d'empêcher le reflux veineux descendant en obturant la veine spermatique : soit par embolisation endovasculaire (radiologie interventionnelle) soit par ligature chirurgicale (cœlioscopie, ou voie inguinale)

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Fasciite nécrosante des organes génitaux externes dite gangrène gazeuse, ou de Fournier

  • La gangrène de Fournier est une cellulite nécrosante des organes génitaux externes et du périnée.
  • Les germes responsables sont : anaérobies, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa et streptocoques.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Fasciite nécrosante des organes génitaux externes

  • C'est une infection grave avec un taux de mortalité de 10–50 %

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Fasciite nécrosante des organes génitaux externes - Diagnostic

  • Le diagnostic est clinique.
  • L'évolution est brutale et vive avec une gêne scrotale et une fébricule, un œdème et une inflammation du périnée (1 re phase : inflammatoire)
  • Puis des crépitements sous-cutanés apparaissent (en cas de germes anaérobies) (2 e phase : gazeuse)
  • C'est enfin l'apparition et l'extension de zones de nécrose (3 e phase : nécrotique), de la fièvre, des frissons et du choc septique.

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#48 #Cours #Facultaires #Génitoscrotales #Médecine #Pathologies #Urologie

Fasciite nécrosante des organes génitaux externes - Prise en charge

  • Il s'agit d'une urgence médico-chirurgicale avec une prise en charge réanimatoire.
  • Des examens complémentaires sont indispensables :
    • NFS
    • Créatinine
    • Hémostase
    • Groupe/Rhésus/ RAI
    • Gaz du sang
    • lactates
    • Bilan bactériologique (hémocultures, ECBU, prélèvements locaux).

  • Il faut mettre en place une triple antibiothérapie parentérale, active sur les germes anaérobies : pénicilline, métronidazole, aminosides

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Fasciite nécrosante des organes génitaux externes - PEC

  • Par ailleurs, un traitement chirurgical sous anesthésie générale est requis avec une excision/parage de tous les tissus nécrotiques, à renouveler tant que les lésions progressent.
  • Si nécessaire, une colostomie de décharge est confectionnée en cas de lésions proches de l'anus, voire une cystostomie de décharge.
  • Les testicules sont parfois protégés temporairement par enfouissement au niveau inguinal ou sur la face interne des cuisses.
  • Des pansements doivent ensuite être réalisés très régulièrement (toutes les 48 à 72 h), nécessitant souvent des anesthésies générales itératives.
  • À distance, une reconstruction du périnée et une greffe de peau peuvent être envisagées.
  • Un traitement par oxygène hyperbare est parfois entrepris, au plus tôt.

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Tumeurs du pénis

  • Les tumeurs malignes du pénis sont rares et principalement représentées par le carcinome épidermoïde.
  • La néoplasie intra-épithéliale est la lésion précancéreuse la plus fréquente : on parle d'érythroplasie de Queyrat lorsqu'elle est localisée au gland ou au prépuce.
  • Les principaux facteurs de risque sont :
    • Une infection à HPV (Human papilloma virus)
    • L'inflammation chronique, favorisée par les pathologies préputiales (balanoposthite, lichen scléro-atrophique)
    • Un phimosis
    • Le tabagisme

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Tumeurs du pénis

  • Parfois elle peut être cachée sous un phimosis, pouvant alors se révéler par un écoulement ou une surinfection

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Tumeurs du pénis

  • L'évaluation des aires ganglionnaires inguinales est déterminante car les tumeurs malignes du pénis sont lymphophiles.
  • Les premiers relais ganglionnaires sont inguinaux, donc accessibles à l'examen clinique

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Tumeurs du pénis- Prise en charge

  • En l'absence d'adénopathie clinique, la prise en charge est la plus conservatrice possible mais doit être adaptée au degré d'infiltration.
    • On peut citer, par degré d'invasivité : les traitements conservateurs locaux (topiques cytotoxiques, laser, photothérapie) < la curiethérapie < l'exérèse-resurfacing < la balanectomie < la pénectomie totale.
    • Une posthectomie est toujours réalisée en cas de traitement conservateur.

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Sténoses urétrales

  • L'évaluation est clinique, débitmétrique et urétrocystographique (nombre, longueur et calibre des sténoses).
    • Sur les données de ce dernier examen, le traitement décidé pourra être endoscopique (urétrotomie interne) ou d'emblée par résection-anastomose chirurgicale afin d'éviter le risque de récidive et le recours aux auto- ou hétéro-dilatations d'entretien, délétères à long terme

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Phimosis

  • Il est physiologique chez le nourrisson et l'enfant jusqu'à 4 ans, expliqué par l'existence d'adhérences préputiales.
    Celles-ci se libèrent généralement spontanément, et les décalottages forcés sont à proscrire chez l'enfant.

  • Le phimosis peut apparaître à l'âge adulte. Un phimosis acquis, une difficulté au décalottage (douleurs, fissures, impossible) apparaissant chez un adulte est anormal.
    Un phimosis acquis peut apparaître chez les patients diabétiques (diabète non diagnostiqué ou mal équilibré) ainsi que chez les sujets âgés par insuffisance de décalottage.
    Il peut être également secondaire à une lésion précancéreuse (lichen scléro-atrophique) ou à un cancer du pénis

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Phimosis - Complications

  • Un phimosis peut provoquer :
    • Des troubles mictionnels (dysurie, fuites d'urine, jet dévié)
    • Des infections urinaires récidivantes, lorsqu'il est serré
    • Voire une poche préputiale se gonflant d'urine lors des mictions, et pouvant se surinfecter
    • À l'extrême, une rétention vésicale (globe)
    • Un paraphimosis, notamment en cas d'oubli de recalottage après sondage vésical
    • Une inflammation chronique du gland (balanoposthite) par défaut de décalottage et accumulation de smegma.

  • À long terme, via la macération et l'inflammation chroniques ou le lichen scléro-atrophique qu'il entretient, un phimosis est facteur de risque de cancer de la verge.
    • Il peut le révéler (phimosis réactionnel) mais il peut aussi le masquer un certain temps

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Phimosis - Traitement

  • Chez l'enfant, il n'y a pas de traitement avant 2–3 ans.
    • La libération des adhérences préputiales peut également se faire sous anesthésie locale (crème EMLA ® ) ou par application de dermocorticoïdes.

  • À partir de 5–6 ans et en cas d'échec des traitements locaux, un traitement chirurgical est à envisager notamment en cas de complication (infection, dysurie, poche préputiale).
    • Il peut s'agir d'une plastie de prépuce ou d'une résection du prépuce, dite posthectomie.

  • Chez l'adulte, le traitement est d'emblée chirurgical.
    • La chirurgie est indiquée en cas d'infections à répétition ou de gêne importante.
    • Le traitement peut être conservateur (plastie du prépuce) ou non (posthectomie).
    • Une lésion précancéreuse ou un cancer de la verge doivent être recherchés par examen anatomopathologique

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Paraphimosis

  • Un paraphimosis est une striction de la base du gland par l'anneau préputial, au niveau du sillon balano-préputial.
  • Le gland est donc décalotté et le recalottage est impossible

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Paraphimosis

  • Le mécanisme est généralement :
    • Chez le petit enfant : un décalottage forcé sur phimosis
    • Chez le jeune adulte : un oubli de recalottage notamment après un premier rapport sexuel
    • Chez le sujet âgé : un oubli de recalottage après pose de sonde vésicale à demeure (iatrogène)

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Paraphimosis - Traitement

  • Il faut mettre en œuvre le traitement en urgence, dès que le diagnostic est posé.
  • Le premier geste, en cas de paraphimosis iatrogène, consiste à retirer la sonde vésicale.
  • Ensuite une réduction manuelle est effectuée, consistant à :
    • Chasser l'œdème balano-préputial par compression (progressive mais lente, à pleine paume) du gland et du prépuce
    • Faire pression sur le gland avec les deux pouces
    • Tout en basculant de l'anneau préputial vers l'avant pour recouvrir le gland avec les index et majeurs (mouvement du piston de la seringue en utilisant les deux mains)
      • En cas d'échec, il faut envisager une section de l'anneau préputial ou une posthectomie en urgence

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Rupture du frein / Brièveté du frein

  • L'événement amenant à consulter en urgence est la rupture du frein lors des premiers rapports ou masturbations.
    • La rupture provoque un saignement qu'il faut contrôler par compression bidigitale.

  • En cas de frein court gênant ou s'étant rompu, le traitement est une plastie du frein, sans urgence.
    • Elle est faisable sous anesthésie locale et consiste à inciser le frein transversalement puis à fermer l'incision longitudinalement, ce qui efface le relief du frein

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

  • LH stimule la sécrétion de la testostérone par les cellules de Leydig
  • FSH active indirectement la spermatogenèse en stimulant les cellules de Sertoli

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

  • L'avancée en âge est responsable :
    • D'une diminution de la capacité de stéroïdogenèse des testicules (diminution du nombre de cellules de Leydig)
    • D'une altération du fonctionnement de l'hypothalamus (réduction de l'amplitude des pulses de GnRH)
    • D'une baisse de la concentration des récepteurs des androgènes

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Il existe trois types de testostérone :

  • Une partie de la testostérone est fixée à la SHBG, protéine de transport dédiée qui représente les deux tiers de la testostérone totale

  • Une autre partie de la testostérone est liée à l'albumine et représente 38 % de la testostérone totale.
    Il s'agit de la fraction biologiquement inactive mais plus facilement mobilisable que celle liée à la SHBG

  • La testostérone libre (soit 2 % de la testostérone totale) qui est en réalité la forme véritablement active

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Concernant les dosages biologiques :

  • La testostérone totale : elle correspond au dosage le plus accessible en pratique courante.
    • Elle va doser en réalité les trois fractions de la testostérone.
    • Elle ne reflète pas la fraction réellement active.
    • La valeur du dosage dépend des variations de la SHBG, et la norme est établie entre 3,5 et 10 ng/ml (12–35 nmol/l)

  • La testostérone libre : elle correspond à la fraction biologiquement active de la testostérone.
    • Son calcul permet d'évaluer au mieux l'imprégnation androgénique de l'individu, car la méthode de dosage est inutilisable en routine

  • La testostérone biodisponible : elle permet d'apprécier l'androgénicité du sujet.
    • Elle échappe aux fluctuations de la SHBG

  • L'index de testostérone libre : il est obtenu en divisant la testostérone totale par la SHBG

  • Testostérone biodisponible = testostérone libre + testostérone liée à l'albumine

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

La définition 2002 de l'International Society for the Study of the Aging Male (ISSAM) est :

  • Syndrome biochimique
  • Associé à l'avancée en âge
  • Caractérisé par une diminution des androgènes dans le sérum avec ou sans diminution de la sensibilité aux androgènes
  • Altération de la qualité de vie et impact sur la fonction de plusieurs organes.

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Clinique :

  • Troubles de la sexualité
  • La diminution des érections nocturnes ou matinales est un signe d'appel essentiel et précoce.
  • Au cours du SDT, la dysfonction érectile est d'origine organique.

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Clinique

  • Troubles vasomoteurs
    • Ils sont caractérisés par des bouffées de chaleur, une sudation excessive, des troubles du sommeil et une fatigabilité secondaire

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Clinique :

  • Troubles neuropsychologiques
    • Ce sont des troubles à évoquer en présence de :
      • Perte de mémoire
      • Troubles de l'attention
      • Diminution manifeste des capacités d'orientation dans l'espace
      • Irritabilité
      • Asthénie
      • Anorexie
      • Baisse de l'élan vital ou humeur dépressive

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

L'évaluation objective des symptômes se fait à l'aide du score ADAM

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Signes cliniques

  • Ils sont non spécifiques du SDT
  • La diminution de la masse musculaire correspond à la sarcopénie et peut être sévère (jusqu'à 40 %) et s'accompagne d'une faiblesse musculaire.
  • Les autres signes à rechercher sont :
    • Une obésité abdominale (associée à une augmentation de la graisse viscérale)
    • Une diminution de la pilosité (diminution de la fréquence des rasages)
    • Atrophie cutanée
    • Une gynécomastie

    • Une diminution de la densité minérale osseuse
    • Une ostéopénie
    • Une ostéoporose

    • Une atrophie testiculaire
    • Un syndrome métabolique (obésité abdominale, hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémie)

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Paraclinique

  • En première intention
    • Il est recommandé de réaliser un dosage de la testostérone totale et biodisponible entre 8 et 11 heures du matin

    • Le diagnostic de déficit biochimique en testostérone peut être posé devant :
      • Une testostérone totale < 2,3 ng/ml (8 nmol/l)
        OU
      • Une testostérone totale entre 2,3 et 3,5 ng/ml (8–12 nmol/l) et :
        • Une testostérone biodisponible < 0,7 ng/ml
        • Une testostérone libre calculée : < 0,07 ng/ml

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Paraclinique

  • Les autres examens complémentaires à demander sont :
    • Prolactinémie (un adénome hypophysaire à prolactine peut être responsable d'une baisse de la testostérone)
    • TSHus
    • Bilan préthérapeutique

En cas de déficit biochimique avéré une ostéodensitométrie peut être réalisée afin d'objectiver l'ostéopénie

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Paraclinique :

  • En seconde intention
    • Un nouveau dosage de la testostérone biodisponible 2 à 4 semaines après le premier est recommandé.
    • Les autres dosages hormonaux utiles sont :
      • Testostérone totale, SHBG, albumine afin de calculer la testostérone libre
      • FSH et LH

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#120 #Andropause #Cours #Facultaires #Médecine #Urologie

Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

Symptômes spécifiques (dysfonction érectile, baisse du désir sexuel, ostéopénie, sarcopénie, bouffées de chaleur)

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#120 #Andropause #Cours #Facultaires #Médecine #Urologie

Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

Le traitement substitutif par la testostérone est indiqué en cas de déficit biochimique : un taux de testostérone totale associé à un taux de testostérone biodisponible ou libre inférieur à la normal, et un syndrome clinique

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#120 #Andropause #Cours #Facultaires #Médecine #Urologie

Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

  • Prise en charge des situations favorisantes
    • Il faut rechercher et prendre en charge les conditions médicales suivantes qui favorisent le SDT :
      • Obésité (baisse de 25 % de la testostéronémie totale chez les obèses)
      • Antécédent d'infertilité
      • Alcoolisme chronique
      • Pathologie chronique (cancer, VIH, insuffisance d'organe, hémochromatose, lupus)
      • Traitements médicamenteux
      • Sédentarité

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

  • Éliminer une contre-indication au traitement
    • Contre-indications ABSOLUES :
      • Cancer de la prostate
      • Cancer du sein
      • Antécédents de délinquance sexuelle

    • Contre-indications relatives :
      • Polyglobulie
      • Hématocrite > 55 %
      • Risque de thrombose
      • Risque de rétention aiguë d'urine sur adénome de prostate symptomatique
      • Syndrome d'apnées du sommeil

L'âge n'est pas une contre-indication

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

  • Bilan préthérapeutique. Il comprend :
    • Une évaluation prostatique (toucher rectal et dosage du PSA total)
    • Un bilan biologique endocrinien (hématocrite, bilan lipidique, bilan hépatique, glycémie)
    • Une ostéodensitométrie en cas de SDT profond ou de points d'appel cliniques

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Traitement

  • Il est basé sur l'administration de testostérone naturelle au patient jusqu'à obtention d'une concentration plasmatique aussi proche que possible de la sécrétion physiologique.
    Les voies d'administration de la testostérone sont multiples :
    • Transdermique :
      • Gel hydroalcoolique de testostérone (Androgel ® , Fortigel ® , non remboursés)

    • Intramusculaire :
      • Énanthate de testostérone (Androtardyl 250 mg ® /2 à 3 semaines), remboursé
      • Undécanoate de testostérone (Nébido ® /3 mois, non remboursé)

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT) - Surveillance

  • Elle est indispensable et doit être effectuée selon un échéancier régulier : à 3, 6 et 12 mois la première année, puis annuellement.

  • La surveillance du traitement a pour but d'évaluer l'efficacité du traitement en insistant notamment sur certains paramètres :
    • Le sentiment général de bien-être
    • L'humeur du patient et son activité sexuelle.

  • Il est à noter qu'en cas de dysfonction érectile associée à un SDT lié à l'âge la prescription d'IPDE5 est recommandée en association au traitement par testostérone afin d'améliorer rapidement les symptômes

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

  • La surveillance biologique est basée sur les dosages itératifs de :
    • Testostéronémie
    • PSA sérique
    • Bilan lipidique
    • Hématocrite

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Syndrome de Déficit en Testostérone (SDT)

Il faut veiller à :

  • Ne pas débuter un traitement hormonal sans avoir éliminé un cancer de la prostate
  • Ne pas débuter un traitement hormonal devant une testostéronémie basse sans signes cliniques
  • Éliminer une hypothyroïdie
  • Rechercher un SDT dans le bilan d'une ostéoporose chez l'homme

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Unlike previous tools, Csmith generates programs that cover a large subset of C while avoiding the undefined and unspecified behaviors that would destroy its ability to automatically find wrong-code bugs. Our second contribution is a collection of qualitative and quantitative results about the bugs we have found in open-source C compilers.

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Miscompilations often happen because optimization safety checks are inadequate, static analyses are unsound, or transfor- mations are flawed. These bugs are out of reach for current and future automated program-verification tools because the specifica- tions that need to be checked were never written down in a precise way, if they were written down at all. Where verification is imprac- tical, however, other methods for improving compiler quality can succeed. This paper reports our experience in using testing to make C compilers better.

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