# on 21-Aug-2020 (Fri)

#### Annotation 5724741176588

 #PAO #lubrificantes #polialfaolefina Many poly-alpha-olefins have flexible alkyl branching groups on every other carbon of their polymer backbone chain. These alkyl groups, which can shape themselves in numerous conformations, make it very difficult for the polymer molecules to align themselves up side-by-side in an orderly way. This results in lower contact surface area between the molecules and decreases the intermolecular interactions between molecules.[9] Therefore, many poly-alpha-olefins do not crystallize or solidify easily and are able to remain oily, viscous liquids even at lower temperatures.[10] Low molecular weight poly-alpha-olefins are useful as synthetic lubricants such as synthetic motor oils for vehicles and can be used over a wide temperature range.[

Polyolefin - Wikipedia
ed as co-monomers to give an alkyl branched polymer (see chemical structure below), although 1-decene is most commonly used for lubricant base stocks.[8] 1-hexene, an example of an alpha-olefin <span>Many poly-alpha-olefins have flexible alkyl branching groups on every other carbon of their polymer backbone chain. These alkyl groups, which can shape themselves in numerous conformations, make it very difficult for the polymer molecules to align themselves up side-by-side in an orderly way. This results in lower contact surface area between the molecules and decreases the intermolecular interactions between molecules.[9] Therefore, many poly-alpha-olefins do not crystallize or solidify easily and are able to remain oily, viscous liquids even at lower temperatures.[10] Low molecular weight poly-alpha-olefins are useful as synthetic lubricants such as synthetic motor oils for vehicles and can be used over a wide temperature range.[8][10] Even polyethylenes copolymerized with a small amount of alpha-olefins (such as 1-hexene, 1-octene, or longer) are more flexible than simple straight-chain high-density polyethylen

#### Annotation 5724745633036

#lubrificantes #ponto-de-fluidez

### Manual method [ edit ]

ASTM D97, Standard Test Method for Pour Point of Crude Oils. The specimen is cooled inside a cooling bath to allow the formation of paraffin wax crystals. At about 9 °C above the expected pour point, and for every subsequent 3 °C, the test jar is removed and tilted to check for surface movement. When the specimen does not flow when tilted, the jar is held horizontally for 5 sec. If it does not flow, 3 °C is added to the corresponding temperature and the result is the pour point temperature.

It is also useful to note that failure to flow at the pour point may also be due to the effect of viscosity or the previous thermal history of the specimen. Therefore, the pour point may give a misleading view of the handling properties of the oil. Additional fluidity tests may also be undertaken. An approximate range of pour point can be observed from the specimen's upper and lower pour point.

Pour point - Wikipedia
petroleum products 1.1 Manual method 1.2 Automatic method 2 Measuring the pour point of crude oils 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Measuring the pour point of petroleum products <span>Manual method ASTM D97, Standard Test Method for Pour Point of Crude Oils. The specimen is cooled inside a cooling bath to allow the formation of paraffin wax crystals. At about 9 °C above the expected pour point, and for every subsequent 3 °C, the test jar is removed and tilted to check for surface movement. When the specimen does not flow when tilted, the jar is held horizontally for 5 sec. If it does not flow, 3 °C is added to the corresponding temperature and the result is the pour point temperature. It is also useful to note that failure to flow at the pour point may also be due to the effect of viscosity or the previous thermal history of the specimen. Therefore, the pour point may give a misleading view of the handling properties of the oil. Additional fluidity tests may also be undertaken. An approximate range of pour point can be observed from the specimen's upper and lower pour point. Automatic method ASTM D5949, Standard Test Method for Pour Point of Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method) is an alternative to the manual test procedure. It uses

#### Annotation 5724749827340

 #cor #lubrificantes The color of lubricating oils can range from transparent to opaque. The color is based on the crude from which it is made, its viscosity, method and degree of treatment during refining, and the amount and types of additives included. A change in oil color signifies a change in the chemistry of the oil or the presence of contaminants. For example, oil oxidation, mixing two dissimilar types of oil, and carbon insolubles from thermal failure can all darken oil. There is also a possibility that the oil darkening is due to a photochemical reaction from sunlight exposure. Measuring color is based on a visual comparison of the amount of light transmitted through a defined depth of oil. This can be done with a predefined test method and instrumentation or a subjective view of the oil with reference to a color gauge. In either case, there may be a number of variables to monitor for quality results. The ASTM D1500-07 test method can be used to compare the color of an oil sample to a glass slide. This test is used in lubricant manufacturing for quality-control purposes. It is performed using a standard light source to match a sample to a glass slide.

Understanding Oil Color
liable field indicator. However, color alone cannot tell the whole story of the oil’s condition. For a complete understanding of oil condition, it is important to use an appropriate test slate. <span>The color of lubricating oils can range from transparent to opaque. The color is based on the crude from which it is made, its viscosity, method and degree of treatment during refining, and the amount and types of additives included. A change in oil color signifies a change in the chemistry of the oil or the presence of contaminants. For example, oil oxidation, mixing two dissimilar types of oil, and carbon insolubles from thermal failure can all darken oil. There is also a possibility that the oil darkening is due to a photochemical reaction from sunlight exposure. Measuring color is based on a visual comparison of the amount of light transmitted through a defined depth of oil. This can be done with a predefined test method and instrumentation or a subjective view of the oil with reference to a color gauge. In either case, there may be a number of variables to monitor for quality results. The ASTM D1500-07 test method can be used to compare the color of an oil sample to a glass slide. This test is used in lubricant manufacturing for quality-control purposes. It is performed using a standard light source to match a sample to a glass slide. Values for the glass range from 0.5 to 8.0 in 0.5 increments. If the sample falls between two colors, the higher number is reported. If no color gauge is available, the oil color is com

#### Annotation 5724754021644

 #consistência #graxas #lubrificantes Consistency Grease consistency depends on the type and amount of thickener used along with the viscosity of its base oil. A grease’s consistency is its ability to resist deformation by an applied force. The measure of consistency is called penetration, which is contingent on whether the consistency has been altered by handling or working. ASTM D217 and D1403 methods are used to determine the penetration of unworked and worked greases. To measure penetration, a cone of a specific weight is allowed to sink into a grease for five seconds at a standard temperature of 25 degrees C (77 degrees F). The depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which the cone sinks into the grease is its penetration. A penetration of 100 would represent a solid grease, while a penetration of 450 would be semifluid. The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) has established consistency numbers or grade numbers from 000 to 6 that correspond to specified ranges of penetration numbers. Certain conditions will affect the consistency required for a grease. The table below can help you select the correct consistency for an application.

Consider Consistency When Selecting Grease
er percentage affects grease consistency. Keep in mind that there is a substantial amount of oil in the grease and that field conditions can also influence grease consistency. Cone Penetrometer <span>Consistency Grease consistency depends on the type and amount of thickener used along with the viscosity of its base oil. A grease’s consistency is its ability to resist deformation by an applied force. The measure of consistency is called penetration, which is contingent on whether the consistency has been altered by handling or working. ASTM D217 and D1403 methods are used to determine the penetration of unworked and worked greases. To measure penetration, a cone of a specific weight is allowed to sink into a grease for five seconds at a standard temperature of 25 degrees C (77 degrees F). The depth, in tenths of a millimeter, to which the cone sinks into the grease is its penetration. A penetration of 100 would represent a solid grease, while a penetration of 450 would be semifluid. The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) has established consistency numbers or grade numbers from 000 to 6 that correspond to specified ranges of penetration numbers. Certain conditions will affect the consistency required for a grease. The table below can help you select the correct consistency for an application. 5 Categories of Penetration Undisturbed - Grease that is in its original container. Unworked - A sample that has received only minimal disturbance in being transferred from the sample c

#### Annotation 5724758215948

 #lubrificantes #ponto-de-gota Ponto de gota ou ponto de gotejamento é uma propriedade qualitativa que apresenta a temperatura na qual uma graxa lubrificante, ou qualquer substância de alta viscosidade, passa do estado sólido ou semi- sólido (altamente viscoso) ao líqüido, sob condições determinadas de pressão e movimento, por exemplo. Em outras palavras é uma medida da resistência de calor de uma graxa. Na prática, nunca é adequado nem seguro usar uma graxa em um ambiente ou atividade cuja temperatura normal de trabalho seja próxima do seu ponto de gota. A temperatura adequada para o uso da graxa é sempre inferior ao ponto de gota.

Ponto de gota – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

#### Flashcard 5724766080268

Question
The addition operator (+) produces the sum of numeric operands or string concatenation.
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status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
Addition (+) - JavaScript | MDN
Addition (+) English▼ Español Français 日本語 Русский Українська 中文 (简体) Add a translation On this Page Jump to section Syntax Examples Specifications Browser compatibility See also Related topics <span>The addition operator (+) produces the sum of numeric operands or string concatenation. The source for this interactive example is stored in a GitHub repository. If you'd like to contribute to the interactive examples project, please clone https://github.com/mdn/interactiv

#### Annotation 5724767653132

 string

Addition (+) - JavaScript | MDN

#### Annotation 5726042197260

 Unix[4] has a number of editors that can process the contents of text files, whether those files contain data, source code, or sentences.

1. The vi Text Editor - Learning the vi and Vim Editors, 7th Edition [Book]
ith O’Reilly online learning. O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers. Start your free trial Chapter 1. The vi Text Editor <span>Unix[4] has a number of editors that can process the contents of text files, whether those files contain data, source code, or sentences. There are line editors, such as ed and ex, which display a line of the file on the screen; and there are screen editors, such as vi and Emacs, which display a part of the file on your t

#### Flashcard 5726044294412

Question
Unix [ 4 ] has a number of editors that can process the contents of text files, whether those files contain data, source code, or sentences.
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status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
1. The vi Text Editor - Learning the vi and Vim Editors, 7th Edition [Book]
ith O’Reilly online learning. O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers. Start your free trial Chapter 1. The vi Text Editor <span>Unix[4] has a number of editors that can process the contents of text files, whether those files contain data, source code, or sentences. There are line editors, such as ed and ex, which display a line of the file on the screen; and there are screen editors, such as vi and Emacs, which display a part of the file on your t

#### Flashcard 5726045867276

Question
Unix [ 4 ] has a number of editors that can process the contents of text files, whether those files contain data, source code, or sentences. There are line editors, such as ed and ex, which display a line of the file on the screen; and there are screen editors, such as vi and Emacs, which display a part of the file on your terminal screen. T
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status measured difficulty not learned 37% [default] 0
1. The vi Text Editor - Learning the vi and Vim Editors, 7th Edition [Book]
ith O’Reilly online learning. O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers. Start your free trial Chapter 1. The vi Text Editor <span>Unix[4] has a number of editors that can process the contents of text files, whether those files contain data, source code, or sentences. There are line editors, such as ed and ex, which display a line of the file on the screen; and there are screen editors, such as vi and Emacs, which display a part of the file on your terminal screen. Text editors based on the X Window System are also commonly available and are becoming increasing popular. Both GNU Emacs and its derivative, XEmacs, provide multiple X windows; two inter

#### Flashcard 5726434626828

Question
expressar o meu reconhecimento, antes de tudo, ao Prof. Paulo Eduardo Arantes, pela orientação paciente e atenta da tese de doutoramento da qual resultou este trabalho; aos professores Franklin Leopoldo e Silva, Carlos Alberto
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#### pdf

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