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#biology #neurology #sleep
Even the reports from the Guinness World Record attempt at sleeplessness (Randy Gardner's awakathon in 1964 lasted 11 days) trivialized the effects of sleeplessness

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does not make people die (at least not immediately). It does make them feel miserable, but the ease with which we recover by getting just one good night of sleep seems to make sleep look cheap. <span>Even the reports from the Guinness World Record attempt at sleeplessness (Randy Gardner's awakathon in 1964 lasted 11 days) trivialized the effects of sleeplessness. Many books on psychiatry and psychology still state that there aren't any significant side effects to prolonged sleeplessness! This is false! The Guinness Book of Records has since wit




Flashcard 5729931103500

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
Randy Gardner's sleep-less world record lasted...
Answer
11 days


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Even the reports from the Guinness World Record attempt at sleeplessness (Randy Gardner's awakathon in 1964 lasted 11 days) trivialized the effects of sleeplessness

Original toplevel document

Good sleep, good learning, good life
does not make people die (at least not immediately). It does make them feel miserable, but the ease with which we recover by getting just one good night of sleep seems to make sleep look cheap. <span>Even the reports from the Guinness World Record attempt at sleeplessness (Randy Gardner's awakathon in 1964 lasted 11 days) trivialized the effects of sleeplessness. Many books on psychiatry and psychology still state that there aren't any significant side effects to prolonged sleeplessness! This is false! The Guinness Book of Records has since wit







#biology #neurology #sleep
Nearly everyone has pulled an all nighter once upon a time. Even if this is often an unpleasant experience, it nearly always ends up with a 100% recovery after a single night of solid sleep. It is therefore a bit surprising to know that that a week or two of sleep deprivation can result in death! Sleep researchers constructed a cruel contraption that would wake up rats as soon as they fell asleep. This contraptions showed that it takes an average of 3 weeks to kill a rat by sleep deprivation (or some 5 months by REM sleep deprivation alone)(Rechtschaffen 1998[7]). Dr Siegel demonstrated brain damage in sleep-deprived rats (Siegel 2003[8]). Due to an increase in the level of glucocorticoids, neurogenesis in some portions of the brain is inhibited by lack of sleep

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
ecessary. Otherwise my writing effort would not be needed. Good sleep makes us nicer, smarter, and saves lives! See: 10 Things to Hate About Sleep Loss from WebMD. If you do not sleep, you die! <span>Nearly everyone has pulled an all nighter once upon a time. Even if this is often an unpleasant experience, it nearly always ends up with a 100% recovery after a single night of solid sleep. It is therefore a bit surprising to know that that a week or two of sleep deprivation can result in death! Sleep researchers constructed a cruel contraption that would wake up rats as soon as they fell asleep. This contraptions showed that it takes an average of 3 weeks to kill a rat by sleep deprivation (or some 5 months by REM sleep deprivation alone)(Rechtschaffen 1998[7]). Dr Siegel demonstrated brain damage in sleep-deprived rats (Siegel 2003[8]). Due to an increase in the level of glucocorticoids, neurogenesis in some portions of the brain is inhibited by lack of sleep[9]. In short, sleep deprivation is very bad for the health of the brain. Sleep deprivation is a well-known form of torture. Yet, for ethical reasons, the rat experiment could not be rep




#biology #neurology #sleep

It is impossible to quantify the contribution of those three factors to the fatal outcome of prolonged sleep deprivation:

  1. network malfunction, or
  2. secondary effects of sleep protection program, or
  3. continuous catabolic state.

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
did not help much in preventing death from those infections. Sleep deprived rats would die anyway. The infection might speed up death that was otherwise inevitable. Why do we die without sleep? <span>It is impossible to quantify the contribution of those three factors to the fatal outcome of prolonged sleep deprivation: network malfunction, or secondary effects of sleep protection program, or continuous catabolic state. Even though the latter two could possibly be remedied pharmacologically, there is no way around network remolding in sleep. Researchers who hope to find a remedy against sleep are plodd




#biology #neurology #sleep

There are two components of sleepiness that drive you to bed:

  • circadian component - sleepiness comes back to us in cycles which are usually about one day long
  • homeostatic component - sleepiness increases with the length of time we stay awake

Only a combination of these two components determines the optimum time for sleep. Most importantly, you should remember that even strong sleepiness resulting from the homeostatic component may not be sufficient to get good sleep if the timing goes against the greatest sleep propensity determined by the circadian component.

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rrational shift-work patterns, sleeping pills, alcohol, caffeine, etc. For a chance to break out from unhealthy sleep habits, you need to understand the two-component model of sleep regulation. <span>There are two components of sleepiness that drive you to bed: circadian component - sleepiness comes back to us in cycles which are usually about one day long homeostatic component - sleepiness increases with the length of time we stay awake Only a combination of these two components determines the optimum time for sleep. Most importantly, you should remember that even strong sleepiness resulting from the homeostatic component may not be sufficient to get good sleep if the timing goes against the greatest sleep propensity determined by the circadian component. Circadian component There are around hundred known body functions that oscillate between maximum and minimum values in a day-long cycle. Because these functions take about a day's time




#biology #neurology #sleep

Yet some dramatic facts related to sleep deprivation have slowly come into light. Each year sleep disorders add $16 billion to national health-care costs (e.g. by contributing to high blood pressure and heart disease). That does not include accidents and lost productivity at work. For this, the National Commission on Sleep Disorders estimates that sleep deprivation costs $150 billion a year in higher stress and reduced workplace productivity[1]. 40% of truck accidents are attributable to fatigue and drowsiness, and there is an 800% increase in single vehicle commercial truck accidents between midnight and 8 am. Major industrial disasters have been attributed to sleep deprivation (Mitler et al. 1988[2])(incl. Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, the gas leak at Bhopal, Zeebrugge disaster, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill).

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ift after over a year of campaigning for president, he answered without hesitation: 8 hours of sleep. The bad example of disrespect for sleep comes from the most important people in the nation! <span>Yet some dramatic facts related to sleep deprivation have slowly come into light. Each year sleep disorders add $16 billion to national health-care costs (e.g. by contributing to high blood pressure and heart disease). That does not include accidents and lost productivity at work. For this, the National Commission on Sleep Disorders estimates that sleep deprivation costs $150 billion a year in higher stress and reduced workplace productivity[1]. 40% of truck accidents are attributable to fatigue and drowsiness, and there is an 800% increase in single vehicle commercial truck accidents between midnight and 8 am. Major industrial disasters have been attributed to sleep deprivation (Mitler et al. 1988[2])(incl. Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, the gas leak at Bhopal, Zeebrugge disaster, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill). It has been known since the 1920s that sleep improves recall in learning. However, only at the turn of the millennium, research by Dr Robert Stickgold, Associate Professor of Psychiatry




#biology #neurology #sleep
For example, muscles do not need to shut off completely to get rest. The critical function of sleep is dramatically illustrated in experiments in which rats chronically deprived of sleep eventually die usually within 2.5 weeks

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pparent that one long-lasting sleep episode with suppression of consciousness does not seem to be the right way for evolution to tackle depleted resources, toxic wastes, or energy conservation. <span>For example, muscles do not need to shut off completely to get rest. The critical function of sleep is dramatically illustrated in experiments in which rats chronically deprived of sleep eventually die usually within 2.5 weeks (for more see: If you do not sleep, you die!). In evolutionary terms, sleep is a very old phenomenon and it clearly must play a role that is critical to survival. Only quite recently, i




#biology #neurology #sleep
Even ants take naps.

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ks of the brain. This function is so essential that no complex nervous system can survive without it. This is why all complex animals sleep (which is not always easy to tell (Siegel 2008[149]). <span>Even ants take naps. The size of the cortex is fixed. This means that there are anatomical and functional limitations on how much information can be stored there. Don't believe mnemonic gurus who tell you "




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n, multiple causes conspire to produce the final inevitable outcome. Probably nobody knows the exact answer to this mystery. However, research into the role of sleep gives us pretty strong hints<span>. One of the most important functions of sleep is the re-organization of neural networks in the brain. During the day, we learn new things, memorize, acquire skills, figure things out, set new memories through creative associations, etc. After a long day of waking, the brain is full of d




#biology #neurology #sleep
There is a second layer of trouble in sleep deprivation. Due to the importance of sleep, all advanced organisms implement a sleep protection program. This program ensures that sleep deprivation results in unpleasant symptoms. It also produces a remarkably powerful sleep drive that is very hard to overcome

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nced software or neural function is always dangerous! Luckily, all we need to eliminate the danger is to just go to sleep every day. For more see: Neural optimization in sleep. Sleep protection <span>There is a second layer of trouble in sleep deprivation. Due to the importance of sleep, all advanced organisms implement a sleep protection program. This program ensures that sleep deprivation results in unpleasant symptoms. It also produces a remarkably powerful sleep drive that is very hard to overcome. Staying awake becomes unbearable. Closing one's eyes becomes one of the most soothing things in the universe. Are these symptoms a result of network malfunction? Definitely not. If the




#biology #neurology #sleep
. 1550 annual fatalities in the US can be attributed to drowsy driving. That's nearly an equivalent of six WTC collapse tragedies in a decade! Amazingly, as the pain and suffering is diluted in the population, drowsy driving does not nearly make as many headlines as a terrorist attack. At least a third of Americans have fallen asleep behind the wheel at least once!

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St. Louis from a dive caused by microsleep. Sleep deprivation has changed the future of nuclear fission and the future of oil exploration. Poor sleep kills as many people on the roads as alcohol<span>. 1550 annual fatalities in the US can be attributed to drowsy driving. That's nearly an equivalent of six WTC collapse tragedies in a decade! Amazingly, as the pain and suffering is diluted in the population, drowsy driving does not nearly make as many headlines as a terrorist attack. At least a third of Americans have fallen asleep behind the wheel at least once! During the shift to DST in spring, car accidents increase by 9%. Sleep deprivation carries an astronomical cost to industrialized societies. There are zillions of hours wasted on unprod




#biology #neurology #sleep
In an average case, the maximum sleepiness comes in the middle of the night, reaches the minimum at awakening, and again increases slightly at siesta time in the afternoon. However, the circadian sleepiness is often shifted in phase as compared with your desired sleep time. Consequently, if your maximum sleepiness comes in the morning, you may find it difficult to fall asleep late in the evening, even if you missed a lot of sleep on the preceding day

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erm circadian rhythm was coined by Dr Franz Halberg of Germany in 1959 (in Latin circadian means about a day). The overall tendency to maintain sleep is also subject to such a circadian rhythm. <span>In an average case, the maximum sleepiness comes in the middle of the night, reaches the minimum at awakening, and again increases slightly at siesta time in the afternoon. However, the circadian sleepiness is often shifted in phase as compared with your desired sleep time. Consequently, if your maximum sleepiness comes in the morning, you may find it difficult to fall asleep late in the evening, even if you missed a lot of sleep on the preceding day. In other words, the optimum timing of your sleep should take into consideration your circadian rhythm. Homeostatic component Homeostasis is the term that refers to maintaining equilibr




#biology #neurology #sleep
On the other hand, caffeine, stress, exercise and other factors may temporarily reduce your homeostatic sleepiness. The homeostatic mechanism prepares you for sleep after a long day of intellectual work. At the same time it prevents you from falling asleep in emergencies

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ar mechanisms are used to regulate overall sleepiness and its multiple subcomponents. The longer you stay awake, the more you learn, the more you think, the higher your tendency to fall asleep. <span>On the other hand, caffeine, stress, exercise and other factors may temporarily reduce your homeostatic sleepiness. The homeostatic mechanism prepares you for sleep after a long day of intellectual work. At the same time it prevents you from falling asleep in emergencies. Clock and Hourglass metaphor A metaphor is useful in explaining the two components of sleep (for a more scientific explanation see: Borbely model). Deep in the brain, your body clock i




#biology #neurology #sleep
Every 24 hours, metaphorically, the clock releases a sleepy potion that puts you to sleep (for details see: Why we fall asleep).

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metaphor is useful in explaining the two components of sleep (for a more scientific explanation see: Borbely model). Deep in the brain, your body clock is running a 24 hours cycle of activity. <span>Every 24 hours, metaphorically, the clock releases a sleepy potion that puts you to sleep (for details see: Why we fall asleep). If you try to sleep at wrong hours, without the sleepy potion, you may find it very hard to fall asleep. All insomniacs suffer from the lack of sleepy potion. If they go to sleep too ea




Flashcard 5730027572492

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
Metaphorically, what's circadian rhythm like?
Answer
sleepy potion (every 24 hours)


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Every 24 hours, metaphorically, the clock releases a sleepy potion that puts you to sleep (for details see: Why we fall asleep).

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
metaphor is useful in explaining the two components of sleep (for a more scientific explanation see: Borbely model). Deep in the brain, your body clock is running a 24 hours cycle of activity. <span>Every 24 hours, metaphorically, the clock releases a sleepy potion that puts you to sleep (for details see: Why we fall asleep). If you try to sleep at wrong hours, without the sleepy potion, you may find it very hard to fall asleep. All insomniacs suffer from the lack of sleepy potion. If they go to sleep too ea







#biology #neurology #sleep
The brain also uses the hourglass of mental energy that gives you some time every day that you can devote to intellectual work. When you wake up, the hourglass is full and starts being emptied. With every waking moment, with everything your brain absorbs, with every mental effort, the hourglass is less and less full. Only when the hourglass of mental energy is empty will you able to quickly fall asleep

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or hours. You need to listen to your body clock to know the right moment to go to sleep. It is important to know that sleepy potion produced by the body clock is not enough to put you to sleep. <span>The brain also uses the hourglass of mental energy that gives you some time every day that you can devote to intellectual work. When you wake up, the hourglass is full and starts being emptied. With every waking moment, with everything your brain absorbs, with every mental effort, the hourglass is less and less full. Only when the hourglass of mental energy is empty will you able to quickly fall asleep. To get a good night sleep, you need to combine two factors: your body clock must be saying "time to sleep" (circadian component of sleep) your hourglass of power must be saying "no mor




#biology #neurology #sleep
To get high quality night sleep that maximizes your learning effects your sleep start time should meet these two criteria:
  • strong homeostatic sleepiness: this usually means going to sleep not earlier than 15-19 hours after awakening from the previous night sleep
  • ascending circadian sleepiness: this means going to sleep at a time of day when you usually experience a rapid increase in drowsiness. Not earlier and not later! Knowing the timing of your circadian rhythm is critical for good night sleep

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a horse kicked you in the stomach. That's the acme of a criminal attack on your brain's health. The fundamental theorem of good sleep Let us now formulate the fundamental theorem of good sleep: <span>To get high quality night sleep that maximizes your learning effects your sleep start time should meet these two criteria: strong homeostatic sleepiness: this usually means going to sleep not earlier than 15-19 hours after awakening from the previous night sleep ascending circadian sleepiness: this means going to sleep at a time of day when you usually experience a rapid increase in drowsiness. Not earlier and not later! Knowing the timing of your circadian rhythm is critical for good night sleep You should be aware that using the circadian component will only work when all its physiological subcomponents run in sync (as it is the case in free running sleep). People with irregul




#biology #neurology #sleep
A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle)

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tivity to light zeitgeber) increased demand for sleep (e.g. as a result of intense learning, highly creative job position, exercise, etc.) stress endocrine disorders sleep disorders adolescence <span>A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle). In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of sleep




#biology #neurology #sleep

A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle) . In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of sleep, which is the rewiring of the neural networks of the brain, we can naturally expect that the demand for sleep be associated with the amount of learning on the preceding days. This link may also explain a decreased demand for sleep in retirement due to a decrease in intellectual activity. This age-related drop in the demand for sleep is less likely to be observed in highly active individuals. For similar reasons, the entrainment failure can often be found among students during exams. It is not clear how much of this failure can be attributed to stress, or to the desire to do more on a given day, or to the actual increase in the demand for sleep.

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ivity to light zeitgeber) increased demand for sleep (e.g. as a result of intense learning, highly creative job position, exercise, etc.) stress endocrine disorders sleep disorders adolescence <span>A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle). In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of sleep, which is the rewiring of the neural networks of the brain, we can naturally expect that the demand for sleep be associated with the amount of learning on the preceding days. This link may also explain a decreased demand for sleep in retirement due to a decrease in intellectual activity. This age-related drop in the demand for sleep is less likely to be observed in highly active individuals. For similar reasons, the entrainment failure can often be found among students during exams. It is not clear how much of this failure can be attributed to stress, or to the desire to do more on a given day, or to the actual increase in the demand for sleep. Formula for good sleep There is a little-publicized formula that acts as a perfect cure for people who experience continual or seasonal problems with sleep entrainment. This formula is




Flashcard 5731049147660

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
entrainment failure
Answer
failure to reset 25h circadian rhythm to 24h daylight cycle


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A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle) . In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of slee

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
ivity to light zeitgeber) increased demand for sleep (e.g. as a result of intense learning, highly creative job position, exercise, etc.) stress endocrine disorders sleep disorders adolescence <span>A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle). In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of sleep, which is the rewiring of the neural networks of the brain, we can naturally expect that the demand for sleep be associated with the amount of learning on the preceding days. This link may also explain a decreased demand for sleep in retirement due to a decrease in intellectual activity. This age-related drop in the demand for sleep is less likely to be observed in highly active individuals. For similar reasons, the entrainment failure can often be found among students during exams. It is not clear how much of this failure can be attributed to stress, or to the desire to do more on a given day, or to the actual increase in the demand for sleep. Formula for good sleep There is a little-publicized formula that acts as a perfect cure for people who experience continual or seasonal problems with sleep entrainment. This formula is







Flashcard 5731052031244

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
how long is circadian rhythm
Answer
24.5-25.5h


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A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle) . In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the

Original toplevel document

Good sleep, good learning, good life
ivity to light zeitgeber) increased demand for sleep (e.g. as a result of intense learning, highly creative job position, exercise, etc.) stress endocrine disorders sleep disorders adolescence <span>A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle). In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of sleep, which is the rewiring of the neural networks of the brain, we can naturally expect that the demand for sleep be associated with the amount of learning on the preceding days. This link may also explain a decreased demand for sleep in retirement due to a decrease in intellectual activity. This age-related drop in the demand for sleep is less likely to be observed in highly active individuals. For similar reasons, the entrainment failure can often be found among students during exams. It is not clear how much of this failure can be attributed to stress, or to the desire to do more on a given day, or to the actual increase in the demand for sleep. Formula for good sleep There is a little-publicized formula that acts as a perfect cure for people who experience continual or seasonal problems with sleep entrainment. This formula is







Flashcard 5731054390540

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
hypothesis: why older people sleep less
Answer
decrease in intellectual activity -> less homeostatic sleep pressure


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e brain, we can naturally expect that the demand for sleep be associated with the amount of learning on the preceding days. This link may also explain a decreased demand for sleep in retirement <span>due to a decrease in intellectual activity. This age-related drop in the demand for sleep is less likely to be observed in highly active individuals. For similar reasons, the entrainment failure can often be found among students

Original toplevel document

Good sleep, good learning, good life
ivity to light zeitgeber) increased demand for sleep (e.g. as a result of intense learning, highly creative job position, exercise, etc.) stress endocrine disorders sleep disorders adolescence <span>A great deal of sleep disorders can be explained by entrainment failure (i.e. the failure to reset the 25-hour circadian rhythm to the 24-hour daylight cycle). In other words, in the interdependence between sleep disorders and entrainment failure, the cause-effect relationship will often be reversed! Due to the physiological function of sleep, which is the rewiring of the neural networks of the brain, we can naturally expect that the demand for sleep be associated with the amount of learning on the preceding days. This link may also explain a decreased demand for sleep in retirement due to a decrease in intellectual activity. This age-related drop in the demand for sleep is less likely to be observed in highly active individuals. For similar reasons, the entrainment failure can often be found among students during exams. It is not clear how much of this failure can be attributed to stress, or to the desire to do more on a given day, or to the actual increase in the demand for sleep. Formula for good sleep There is a little-publicized formula that acts as a perfect cure for people who experience continual or seasonal problems with sleep entrainment. This formula is







#biology #neurology #sleep

Partners and spouses can free run their sleep in separate cycles, but they will often be surprised to find out that it is easier to synchronize with each other than with the rest of the world (esp. if they have similar interests and daily routines). If they are co-sleeping, one of the pair will usually get up slightly earlier and work as a strong zeitgeber for the other. The problem will appear only when the length of the naturally preferred sleep cycles differs substantially between the two. In such cases, instead of being a zeitgeber, the other person becomes a substitute for an alarm clock.

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Good sleep, good learning, good life
ep later, take longer to fall asleep, and wake up faster, far less refreshed. Combating stress is one of the most important things in everyone's life for the sake of longevity and productivity. <span>Partners and spouses can free run their sleep in separate cycles, but they will often be surprised to find out that it is easier to synchronize with each other than with the rest of the world (esp. if they have similar interests and daily routines). If they are co-sleeping, one of the pair will usually get up slightly earlier and work as a strong zeitgeber for the other. The problem will appear only when the length of the naturally preferred sleep cycles differs substantially between the two. In such cases, instead of being a zeitgeber, the other person becomes a substitute for an alarm clock. Even if you are not convinced, you should try free running sleep to better understand the concept of the sleep phase, and how the sleep phase is affected by various lifestyle factors. Y




#biology #neurology #sleep
You will know that you execute your free running sleep correctly if it takes no more than 5 min. to fall asleep (without medication, alcohol or other intervention), and if you wake up pretty abruptly with the sense of refreshment. Being refreshed in the morning cannot be taken for granted. Even minor misalignment of sleep and the circadian phase will take the refreshed feeling away. After months or weeks of messy sleep, some circadian variables might be running in different cycles and free running sleep will not be an instant remedy. It may take some time to regulate it well enough to accomplish its goals

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ula is called free running sleep. For many people, after years of sleep abuse, even free running sleep can be tricky. It will take a while to discover one's own body's rules and to accept them. <span>You will know that you execute your free running sleep correctly if it takes no more than 5 min. to fall asleep (without medication, alcohol or other intervention), and if you wake up pretty abruptly with the sense of refreshment. Being refreshed in the morning cannot be taken for granted. Even minor misalignment of sleep and the circadian phase will take the refreshed feeling away. After months or weeks of messy sleep, some circadian variables might be running in different cycles and free running sleep will not be an instant remedy. It may take some time to regulate it well enough to accomplish its goals. It cannot even be excluded that after years of shift-work or jetlag, some brain cells in the sleep control centers might have died out making it even harder to achieve well aligned ref




#biology #neurology #sleep
Additionally, shortsightedness, the ailment of the information age, makes us less sensitive to the light zeitgeber and artificially prolongs the circadian cycle

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erests, give up the Internet, evening TV, etc. We live more stressful and more exciting lives than our grandparents. Turning the lights off in the early evening would probably only be wasteful. <span>Additionally, shortsightedness, the ailment of the information age, makes us less sensitive to the light zeitgeber and artificially prolongs the circadian cycle. There are a number of downsides to free running sleep. The worst shortcoming is a difficulty in establishing an activity cycle that could be well synchronized with the rest of the worl




#biology #neurology #sleep

There are a couple of determinants that make a good, efficient and persistent student. Here are some characteristics of a person who is likely to be successful in learning:

  • highly optimistic
  • sleeps well
  • knowledge hungry
  • stress-tolerant
  • energetic, but able to slow down at the time of learning

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ty from sleepy people who make catastrophic errors in industry and transportation" (Merrill Mitler, PhD) I have studied student personalities among users of SuperMemo for over twenty years now. <span>There are a couple of determinants that make a good, efficient and persistent student. Here are some characteristics of a person who is likely to be successful in learning: highly optimistic sleeps well knowledge hungry stress-tolerant energetic, but able to slow down at the time of learning Here are some unfortunate characteristics that do not correlate well with the ability to study effectively: prone to depression or mood swings problems with sleep (esp. insomnia) high l




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When you are drowsy in the afternoon, your hourglass of mental power might be almost empty. A quick nap will then help you fill it up again and be very productive in the evening

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ody clock releases the sleepy potion. When you wake up early with an alarm clock, you can hardly get to your feet because your body is full of sleepy potion, which begs you to go back to sleep. <span>When you are drowsy in the afternoon, your hourglass of mental power might be almost empty. A quick nap will then help you fill it up again and be very productive in the evening. If you drink coffee in the morning, it helps you charge the hourglass and add some extra mental energy. But coffee combined with the sleepy potion produces a poisonous mix that engulfs




Flashcard 5731070381324

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
Factors that anchor circadian rhythm
Answer
zeitgebers


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ours. Most of us are able to entrain this 25 circadian rhythm into a 24-hour cycle by using factors that reset the oscillation. These factors include intense morning light, work, exercise, etc. <span>German scientists have named these factors zeitgebers (i.e. factors that give time). As a result of the influence of zeitgebers, in a well-adjusted individual, the cycle can be set back by 30-60 minutes each day. However, the entrainment t







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Even if you are not convinced, you should try free running sleep to better understand the concept of the sleep phase, and how the sleep phase is affected by various lifestyle factors. You will often notice that your supposed sleep disorder disappears! Note that the free running sleep period is not solely genetic. Various factors in the daily schedule are able to shorten or lengthen the period. Of the obvious ones, bright light in the morning or melatonin in the evening may shorten the cycle. Exciting activities in the evening will lengthen it. The period changes slightly with seasons

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the length of the naturally preferred sleep cycles differs substantially between the two. In such cases, instead of being a zeitgeber, the other person becomes a substitute for an alarm clock. <span>Even if you are not convinced, you should try free running sleep to better understand the concept of the sleep phase, and how the sleep phase is affected by various lifestyle factors. You will often notice that your supposed sleep disorder disappears! Note that the free running sleep period is not solely genetic. Various factors in the daily schedule are able to shorten or lengthen the period. Of the obvious ones, bright light in the morning or melatonin in the evening may shorten the cycle. Exciting activities in the evening will lengthen it. The period changes slightly with seasons. It will also change when you leave on vacation. It often gets shorter with age. Try free running sleep to understand your own sleep parameters. This will help you synchronize with the




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It is true that people who try to free run their sleep may find themselves sleeping outrageously long in the very beginning. This, however, will not last in a healthy individual as long sleep is a body's counter-reaction to various sleep deficits resulting from sleep deprivation. Unlike it is the case with foods, there does not seem to be any evolutionary advantage to getting extra sleep on days when we can afford to sleep longer. In the course of evolution, we have developed a tendency to overeat. This is a protection against periods when food is scarce. Adipose tissue works as a survival kit for bad times. However, considering the function of sleep, the demand for sleep should be somewhat proportional to the amount of new learning received on preceding days

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of the cycle is possible with self-discipline in adhering to cycle-reset rules such as morning exercise, bright light, sleep protective zone in the evening, etc. Argument 2: Excessive sleeping <span>It is true that people who try to free run their sleep may find themselves sleeping outrageously long in the very beginning. This, however, will not last in a healthy individual as long sleep is a body's counter-reaction to various sleep deficits resulting from sleep deprivation. Unlike it is the case with foods, there does not seem to be any evolutionary advantage to getting extra sleep on days when we can afford to sleep longer. In the course of evolution, we have developed a tendency to overeat. This is a protection against periods when food is scarce. Adipose tissue works as a survival kit for bad times. However, considering the function of sleep, the demand for sleep should be somewhat proportional to the amount of new learning received on preceding days. In ancient times, we did not have exam days as opposed to lazy days. Consequently, the link between learning and demand for sleep is quite weak. The body clock will still make us sleep




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However, you will often hear two arguments against adopting the use of free running sleep:

  • Argument 1 - free running sleep will often result in a day that is longer than 24 hours. This ultimately leads to sleeping in atypical hours. This seems to go against the natural 24-hour cycle of light and darkness. Less often, the cycle will be less than 24 hours
  • Argument 2 - sleep can be compared to eating. Your body will always try to get more than it actually needs. This will result in spending more time in sleep than necessary. In other words, free running sleep is time-inefficient

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ll be discussed later, free running sleep can be used to solve a number of sleep disorders except for those where there is an underlying organic disorder that disrupts natural sleep mechanisms. <span>However, you will often hear two arguments against adopting the use of free running sleep: Argument 1 - free running sleep will often result in a day that is longer than 24 hours. This ultimately leads to sleeping in atypical hours. This seems to go against the natural 24-hour cycle of light and darkness. Less often, the cycle will be less than 24 hours Argument 2 - sleep can be compared to eating. Your body will always try to get more than it actually needs. This will result in spending more time in sleep than necessary. In other words, free running sleep is time-inefficient Argument 1: Phase shifts It is true that free running sleep will often run against the natural cycle of light and darkness. However, the departure from the natural rhythm is a direct co




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Secondly, every extra minute of sleep might improve the quality of neural wiring in the brain. Sleep would better be compared to drinking rather than eating. We do not have much capacity to survive without drinking due to our poor water storage ability

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posed to lazy days. Consequently, the link between learning and demand for sleep is quite weak. The body clock will still make us sleep 7-8 hours on nights following the days of total inaction. <span>Secondly, every extra minute of sleep might improve the quality of neural wiring in the brain. Sleep would better be compared to drinking rather than eating. We do not have much capacity to survive without drinking due to our poor water storage ability. Similarly, we cannot sleep in advance in preparation for a double all-nighter before an exam or important deadline. The claim that free running sleep increases the natural need for sle




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do not take a nap later than 7-8 hours from waking. Late naps are likely to affect the expected bedtime and disrupt your cycle. If you feel sleepy in the evening, you will have to wait for the moment when you believe you will be able to sleep throughout the night

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circadian sleepiness. Your sleep will be shorter and less refreshing. Your measurements will be less regular and you will find it harder to predict the optimum timing of sleep in following days <span>do not take a nap later than 7-8 hours from waking. Late naps are likely to affect the expected bedtime and disrupt your cycle. If you feel sleepy in the evening, you will have to wait for the moment when you believe you will be able to sleep throughout the night Sleep logging tips In free running conditions, it should not be difficult to record the actual hours of sleep. In conditions of entrainment failure, you may find it hard to fall asleep,




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Free running sleep algorithm

  1. Start with a meticulous log in which you will record the hours in which you go to sleep and wake up in the morning. If you take a nap during the day, put it in the log as well (even if the nap takes as little as 1-3 minutes). The log will help you predict the optimum sleeping hours and improve the quality of sleep. Once your self-research phase is over, you will accumulate sufficient experience to need the log no longer; however, you will need it at the beginning to better understand your rhythms. You can use SleepChart to simplify the logging procedure and help you read your circadian preferences.
  2. Go to sleep only then when you are truly tired. You should be able to sense that your sleep latency is likely to be less than 5-10 minutes. If you do not feel confident you will fall asleep within 10-20 minutes, do not go to sleep! If this requires you to stay up until early in the morning, so be it!
  3. Be sure nothing disrupts your sleep! Do not use an alarm clock! If possible, sleep without a bed partner (at least in the self-research period). Keep yourself well isolated from sources of noise and from rapid changes in lighting.
  4. Avoid stress during the day, esp. in the evening hours. This is particularly important in the self-research period while you are still unsure how your optimum sleep patterns look. Stress hormones have a powerful impact on the timing of sleep. Stressful thoughts are also likely to keep you up at the time when you shall be falling asleep.
  5. After a couple of days, try to figure out the length of your circadian cycle. If you arrive at a number that is greater than 24 hours, your free running sleep will result in going to sleep later on each successive day. This will ultimately make you sleep during the day at times. This is why you may need a vacation to give free running sleep an honest test. Days longer than 24 hours are pretty normal, and you can stabilize your pattern with properly timed signals such as light and exercise. This can be very difficult if you are a DSPS type.
  6. Once you know how much time you spend awake on average, make a daily calculation of the expected hour at which you will go to sleep (I use the term expected bedtime and expected retirement hour to denote times of going to bed and times of falling asleep, which in free running sleep are almost the same). This calculation will help you predict the sleep onset. On some days you may feel sleepy before the expected bedtime. Do not fight sleepiness, go

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ur organism to adapt behaviors to body's internal needs. As such, these can be considered anti-stress factors. It refers equally to sleep, eating habits, exercise, and other physiological needs <span>Free running sleep algorithm Start with a meticulous log in which you will record the hours in which you go to sleep and wake up in the morning. If you take a nap during the day, put it in the log as well (even if the nap takes as little as 1-3 minutes). The log will help you predict the optimum sleeping hours and improve the quality of sleep. Once your self-research phase is over, you will accumulate sufficient experience to need the log no longer; however, you will need it at the beginning to better understand your rhythms. You can use SleepChart to simplify the logging procedure and help you read your circadian preferences. Go to sleep only then when you are truly tired. You should be able to sense that your sleep latency is likely to be less than 5-10 minutes. If you do not feel confident you will fall asleep within 10-20 minutes, do not go to sleep! If this requires you to stay up until early in the morning, so be it! Be sure nothing disrupts your sleep! Do not use an alarm clock! If possible, sleep without a bed partner (at least in the self-research period). Keep yourself well isolated from sources of noise and from rapid changes in lighting. Avoid stress during the day, esp. in the evening hours. This is particularly important in the self-research period while you are still unsure how your optimum sleep patterns look. Stress hormones have a powerful impact on the timing of sleep. Stressful thoughts are also likely to keep you up at the time when you shall be falling asleep. After a couple of days, try to figure out the length of your circadian cycle. If you arrive at a number that is greater than 24 hours, your free running sleep will result in going to sleep later on each successive day. This will ultimately make you sleep during the day at times. This is why you may need a vacation to give free running sleep an honest test. Days longer than 24 hours are pretty normal, and you can stabilize your pattern with properly timed signals such as light and exercise. This can be very difficult if you are a DSPS type. Once you know how much time you spend awake on average, make a daily calculation of the expected hour at which you will go to sleep (I use the term expected bedtime and expected retirement hour to denote times of going to bed and times of falling asleep, which in free running sleep are almost the same). This calculation will help you predict the sleep onset. On some days you may feel sleepy before the expected bedtime. Do not fight sleepiness, go to sleep even if this falls 2-3 hours before your expected bedtime. Similarly, if you do not feel sleepy at the expected bedtime, stay up, keep busy and go to sleep later, even if this




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Sleep maintenance circadian component correlates with (but is not equal to): (1) negatively with: temperature, ACTH, cortisol, catecholamines, and (2) positively with: melatonin and REM sleep propensity

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calibrations of the vertical axis). Mid-day slump in alertness is also circadian, but is biologically different and results in short sleep that does not register as red sleep maintenance peak. <span>Sleep maintenance circadian component correlates with (but is not equal to): (1) negatively with: temperature, ACTH, cortisol, catecholamines, and (2) positively with: melatonin and REM sleep propensity. For more details see: Circadian graph and Biphasic nature of human sleep. Best brainwork time Optimum timing of brainwork requires both low homeostatic sleepiness and low circadian sle




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The following exemplary circadian graph was generated with SleepChart using a log of free-running sleep:

The horizontal axis expresses the number of hours from awakening (note that the free running rhythm period is often longer than 24 hours). Light blue dots are actual sleep episode measurements with timing on the horizontal, and the length on the left vertical axis. Homeostatic sleepiness can roughly be expressed as the ability to initiate sleep. Percent of the initiated sleep episodes is painted as a thick blue line (right-side calibrations of the vertical axis). Homeostatic sleep propensity increases in proportion to mental effort and can be partially cleared by caffeine, stress, etc. Circadian sleepiness can roughly be expressed as the ability to maintain sleep. Average length of initiated sleep episodes is painted as a thick red line (left-side calibrations of the vertical axis). Mid-day slump in alertness is also circadian, but is biologically different and results in short sleep that does not register as red sleep maintenance peak.

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grateful for your submissions that will be useful in further research (sending data from SleepChart takes just a single click). Optimizing the timing of brainwork Circadian graph and brainwork <span>The following exemplary circadian graph was generated with SleepChart using a log of free-running sleep: The horizontal axis expresses the number of hours from awakening (note that the free running rhythm period is often longer than 24 hours). Light blue dots are actual sleep episode measurements with timing on the horizontal, and the length on the left vertical axis. Homeostatic sleepiness can roughly be expressed as the ability to initiate sleep. Percent of the initiated sleep episodes is painted as a thick blue line (right-side calibrations of the vertical axis). Homeostatic sleep propensity increases in proportion to mental effort and can be partially cleared by caffeine, stress, etc. Circadian sleepiness can roughly be expressed as the ability to maintain sleep. Average length of initiated sleep episodes is painted as a thick red line (left-side calibrations of the vertical axis). Mid-day slump in alertness is also circadian, but is biologically different and results in short sleep that does not register as red sleep maintenance peak. Sleep maintenance circadian component correlates with (but is not equal to): (1) negatively with: temperature, ACTH, cortisol, catecholamines, and (2) positively with: melatonin and REM




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People with a particularly long circadian cycle or with an insufficient sensitivity to zeitgebers are classified as suffering from Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS for short). Sometimes the abbreviation DSPD is used where syndrome is replaced with disorder

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ecline sufficiently enough to make it truly enjoyable. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) When a tendency to go to sleep later each day is strongly pronounced, it may become a serious problem. <span>People with a particularly long circadian cycle or with an insufficient sensitivity to zeitgebers are classified as suffering from Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS for short). Sometimes the abbreviation DSPD is used where syndrome is replaced with disorder. The terms non 24-hour sleep/wake syndrome (N24, N-24, Non-24) or hypernychthemeral syndrome (with a few spelling variants) are occasionally used to refer to the most severe cases. I wi




Flashcard 5731088993548

Tags
#biology #neurology #sleep
Question
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome
Answer
long circadian cycles or insufficient zeitgeber sentivity


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collecting exciting data for the experiment would keep me up with my thoughts racing. I might try this in retirement when my vital powers decline sufficiently enough to make it truly enjoyable. <span>Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) When a tendency to go to sleep later each day is strongly pronounced, it may become a serious problem. People with a particularly long circadian cycle or with an insufficient sen







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The main factors contributing to DSPS:

  • increased period of the body clock (well above 25 hours)
  • reduced or increased sensitivity to factors that reset or advance body clock (e.g. light, activity, stress, exercise, etc.)
  • electric lighting, 24-hour economy and the resulting "want to do more" lifestyle

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ull mental powers. DSPS students feel best after midnight when everyone else is asleep and they can focus on learning or other activities (reading, Internet, watching TV, computer games, etc.). <span>The main factors contributing to DSPS: increased period of the body clock (well above 25 hours) reduced or increased sensitivity to factors that reset or advance body clock (e.g. light, activity, stress, exercise, etc.) electric lighting, 24-hour economy and the resulting "want to do more" lifestyle A normal individual has a body clock running with a period slightly longer than 24 hours. The clock is reset in the morning with activity and bright light. Thus a normal individual easi




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If you go to a sleep expert with your DSPS problem, you will likely be prescribed melatonin or a bright light therapy only to discover their limited impact on the quality of your sleep. If you are an insomniac, you may additionally be prescribed sleeping pills that might help you sleep without achieving the desired effect: a refreshed mind

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. DSPS is also associated with problems with falling asleep if you try to keep an earlier bedtime. In other words, any cure for DSPS is also likely to solve the problem of sleep onset insomnia. <span>If you go to a sleep expert with your DSPS problem, you will likely be prescribed melatonin or a bright light therapy only to discover their limited impact on the quality of your sleep. If you are an insomniac, you may additionally be prescribed sleeping pills that might help you sleep without achieving the desired effect: a refreshed mind. This chapter should help you solve the problem. Using the properties of the human sleep control system, it can be proven mathematically that the problem of DSPS, and the associated ins




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There are true hardcore DSPS cases with some psychiatric overtones or other health issues that might be particularly intractable, however, those should form a rare minority in the ever-increasing mass of people struggling with DSPS. That mass now includes a countless population of insomniacs who have never heard of DSPS and never even arrived to the problem of phase shift due to the employment of the alarm clock. Weitzman hypothesized that a significant number of patients with sleep onset insomnia might be suffering from undiagnosed DSPS (Weitzman et al. 1981[35]). Now we know that hypothesis certainly holds true, which can be demonstrated by letting insomniacs free run their sleep. A significant phase delay may be observed within the first few days of such a release from the restrictions on the timing of sleep. At the same time, there is an accompanying and nearly instant disappearance of sleep-onset insomnia.

...

rare minority of people have pathological DSPS.

much of insomnia might be DSPS in disguise: Phase shift simply doesn't occur due to alarm clocks. When these "insomniacs" free run sleep, insomnia disappears, but phase shifts occur.

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w, which is a derivative of free running sleep with some limitations targetted at preventing a phase delay. The presented algorithm fails primarily because of one issue: violation of the rules! <span>There are true hardcore DSPS cases with some psychiatric overtones or other health issues that might be particularly intractable, however, those should form a rare minority in the ever-increasing mass of people struggling with DSPS. That mass now includes a countless population of insomniacs who have never heard of DSPS and never even arrived to the problem of phase shift due to the employment of the alarm clock. Weitzman hypothesized that a significant number of patients with sleep onset insomnia might be suffering from undiagnosed DSPS (Weitzman et al. 1981[35]). Now we know that hypothesis certainly holds true, which can be demonstrated by letting insomniacs free run their sleep. A significant phase delay may be observed within the first few days of such a release from the restrictions on the timing of sleep. At the same time, there is an accompanying and nearly instant disappearance of sleep-onset insomnia. Implausible solutions People who suffer from DSPS often resort to their own implausible solutions that include: (poorly managed) free running sleep with an inevitable phase delays that